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Full text of "Bulletin of Wake Forest University"

Bulletin of 
Wake Forest University 

Wake Forest College 

and 

The School of Business 
and Accountancy 

The Undergraduate Schools 



1988-1989 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hil 






http://archive.org/details/bulletinofwakefo19881989 



New Series April 1988 Volume 83-Number 3 



Bulletin of 

Wake Forest College 

and 

The School of Business 
and Accountancy 

The Undergraduate Schools 
of Wake Forest University 



Announcements for 

1988-89 

BULLETIN of Wake Forest University (USPS 078-320) is published eight times a year in October, March, April, 
May June, July, August and September by Wake Forest University. Second class postage paid at Winston- 
Salem, NC and additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to the Director of 
Admissions, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC 27109. 

Printed by Hunter Publishing Company, Winston-Salem, NC 27113 



The Academic Calendar 



Fall Semester 1988 



August 


25 


Thursday 


August 


25-30 


Thursday- 
Tuesday 


August 


27 


Saturday 


August 


27-29 


Saturday- 
Monday 


August 


28 


Sunday 


August 


29, 30 


Monday, 
Tuesday 


August 


31 


Wednesday 


September 


6 


Tuesday 


September 


13 


Tuesday 


September 


27 


Tuesday 


October 


14 


Friday 


October 


21 


Friday 


November 


24-27 


Thursday- 
Sunday 


November 


28 


Monday 


December 


9 


Friday 


December 


12-14 


Monday- 
Wednesday 


December 


15 


Thursday 


December 


16, 17 


Friday, 
Saturday 


December 


19, 20 


Monday, 
Tuesday 


December 


21- 


Wednesday- 


January 


8 


Sunday 



Residence halls open at 8 a.m. for 

first-year students 
Orientation for first-year students 

Residence halls open at 10 a.m. 

for transfer students 
Orientation for transfer students 

Residence halls open at noon for 

returning students 
Registration for all courses 

Classes begin 
Opening Convocation 
Last day to add courses 
Last day to drop courses 
Fall holiday 
Midterm grades due 
Thanksgiving recess 

Classes resume 
Classes end 
Examinations 

Reading day 
Examinations 

Examinations 



Christmas recess 



1988 



JANUARY 

S M T W T F S 
1 2 
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 
24 25 26 27 28 29 30 
31 


FEBRUARY 
S M T W T F S 
12 3 4 5 6 
7 8 9 10 11 12 13 
14 15 16 17 18 19 20 
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 
28 29 


MARCH 

5 M T W T F S 

12 3 4 5 

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 
20 21 22 23 24 25 26 
27 28 29 30 31 


APRIL 
S M T W T F S 
1 2 
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 
24 25 26 27 28 29 30 


MAY 

S M T W T F S 
12 3 4 5 6 7 
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 

15 16 17 18 19 20 21 

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 

29 30 31 


JUNE 
S M T W T F S 
12 3 4 
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 
19 20 21 22 23 24 25 
26 27 28 29 30 


JULY 
S M T W T F S 
1 2 
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 
24 25 26 27 28 29 30 
31 


AUGUST 
S M T VV T F S 
12 3 4 5 6 
7 8 9 10 11 12 13 
14 15 16 17 18 19 20 
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 
28 29 30 31 


SEPTEMBER 
S M T W T F S 
1 2 3 
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 
18 19 20 21 22 23 24 
25 26 27 28 29 30 


OCTOBER 

S M T W T F S 

1 

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 

16 17 18 19 20 21 22 

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 

30 31 


NOVEMBER 
S M T VV T F S 
12 3 4 5 
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 
20 21 22 23 24 25 26 
27 28 29 30 


DECEMBER 

S M T W T F S 
1 2 3 
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 
18 19 20 21 22 23 24 
25 26 27 28 29 30 31 







Spring Semester 1989 


January 


8 


Sunday 


Residence halls open at noon 


January 


9, 10 


Monday, 
Tuesday 


Registration for all courses* 


January 


11 


Wednesday 


Classes begin 


January 


24 


Tuesday 


Last day to add courses 


February (date to be 


announced) 


Founders' Day Convocation 


February 


7 


Tuesday 


Last day to drop courses 


March 


3 


Friday 


Midterm grades due 


March 


4-12 


Saturday- 
Sunday 


Spring recess 


March 


13 


Monday 


Classes resume 


March 


24 


Good Friday 


Holiday 


April 


28 


Friday 


Classes end 


May 


1-3 


Monday- 
Wednesday 


Examinations 


May 


4 


Thursday 


Reading day 


May 


5, 6 


Friday, 
Saturday 


Examinations 


May 


8, 9 


Monday, 
Tuesday 


Examinations 


May 


14 


Sunday 


Baccalaureate 


May 


15 


Monday 


Commencement 



*The use of this time for registration proceedings may change depending upon the format for the registration 
procedure. 



1989 



JANUARY 

S M T W T F S 
12 3 4 5 6 7 
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 

15 16 17 18 19 20 21 

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 

29 30 31 


FEBRUARY 
S M T W T F S 
12 3 4 
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 
19 20 21 22 23 24 25 
26 27 28 


MARCH 
S M T W T F S 
12 3 4 
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 
19 20 21 22 23 24 25 
26 27 28 29 30 31 


APRIL 

S M T W T F S 

1 

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 

16 17 18 19 20 21 22 

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 

30 


MAY 
S M T W T F S 
12 3 4 5 6 
7 8 9 10 11 12 13 
14 15 16 17 18 19 20 
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 
28 29 30 31 


JUNE 
S M T W T F S 
1 2 3 
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 
18 19 20 21 22 23 24 
25 26 27 28 29 30 


JULY 
S M T W T F S 
1 
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 
16 17 18 19 20 21 22 
23 24 25 26 27 28 29 
30 31 


AUGUST 
S M T W T F S 
12 3 4 5 
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 
20 21 22 23 24 25 26 
27 28 29 30 31 


SEPTEMBER 
S M T W T F S 
1 2 
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 
24 25 26 27 28 29 30 


OCTOBER 

S M T W T F S 
12 3 4 5 6 7 
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 

15 16 17 18 19 20 21 

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 

29 30 31 


NOVEMBER 
S M T W T F S 
12 3 4 
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 
19 20 21 22 23 24 25 
26 27 28 29 30 


DECEMBER 

S M T W T F S 
1 2 

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 
24 25 26 27 28 29 30 
31 



The Bulletin 



The Academic Calendar 2 

The University 8 

Buildings and Grounds 9 

Computer Center 10 

Libraries 11 

Recognition and Accreditation 12 

The Undergraduate Schools 14 

Wake Forest College 15 

Statement of Purpose 15 

History and Development 17 

Student Life 23 

Student Government 23 

Student Union 24 

Resident Student Association 25 

Interfraternity and Intersociety Councils 25 

Honor Societies, Professional Fraternities, and Clubs 25 

Academic Awards 26 

Intramural Athletics 27 

Intercollegiate Athletics 27 

Reserve Officer Training Corps 28 

Religious Activities , 28 

Cultural Activities 28 

Career Planning and Placement 30 

University Counseling Center 30 

Learning Assistance Program 30 

Student Health Service 31 

Office of Minority Affairs 31 

Procedures 32 

Admission 32 

Application 32 

Early Decision 33 

Admission of Handicapped Students 33 

Advanced Placement and CLEP 34 

Admission of Transfer Students 34 

Expenses 34 

Tuition 35 

Room Charges 35 

Food Services 35 

Other Charges 35 

Refunds 37 

Housing 37 

Academic Calendar 38 

Orientation and Advising 38 



Registration 38 

Classification 38 

Class Attendance 39 

Auditing Courses 40 

Dropping a Course 40 

Withdrawal from the College 40 

Examinations 40 

Grading 41 

Grade Reports and Transcripts 42 

Dean's List 42 

Graduation Distinctions 42 

Repetition of Courses 42 

Probation 42 

Requirements for Continuation 43 

Requirements for Readmission 44 

Summer Study 45 

Transfer Credit 45 

Scholarships and Loans 46 

Scholarships 46 

Federal Financial Aid Programs 55 

Exchange Scholarships 56 

Loans 57 

Concessions 58 

Other Financial Aid 58 

Outside Assistance 59 

Special Programs 60 

Honors Study 60 

Open Curriculum 60 

Residential Language Centers 60 

Foreign Area Studies 61 

Study at Salem College 61 

Opportunities for Study Abroad 61 

London 61 

Venice 62 

France 62 

Spain 62 

Institute of European Studies 62 

Other Opportunities Abroad 62 

Requirements for Degrees 64 

Degrees Offered 64 

General Requirements 64 

Basic Requirements 65 

Divisional Requirements 66 

Requirement in Health and Sport Science 67 

Proficiency in the Use of English 67 

Basic and Divisional Requirements 67 



Declaring a Major 67 

Maximum Number of Courses in a Department 68 

Options for Meeting Major Requirements 68 

Double Majors and Joint Majors 69 

Minors 69 

Interdisciplinary Minors 69 

Foreign Area Studies 70 

Senior Testing 71 

Combined Degrees in the School of Law 72 

Combined Degrees in Medical Sciences 72 

Combined Degrees in Medical Technology 73 

Degrees in the Physician Assistant Program 73 

Degrees in Microbiology 74 

Degrees in Dentistry 74 

Degrees in Engineering 74 

Degrees in Forestry and Environmental Studies 75 

Courses of Instruction—Wake Forest College 76 

Anthropology 76 

Art 79 

Asian Studies 84 

Biology 86 

Chemistry 91 

Classical Languages 94 

Economics 98 

Education 102 

English 109 

German and Russian 115 

Health and Sport Science 117 

History 122 

Humanities 126 

Interdisciplinary Honors 130 

Mathematics and Computer Science 132 

Military Science 137 

Music 139 

Natural Sciences 145 

Philosophy 146 

Physics 149 

Politics 152 

Psychology 158 

Religion 163 

Romance Languages 169 

Sociology 179 

Speech Communication and Theatre Arts 184 

School of Business and Accountancy 191 

Objectives 191 

Admission 191 



Transfer of Credit from Other Schools 192 

Requirements for Continuation 192 

Requirements for Graduation 192 

Senior Honors Program 193 

Courses of Instruction 193 

Business 193 

Accountancy 196 

Degrees Conferred 197 

Honor Societies 208 

Enrollment 210 

The Board of Trustees 213 

The Board of Visitors 215 

School of Business and Accountancy Advisory Council 217 

The Administration 218 

The Undergraduate Faculties 227 

Emeriti 245 

The Committees of the Faculty 248 

Index 253 




The University 



Wake Forest University is characterized by its devotion to liberal learning and 
professional preparation for men and women, its strong sense of community and 
fellowship, and its encouragement of free inquiry and expression. 

Founded in 1834 by the Baptist State Convention of North Carolina, the school 
opened its doors on February 3 as Wake Forest Institute, with Samuel Wait as prin- 
cipal. It was located in the forest of Wake County, North Carolina, on the planta- 
tion of Calvin Jones, near which the village of Wake Forest later developed. 

Rechartered in 1838 as Wake Forest College, it is one of the oldest institutions of 
higher learning in the state. It was exclusively a college of liberal arts for men until 
1894, when the School of Law was established. The School of Medicine, founded 
in 1902, offered a two-year medical program until 1941. In that year, the school was 
moved from the town of Wake Forest to Winston-Salem, became associated with 
the North Carolina Baptist Hospital, and was renamed the Bowman Gray School 
of Medicine in honor of the benefactor who made possible the move and expansion 
to a full four-year program. In 1942 Wake Forest admitted women as regular 
undergraduate students. 

A School of Business Administration was established in 1948 and for over two 
decades offered an undergraduate program of study in business. In 1969 the 
undergraduate school was succeeded by the Department of Business and Accoun- 
tancy and the Department of Economics in Wake Forest College; at the same time 
the Babcock Graduate School of Management was established. In 1980 the 
undergraduate program in business and accountancy was reconstituted as the School 
of Business and Accountancy. The Division of Graduate Studies was established 
in 1961. It is now organized as the Graduate School and encompasses advanced work 
in the arts and sciences on both the Reynolda and Hawthorne campuses in Winston- 
Salem. The summer session was inaugurated in 1921. 

In 1946 the Trustees of Wake Forest College and the Baptist State Convention of 
North Carolina accepted a proposal by the Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation to relocate 
the non-medical divisions of the College to Winston-Salem, where the School of 
Medicine was already established. The late Charles H. Babcock and his wife, the 
late Mary Reynolds Babcock, contributed a campus site, and building funds were 
received from many sources. Between 1952 and 1956, the first fourteen buildings 
were erected in Georgian style on the new Winston-Salem campus. In 1956 the Col- 
lege moved all operations, leaving the 122-year-old campus in the town of Wake 
Forest to the Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary. 

The decade that followed was the College's most expansive, and in 1967 its 
augmented character was recognized by the change in name to Wake Forest Univer- 
sity. Today, enrollment in all schools of the University stands at over 5,000. 
Governance remains in the hands of the Board of Trustees, and development for 
each of the six schools of the University is augmented by Boards of Visitors for the 
undergraduate schools and the Graduate School, the School of Law, the Babcock 
Graduate School of Management, and the Bowman Gray School of Medicine, and 
by the Advisory Council for the School of Business and Accountancy. A joint board 



of University Trustees and Trustees of the North Carolina Baptist Hospital is respon- 
sible for the Medical Center, which includes the hospital and the medical school. 
Alumni and parents' organizations are also active at Wake Forest, and support by 
the Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation and other foundations and corporations is strong 
and continuing. 

Wake Forest's relationship with the Baptist State Convention is an important part 
of the school's heritage. Wake Forest's founders proposed to establish an institu- 
tion that would provide education under Christian influences. Wake Forest and the 
Convention have a fraternal, voluntary relationship under which Wake Forest is 
autonomous in governance. The University is an associate member of the Conven- 
tion's Council on Christian Higher Education. Wake Forest receives some financial 
and intangible support from Convention-affiliated churches. 

The College, School of Business and Accountancy, Babcock Graduate School of 
Management, School of Law, and the Graduate School are located on the Reynolda 
Campus in northwest Winston-Salem. The Bowman Gray School of Medicine is about 
four miles away, near the city's downtown on what is known as the Hawthorne 
Campus. The University also offers instruction regularly at Casa Artom in Venice, 
at Worrell House in London, and in other places around the world. 

The College offers courses in more than forty fields of study leading to the 
baccalaureate degree. The School of Business and Accountancy offers courses of study 
leading to the baccalaureate in business and accountancy. The School of Law offers 
the juris doctor degree and the Babcock Graduate School of Management, the master 
of business administration degree. In addition to the doctor of medicine degree, the 
School of Medicine offers, through the Graduate School, programs leading to the 
master of science and doctor of philosophy degrees in the basic medical sciences. 
The Graduate School confers the master of arts, master of arts in education, master 
of arts in liberal studies, and master of science degrees in the arts and sciences and 
the doctor of philosophy degree in biology and chemistry. 

Buildings and Grounds 

The Reynolda Campus of Wake Forest is situated on approximately 320 acres; its 
physical plant consists of over thirty buildings, most of which are of modified 
Georgian architecture and constructed of Old Virginia brick trimmed in granite and 
limestone. The Reynolda Gardens annex, consisting of about 150 acres and including 
Reynolda Woods, Reynolda Village, and Reynolda Gardens, is adjacent to the cam- 
pus. The Graylyn Estate, an educational conference center, is nearby. 

Wait Chapel is named in memory of the first president of the College. Its main 
auditorium seats 2,300 and is also the home of the Wake Forest Baptist Church. The 
Wait Chapel tower contains the Janet Jeffrey Carlile Harris Carillon, an instrument 
of forty-eight bells. Wingate Hall, named in honor of President Washington Manly 
Wingate, houses the Department of Religion, the offices of the University chaplain- 
cy and the Wake Forest Baptist Church, and other classrooms and offices. 

Reynolda Hall, across the upper plaza from Wait Chapel, is an administration 
building and student center. Most administrative offices for the Reynolda Campus 
are there, along with the Student Union, other student activities, and Computer 



10 



Center. The Z. Smith Reynolds Library houses the main collection of books and 
documents on the Reynolda Campus. Along with eight floors of open stacks, with 
a capacity for about 1,000,000 volumes, it has reading and reference rooms for study 
and some academic offices. The Department of Economics is also in the library. 

Winston Hall houses biology and psychology; Salem Hall, the chemistry and physics 
departments. Both buildings have laboratories as well as classrooms and special 
research facilities. Harold W. Tribble Hall accommodates the humanities and social 
science departments and has a curriculum materials center, an honors seminar room, 
a philosophy library and seminar room, and a larger lecture area, DeTamble Auditorium, 
with an adjacent exhibition gallery. The Museum of Anthropology houses the 
anthropology department. Instruction in business, accountancy, and mathematics 
is carried out in Charles H. Babcock Hall, which also houses the Babcock Graduate 
School of Management. The School of Law occupies Guy T. Carswell Hall. 

The James R. Scales Fine Arts Center is of contemporary design appropriate to the 
functions of studio art, theatre, musical performances, and instruction in art history, 
drama, and music. Off its lobby is a large gallery for special exhibitions. In the art 
wing are spacious studios for drawing, painting, sculpture, and printmaking, along 
with a smaller gallery and classrooms. In the theatre wing axe design and produc- 
tion areas and two technically complete theatres, the larger of traditional proscenium 
design and the smaller for experimental ring productions. The music wing contains 
Brendle Hall for concerts and lectures, classrooms, practice rooms for individuals and 
groups, and the offices of the music department. 

The William N. Reynolds Gymnasium has classrooms for instruction in health and 
sport science, courts for indoor sports, a swimming pool, and offices for the Depart- 
ment of Health and Sport Science and for military science. Adjacent are tennis courts, 
sports fields, a track, an Indoor Tennis Center, and the Athletic Center for intercollegiate 
athletics. 

The Wake Forest campus has a wide variety of housing choices available to students. 
There are two residence halls which house only male students: Taylor House and 
Kitchin House. Four residence halls house only female students: Bostivick, Johnson, 
Babcock and Efird Halls. Huffman House, Davis House, Poteat House, LuterHall and South 
Hall are coeducational by floor or wing. Freshmen live in Taylor, Kitchin, Bostivick 
and Johnson. Some male scholarship athletes live in Palmer Hall and Piccolo Hall. 
Students may choose to live in one of a variety of theme houses including the Trench 
House, Spanish House, German House, Russian House, Italian House or others which are 
currently being developed. Student housing is also available in the townhouse apart- 
ments and several small houses owned by the University. Just off the main campus 
are apartments for faculty and staff as well as graduate and married students. 

Computer Center 

The Computer Center supports University instructional, research, and ad- 
ministrative needs. There are terminals for student and faculty use in various places 
on campus. The two main terminal clusters for students are in the Computer Center 
in Reynolda Hall and in the library. The University has two computers. A Hewlett 
Packard 3000 Series 70 system, used by the administration, has eight million bytes 



11 



of memory and 1,142 million bytes of disk storage. The Prime 750 is used primarily 
for instruction and research. It has six million bytes of memory and 1,275 million 
bytes of disk storage. 

Computer languages available on the Prime include FORTRAN, FORTRAN77, 
BASIC, COBOL, RPG II, Assembler, Pascal, and PL/1. Statistical packages such as 
SPSSX, BMDP, Minitab, and TSP can be used for data analysis, forecasting, and 
financial modeling. Two software packages, TELLAGRAF and DISSPLA, are power- 
ful graphics systems on the Prime. A graphics workstation, added in the fall of 1985, 
works with TELLAGRAF, DISSPLA, HARVARD GRAPHICS, LOTUS 1-2-3, and 
other graphics packages. The workstation includes a six-pen plotter and a Polaroid 
palette for making prints or slides of the screen contents. 

Also available on the Prime is the ORACLE relational database management system, 
which is compatible with industry and ANSI standards. 

In addition to the facilities at the Computer Center, a remote batch connection 
with the Triangle Universities Computing Center (TUCC) and its IBM 3081 makes 
access to other statistical packages (notably SAS) possible, and makes the programs 
provided by the North Carolina Educational Computing Services (NCECS) available 
to Wake Forest computer users. Wake Forest is a member of the Inter-University 
Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR) located at the University of 
Michigan. Membership in ICPSR provides faculty and students with access to a large 
library of data files, including public opinion surveys, cross-cultural data, financial 
data, and complete census data. Summer programs at the University of Michigan 
are also available through ICPSR. 

There are three microcomputer labs available for general student use. Two are 
Macintosh labs, each having fifteen microcomputers, two dot-matrix printers, and 
a laser printer. One is in Poteat House, and the other is in Luter Hall. The third 
lab contains fifteen Zenith microcomputers and a letter-quality printer; it is located 
in Wingate Hall. Some departments on campus have their own microcomputer 
clusters for their major students, containing software specific to their discipline. 

The Microcomputer Center is physically separate but an integral part of the 
Computer Center. Through the Microcomputer Center, students, faculty and staff 
can buy microcomputers at substantial educational discounts. The staff of the 
Microcomputer Center provides service for the machines they sell, advice on 
purchasing machines and software, and holds classes in the use of major software 
packages. 

Libraries 

The libraries of Wake Forest University support research in undergraduate educa- 
tion and in each of the disciplines in which a graduate degree is offered. An endow- 
ment provided by a substantial gift from the Mary Reynolds Babcock Foundation 
and another from the late Nancy Reynolds has been assigned to the sustained ex- 
pansion and development of library resources, especially to support the graduate 
program. The libraries of the University hold membership in the Association of 
Southeastern Research Libraries. 

The library collections total 1,042,548 volumes. Of these, 792,835 constitute the 



12 



general collection in the Z. Smith Reynolds Library, 107,020 are housed in the School 
of Law, 124,110 in the library of the Bowman Gray School of Medicine, and 18,583 
in the library of the Babcock Graduate School of Management. Subscriptions to 12,490 
periodicals and serials, largely of scholarly content, are maintained by the four libraries 
of the University. The holdings of the Z. Smith Reynolds Library also include 32,302 
reels of microfilm, 573,070 pieces of microcards, microprint, and microfiche, and 
86,306 volumes of United States government publications. 

Special collections in the Z. Smith Reynolds Library include the Artom Collection 
(a clipping file of national and international events in the post-World War II period), 
the Rare Books Collection, and the Baptist Historical Collection. 

The Rare Books Collection, greatly enhanced by the donation of the collection of 
rare and fine books of the late Charles H. Babcock, emphasizes American and British 
authors of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Among such collections 
are those of Mark Twain, Gertrude Stein, William Butler Yeats and T. S. Eliot. There 
is also an extensive Anglo-Irish literature collection. The Ethel Taylor Crittenden Bap- 
tist Historical Collection is housed in the Z. Smith Reynolds Library. It contains signifi- 
cant books, periodicals, manuscripts and church records relating to North Carolina 
Baptists, as well as a collection of the personal papers of prominent ministers, 
educators, and government officials. The Wake Forest College /University Archive 
is maintained in this area. 

The Reference Department of the Z. Smith Reynolds Library provides several useful 
services for the University community. Through Dialog Information Services and 
other vendors, reference librarians conduct on-line database searches from any of 
several hundred data files. Interlibrary loan service is also available for Wake Forest 
graduate students, faculty, and staff. Books and microform materials can be bor- 
rowed at little or no charge while photocopies can be made at a reasonable cost. 
The reference staff oversees the operation of an Omnifax telefacsimile machine capable 
of sending and receiving printed data worldwide. Reference librarians provide a varie- 
ty of instructional services including an annual freshman orientation program, presen- 
tations to individual classes, general tours of the library, and assistance with indepen- 
dent and directed studies. 



Recognition and Accreditation 

Wake Forest College was first accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges 
and Schools, the regional accrediting agency, in 1921. The reaccreditation of 1965 
included the master's and doctoral degree programs in the Division of Graduate 
Studies. The University's accreditation was last reaffirmed in December 1987. 

The Bowman Gray School of Medicine is a member of the Association of American 
Medical Colleges and is on the approved list of the Council on Medical Education 
of the American Medical Association. The School of Law is a member of the Associa- 
tion of American Law Schools and is listed as an approved school by the Council 
of the Section of Legal Education and Admissions to the Bar of the American Bar 
Association and by the Board of Law Examiners and the Council of the North Carolina 
State Bar. The Babcock Graduate School of Management and the School of Business 



13 



and Accountancy are accredited by the American Assembly of Collegiate Schools 
of Business. The program in counseling leading to the master of arts in education 
degree is accredited by the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher 
Education. 

Wake Forest University is a member of many of the major institutional organiza- 
tions and associations at the national, regional, and state-wide levels, including the 
following: the American Council on Education, the Association of American Colleges, 
the National Association of Independent Colleges and Universities, and the Coun- 
cil of Graduate Schools in the United States; the Southern Association of Colleges 
and Schools, the Southern Universities Conference, and the Council of Southern 
Graduate Schools; the North Carolina Association of Colleges and Universities and 
the North Carolina Association of Independent Colleges and Universities. In addi- 
tion, many offices of the University are members of associations which focus on par- 
ticular aspects of university administration. 

Wake Forest has chapters of the principal national social fraternities, professional 
fraternities, and honor societies, including Phi Beta Kappa and Sigma Xi. There is 
an active chapter of the American Association of University Professors on campus. 




%** if 



James Ralph Scales Fine Arts Center 



14 



The Undergraduate Schools 



There are two undergraduate schools at Wake Forest University: Wake Forest College 
and the School of Business and Accountancy. The undergraduate schools are governed 
by the Board of Trustees and by their respective faculties and administration. Respon- 
sibility for academic administration is delegated by the President and Trustees to the 
Provost, who is chief academic officer of the University. The deans of the schools 
are responsible for academic planning and administration for their schools. 
Collaborating with the dean of Wake Forest College are associate and assistant deans, 
the vice president for administration and planning, and the assistant vice president 
for student affairs; they coordinate student services. Other officers in the area of 
student services are the director of residence life and housing and the dean of students, 
who direct residential, social, and cultural life with the assistance of a professional 
staff; and the directors of the Student Health Service and the University Counseling 
Center. A list of administrative offices is found in this bulletin beginning on page 
218. In many administrative areas, responsibility is shared or advice is given by the 
faculty committees listed in this bulletin beginning on page 248. 




/-"- 



15 

Wake Forest College 

Wake Forest College is the undergraduate school of arts and sciences of Wake Forest 
University. It is the center of the University's academic life; through it, the University 
carries on the tradition of preparing men and women for personal enrichment, 
enlightened citizenship, and professional life. 

Wake Forest College is a place of meeting. Its teachers and students are of diverse 
backgrounds and interests, and that diversity is crucial to the distinctive character 
of the College. Wake Forest continually examines its educational purpose and evaluates 
its success in fulfilling it. A formal statement of purpose was prepared as part of the 
school's decennial reaccreditation process and was adopted by the Board of Trustees. 

Purpose 

Following is the official statement of purpose of Wake Forest College. 

Statement of Purpose 

Wake Forest is a university dedicated to the pursuit of excellence in the 
liberal arts and in graduate and professional education. Its distinctiveness 
in its pursuit of its mission derives from its private, coeducational, and 
residential character; its size and location; and its Baptist affiliation. Each 
of these factors constitutes a significant aspect of the unique character of 
the institution. 

The University is now comprised of six constituent parts: two 
undergraduate institutions, Wake Forest College and the School of Business 
and Accountancy; the Graduate School; and three professional schools: the 
School of Law, the Bowman Gray School of Medicine, and the Babcock 
Graduate School of Management. It seeks to honor the ideals of liberal lear- 
ning, which entail commitment to transmission of cultural heritages; teaching 
the modes of learning in the basic disciplines of human knowledge; develop- 
ing critical appreciation of moral, aesthetic, and religious values; advancing 
the frontiers of knowledge through in-depth study and research; and 
applying and using knowledge in the service of humanity. 

Wake Forest has been dedicated to the liberal arts for over a century and 
a half; this means education in the fundamental fields of human knowledge 
and achievement, as distinguished from education that is technical or 
narrowly vocational. It seeks to encourage habits of mind that ask "why," 
that evaluate evidence, that are open to new ideas, that attempt to understand 
and appreciate the perspectives of others, that accept complexity and grapple 
with it, that admit error, and that pursue truth. Wake Forest College has 
by far the largest student body in the University, and its function is central 
to the University's larger life. The College and the Graduate School are most 
singularly focused on learning for its own sake; they therefore serve as 
exemplars of specific academic values in the life of the University. 



16 



Beginning as early as 1894, Wake Forest accepted an obligation to provide 
professional training in a number of fields, as a complement to its primary 
mission of liberal arts education. This responsibility is fulfilled in the con- 
viction that the humane values embodied in the liberal arts are also cen- 
trally relevant to the professions. Professional education at Wake Forest is 
characterized by a commitment to ethical and other professional ideals that 
transcend technical skills. Like the Graduate School, the professional schools 
are dedicated to the advancement of learning in their fields. In addition, 
they are specifically committed to the application of knowledge to solving 
concrete problems of human beings. They are strengthened by values and 
goals which they share with the College and Graduate School, and the pro- 
fessional schools enhance the work of these schools and the University as 
a whole by serving as models of service to humanity. 

Wake Forest was founded by private initiative, and ultimate decision- 
making authority lies in a privately appointed Board of Trustees rather than 
in a public body. "Funded to a large extent from private sources of sup- 
port, [Wake Forest] is determined to chart its own course in the pursuit 
of its goals. As a coeducational institution it seeks to 'educate together' per- 
sons of both sexes and from a wide range of backgrounds— racial, ethnic, 
religious, geographical, socio-economic, and cultural .... Its residential 
features are conducive to learning and to the pursuit of a wide range of 
co-curricular activities. It has made a conscious choice to remain small in 
overall size; it takes pride in being able to function as a community rather 
than a conglomerate. Its location in the Piedmont area of North Carolina 
engenders an ethos that is distinctively Southern, and more specifically 
North Carolinian .... As it seeks further to broaden its constituency and 
to receive national recognition, it is also finding ways to maintain the ethos 
associated with its regional roots." 

Wake Forest is proud of its Baptist and Christian heritage. For more than 
a century and a half, it has provided the University an indispensable basis 
for its mission and purpose, enabling Wake Forest to educate thousands 
of ministers and laypeople for enlightened leadership in their churches and 
communities. Far from being exclusive and parochial, this religious tradi- 
tion gives the University roots that ensure its lasting identity and branches 
that provide a supportive environment for a wide variety of faiths. The Bap- 
tist insistence on both the separation of church and state and local autonomy 
has helped to protect the University from interference and domination by 
outside interests, whether these be commercial, governmental, or 
ecclesiastical. The Baptist emphasis upon revealed truth enables a strong 
religious critique of human reason, even as the claims of revelation are put 
under the scrutiny of reason. The character of intellectual life at Wake Forest 
encourages open and frank dialogue and provides assurance that the Univer- 
sity will be ecumenical and not provincial in scope, and that it must 
encompass perspectives other than the Christian. Wake Forest thus seeks 
to maintain and invigorate what is noblest in its religious heritage. 



17 



History and Development 

Since 1834 Wake Forest College has persevered— sometimes barely— through wars, 
economic crises, and controversy. In spite of these difficulties, perhaps because of 
them, the College has developed its distinctive pattern of characteristics: tenacity, 
independence, a fierce defense of free inquiry and expression, and a concern that 
knowledge be used responsibly and compassionately. 

That these qualities have often been passed along to Wake Forest's students is evident 
in the lives many have led. That these characteristics have served the school well 
is displayed by its growth from a small sectarian school to one of the nation's signifi- 
cant small private universities. 

A brief history of Wake Forest is useful in understanding the University as it is today 
and appreciating the process through which it developed. 

The founding of Wake Forest College in 1834 was one manifestation of the intellec- 
tual and humanitarian reform movement in North Carolina and the nation during 
the 1830s. The beginnings of the College and the formation of the Baptist State 
Convention of North Carolina were closely interwoven: a leading motive for the 
organization of the Convention was that it serve as an agency for establishing an 
institution that would provide education under Christian influences. 

The leaders in the movement for Convention and College were ministers and laymen 
from diverse backgrounds: Martin Ross, a North Carolinian; Thomas Meredith, a 
graduate of the University of Pennsylvania; and Samuel Wait, a graduate of Colum- 
bian College in Washington, DC. The inspiration of Ross, the scholarship of Meredith, 
and the leadership of Wait combined to lead the Baptists of North Carolina into the 
formation of the Baptist State Convention on March 26, 1830. Wait was appointed 
as the Convention's agent to explain to churches, associations, and others the need 
for a college to provide "an education in the liberal arts in fields requisite for 
gentlemen." 

For nearly three years, Wait traveled over the state in his wagon, speaking to a large 
number of the approximately 15,000 Baptists who lived in the Piedmont and coastal 
counties. Perhaps as many as one half opposed missions, education, and other 
benevolences; but after two years of educational canvassing, Wait reported enough 
sentiment in favor of the program of the Convention to proceed. 

A 600-acre plantation, located sixteen miles north of Raleigh, was purchased from 
Calvin Jones in 1832 for $2,000, and the North Carolina Legislature was asked to grant 
a charter for a literary institution based on the manual labor principle. The lobbying 
of opponents, both Baptist and non-Baptist, was effective; only the tie-breaking vote 
of William D. Moseley, speaker of the Senate and a graduate of the University of North 
Carolina, secured passage of the charter-granting bill. It was a meager charter, subject 
to various restrictions and limited to a period of twenty years, but the birth of Wake 
Forest had been achieved. Its subsequent growth would be the result of creative 
adjustments and successful responses to a series of other challenges. 

After his successful three-year canvass of the state, Samuel Wait was elected prin- 
cipal of the new institution. Sixteen students registered on February 3, 1834; before 
the end of the year seventy-two had enrolled. The manual labor principle, adopted 



18 



as a partial means of financing the institution, was abandoned after five years, and 
the school was rechartered in 1838 as Wake Forest College. 

The economic crisis of 1837 had such an adverse effect that support for the College 
and student enrollment steadily declined; only a loan of $10,000 from the State Literary 
Fund in 1841 prevented bankruptcy. During these years of arduous struggle to keep 
the College alive, President Wait exhausted his physical strength and contracted an 
illness which forced him to resign the presidency in 1845. 

William Hooper succeeded Wait, and the prospects of the College became brighter. 
Hooper, a grandson of one of North Carolina's three signers of the Declaration of 
Independence, had received his education at the University of North Carolina. As 
a native North Carolinian with family connections extending over several genera- 
tions, he was able to mobilize public opinion in support of the College. 

After Hooper's resignation, the Trustees elected to the presidency Professor of 
Mathematics John B. White, a graduate of Brown University. Since the mortgages 
on the physical facilities had been paid during Hooper's tenure, fund-raising efforts 
during President White's administration could be concentrated on increasing the 
College endowment. The Trustees authorized a capital campaign and selected as its 
leader Washington Manly Wingate, an 1849 graduate who within a year and a half 
raised approximately $33,000. 

But the temper of the times was not suited to leadership by a Northerner, and Presi- 
dent White resigned in 1854. The Trustees chose as his successor Wingate, then twenty- 
six years old and the first alumnus of the College to serve as president. Under his 
vigorous leadership, which spanned nearly three decades, the quality of students 
improved and new faculty members were added. During the first eight years of 
Wingate's administration, sixty-six students graduated— more than half of the total 
graduated during the first twenty-three years in the life of the College. In 1857 Presi- 
dent Wingate launched a campaign to produce an additional endowment of $50,000, 
over one half of which was raised in a single evening during the 1857 meeting of 
the Convention. 

This period of growth and expansion was cut short by the division of the nation 
in 1861. The Conscription Act of 1863 did not exempt students, and for three years 
of the Civil War, the College suspended operations. The buildings were used briefly 
for a girls' school; after 1863 the Confederate government used College facilities as 
a military hospital. 

Following Sherman's march through the South and Lee's surrender at Appomattox, 
a peace of desolation pervaded the region. Supporters of Wake Forest surveyed what 
remained: College buildings, now leaky and in poor repair; approximately $11,700 
from a pre-war endowment of $100,000; the former president and faculty; and a loyal 
group of Trustees. There was also something else: an indomitable spirit of determina- 
tion that Wake Forest should emerge from the wreck of the war and fulfill its mission. 

The needs of the College were great and financial prospects poor, but in November 
1865, barely six months after the end of the war, nine members of the Board of Trustees, 
acting with unwarranted courage, authorized the resumption of classes. Wingate was 
persuaded to resume the presidency, and on January 15, 1866, fifty-one students 
enrolled. The number increased as the South and its economy slowly recovered. 



19 



President Wingate realized that the people of North Carolina had to be awakened 
to the need tor education in the renascent South, and that they must be persuaded 
that Wake Forest could help serve that need. To launch this campaign, a Baptist- 
sponsored, statewide educational convention was held in Raleigh, but before funds 
could be collected, the financial crisis of 1873 ended all immediate hope for endow- 
ment. The failure of the 1873-74 fund-raising campaign placed the College in a 
precarious position. The triple encumbrances of war, reconstruction, and financial 
panic made it evident that little money could be raised in North Carolina. The 
Committee on Endowment of the Board of Trustees appointed James S. Purefoy, a 
local merchant and Baptist minister, as agent to solicit funds in the Northern states 
for continued operation of the College. While serving as treasurer of the Board before 
the war, he had salvaged $11,700 from the pre-war endowment of $100,000 by 
persuading the Trustees to invest half of the endowment in state bonds. After two 
years of unrelenting and often discouraging labor, without remuneration, he placed 
in the hands of the Trustees the sum of $9,200. 

It was also in the bleak days of financial uncertainty that a Wake Forest student, 
James W. Denmark, proposed and founded the first college student loan fund in the 
United States. A Confederate veteran, Denmark had worked six years to accumulate 
enough money for his own college expenses. Soon after entering Wake Forest in 1871 
he realized that many students had the same great financial need. From his meager 
funds he spent five dollars for postcards and wrote to college presidents across the 
country asking how their loan funds were organized. When he found that the colleges 
had none, he enlisted the support of faculty and students at Wake Forest and in 1877 
persuaded the Legislature to charter the North Carolina Baptist Student Loan Fund. 
Now known as the James W. Denmark Loan Fund, it is the oldest college student 
loan fund in the United States and has assets of $325,000 to serve the needs of students 
according to the purposes of its founder. 

By the close of President Wingate's second administration in 1879, the College had 
been successfully revived. The endowment had been increased and new construc- 
tion had begun. Perhaps the greatest service President Wingate rendered was bring- 
ing to the College a faculty of highly qualified scholars who served the College with 
distinction and dedication over many years. Among them were Professors William 
G. Simmons (1855-88), William Royall (1859-70; 1880-92), William Bailey Royall 
(1866-1928), Luther Rice Mills (1867-1907), and Charles Elisha Taylor (1870-1915), who 
served as president from 1884 to 1905. Two other scholars who became tutors or adjunct 
professors in the last year of President Wingate's administration were also destined 
to play important roles in the life of the College: Needham Y. Gulley, who established 
the School of Law in 1894 and served as its first dean for thirty-six years, and biologist 
William Louis Poteat, who served the College for fifty years, twenty-two of them as 
president. 

The administration of President Thomas Henderson Pritchard, which followed that 
of President Wingate, was brief and served principally to further Wingate's efforts 
to persuade Baptists and other North Carolinians to improve the deplorable condi- 
tion of education in the state. The second alumnus of the College to serve as presi- 
dent, Pritchard was an eloquent speaker whose prominent leadership among Baptists 



20 



increased the patronage of the College and improved its image among its constituency. 

Charles Elisha Taylor, whom President Wingate had brought to the faculty in 1880, 
was elected in 1884 to serve as the sixth president. 

Taylor's administration from 1884 to 1905 brought enrichment of the academic 
program in a variety of ways. Academic departments were increased from eight to 
thirteen, and the size of the faculty more than doubled. Two new schools were added: 
the School of Law in 1894 and the School of Medicine in 1902. Progress in other areas 
included the addition of buildings and the landscaping of the campus. Over 400 trees 
were planted, making Magnolia grandiflora almost synonymous with the Wake Forest 
campus. 

President Taylor was succeeded by William Louis Poteat. Affectionately known as 
"Doctor Billy" to students during and after his twenty-two-year administration, he 
continued to promote the general growth of all areas of College life. Special emphasis 
was placed on development in the sciences, reflecting in part the interests of the presi- 
dent and in part the need to enrich the pre-medical training required by the new 
School of Medicine. 

As student enrollment increased from 313 in 1905 to 742 in 1927, there was a 
corresponding increase in the size of the faculty. Registration in religion, English, 
education, and the social sciences required more administrative direction, and a dean 
and a registrar were employed along with a library staff. Propelled by the trend of 
the other colleges in the state, Wake Forest also gave more attention to sports and 
achieved an envied reputation in baseball and football. Also notable during Presi- 
dent Poteat 's administration was the continued growth of the endowment. 

Beyond these significant material advances, President Poteat brought distinction 
in the form of state and national recognition. A devout Christian, an eloquent speaker, 
and an accomplished scholar, he became a national leader in education and probably 
the foremost Baptist layman in the state. As a distinguished scientist, he was among 
the first to introduce the theory of evolution to his biology classes. The Christian 
commitment in his personal and public life enabled him to defend successfully his 
views on evolution before the Baptist State Convention in 1922, in a major victory 
for academic freedom that attracted nationwide attention. Through his influence and 
that of Wake Forest alumni who supported his view, the North Carolina Legislature 
refused to follow other Southern states in the passage of anti-evolution laws in the 
1920s. 

During the administration of Poteat's successor, Francis Pendleton Gaines (1927-1930), 
the academic program continued to improve. In 1930 the Trustees selected Thurman 
D. Kitchin, dean of the medical school, to fill the presidency. Kitchin was a member 
of a family prominent in state and national affairs: one brother, William W Kitchin, 
had served as governor of North Carolina; another, Claude Kitchin, had served as 
majority leader in the United States House of Representatives. Kitchin's twenty-year 
adrninistration was one of progress in the face of many obstacles— Depression, destruc- 
tive campus fires (one of which destroyed venerable Wait Hall), the disruption caused 
by World War II, and a depleted student body. 

Notable accomplishments during this period were the approval in 1936 of the School 
of Law by the American Bar Association and in 1941 the relocation of the School of 



21 



Medicine to Winston-Salem, where it undertook full four-year operation in associa- 
tion with the North Carolina Baptist Hospital as the Bowman Gray School of Medicine, 
named after the benefactor whose bequest made expansion possible. 

World War II brought other changes. Although the College was able to remain open, 
enrollment dropped in 1942 to 474. The College met this crisis by modifying its century- 
old admissions policy and becoming a coeducational institution that year. In the post- 
war period, enrollment mushroomed with the return of the veterans and reached 
a peak of 1,762 by 1949. Just before World War II, a $7,000,000 capital expansion 
campaign for buildings and endowment had been launched by President Kitchin. 
The war forced the postponement of construction, but out of the campaign came 
a proposal which offered war-ridden Wake Forest an opportunity for yet another 
rebirth. The Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation proposed that up to $350,000 a year of 
its income (an amount which has steadily increased over the years) be given in 
perpetuity to the College, provided that the entire College be relocated to Winston- 
Salem and that other friends of the College provide a campus site and buildings. 
In 1946 the Board of Trustees, the Convention, and the Baptist constituency of the 
state accepted the Reynolds proposal. Charles H. Babcock and his wife, Mary Reynolds 
Babcock, offered a 320-acre tract of their Reynolda estate as a site for the new campus. 

To move an institution over 100 years old from its rural setting 110 miles to a new 
campus in an urban area required leadership of great vision, determination, and 
youthful vigor. To succeed President Kitchin, who retired on his sixty-fifth birthday, 
the Trustees in 1950 elected to the presidency Harold Wayland Tribble, then presi- 
dent of Andover Newton Theological Seminary and a noted Baptist theologian. Presi- 
dent Tribble immediately began to mobilize alumni and friends of the College, and 
the Baptist State Convention, in support of the great transition. 

In the spring of 1951, William Neal Reynolds and Nancy Reynolds offered an 
anonymous challenge gift of $2,000,000 on the condition that the College raise 
$3,000,000 by June 30, 1952. The deadline was extended and the challenge met by 
January 1953. Mr. Reynolds died in September 1951 (the Foundation assumed his 
$1,500,000 share of the challenge grant) and he willed Wake Forest $1,000,000, to be 
paid at the time of removal. In recognition of his bequest, the new gymnasium was 
named for him. Because of the capital funds received from the Reynolds Founda- 
tion, the Trustees voted that the library be named the Z. Smith Reynolds Library 
and the administration building, Reynolda Hall. 

Groundbreaking ceremonies were held in Winston-Salem on October 15, 1951, when 
a crowd of more than 20,000 watched President Harry Truman lift the first shovel 
of dirt to begin construction of the new Wake Forest campus. Between 1951 and 1956, 
fourteen buildings were erected; the relocation of the College to its new home was 
accomplished in time for the opening of the summer session in 1956. 

During the next eleven years of President Tribble's administration, the College ex- 
perienced many changes. It had revised its curriculum before moving to the new cam- 
pus, offering greater flexibility to students, whose number increased to 3,022. The 
size of the faculty expanded, reducing the student/teacher ratio to fourteen to one. 

Additional resources came to the College in its new home. In 1954 the will of Col- 
onel George Foster Hankins provided over $1,000,000 to be used for scholarships. 



22 



In 1956 the Ford Foundation contributed $680,000 to the endowment of the 
undergraduate program and $1,600,000 to the Bowman Gray School of Medicine. After 
the completion of a challenge gift of $3,000,000 offered in 1965, the Foundation raised 
its annual contribution to $620,000. The holdings of the University's libraries more 
than tripled, and the Z. Smith Reynolds Library was awarded the income from an 
endowment fund of $4,500,000 contributed by the Mary Reynolds Babcock Founda- 
tion and Nancy Reynolds. 

Graduate work, first offered in 1866 but suspended during the removal program, 
was resumed in 1961 with the establishment of the Division of Graduate Studies. 
In 1967, recognizing the augmented resources of the College, the Trustees officially 
changed the institution's name to Wake Forest University. The Division of Graduate 
Studies became the Graduate School and the name Wake Forest College was retain- 
ed as the designation for the undergraduate school. 

After seventeen years of strenuous effort, President Tribble retired in 1967, leaving 
as his lasting memorial the removal of the College from Wake Forest to Winston-Salem 
and its changed status from college to university, with enhanced resources and 
academic distinction. As his successor, the Trustees chose James Ralph Scales 
(1967-1983), former president of Oklahoma Baptist University and former dean of arts 
and sciences at Oklahoma State University. His administration saw important new 
developments. The Guy T. and Clara H. Carswell Scholarship Fund, valued at 
$1,600,000, was established in support of the undergraduate College. The new Babcock 
Graduate School of Management in 1969 was named in honor of Charles H. Babcock. 
Through the generosity of the Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation and Nancy Reynolds, 
a building was constructed to house the Babcock school; a subsequent gift of $2,000,000 
was received from the Mary Reynolds Babcock Foundation for endowment. The James 
R. Scales Fine Arts Center was opened in 1976, marking a major phase of the Col- 
lege's growth in comprehensive liberal arts education. An athletic center and addi- 
tions to the School of Law building, Guy T Carswell Hall, have further expanded 
the physical resources of the Reynolda Campus. 

Wake Forest has expanded its programs as well as its physical facilities. The Univer- 
sity offers study for the baccalaureate degree in over thirty areas listed on page 64. 
Exchange programs with local institutions and with universities abroad have further 
expanded the range of choice and opportunity. In addition, Wake Forest maintains 
residential language centers in Venice and London for foreign study within the college 
curriculum. 

President Scales left office on October 1, 1983 to return to teaching as the University's 
first Worrell Professor of Anglo-American Studies. The Trustees selected Thomas K. 
Hearn Jr., a philosopher and former dean for non-medical affairs at the University 
of Alabama-Birmingham, as the University's twelfth president. He was inaugurated 
on November 4, 1983. 

Wake Forest celebrated its sesquicentennial anniversary in 1984. 

On March 31, 1988, ground was broken for the Olin Physical Laboratory, made possi- 
ble by a grant of $3,719,625 from the F. W Olin Foundation, Inc. of New York. The 
building is expected to be completed by the fall of 1989. 

The groundbreaking ceremony for the Clifton L. Benson University Center was 
held on April 12, 1988. Completion is expected by the 1989-90 academic year. 



23 

Student Life 



Student life at the University is designed to offer a wide range of social, cultural, 
religious, and athletic resources to complement academic studies. The University is 
a community, and the sense of community is fostered by rich opportunities for 
personal growth. 

Student Government plays an important role in students' lives. It is the voice of 
the student body in the consideration of new programs and the modification of student 
life policies. The Student Union offers a diverse range of entertaining and enriching 
programs for the campus community. Men's social fraternities and women's societies 
are members of the Interfraternity and Intersociety Councils respectively. All students 
who live on campus are represented by the Resident Student Association. There are 
chapters of the major honor societies and professional societies for qualified students, 
and the University makes a number of academic awards for distinguished student 
achievement and service. Intercollegiate athletics for men and for women and an 
intramural sports program are strong, distinguished by tradition and by performance. 
Religious activities are central to the life of the University and, like campus cultural 
opportunities, are distinctive. The University offers a number of additional services 
to students relating to their physical and mental health, spiritual growth, and prepara- 
tion for life. 

Student Government 

The executive branch of the Student Government is comprised of the four student 
body officers— president, vice president, secretary, treasurer— and the executive 
advisory committees. Reporting directly to the officers are various committees which 
work on improving service to students. These committees are open to all students. 

The legislative branch of the Student Government is composed of seventy-one 
student representatives; the vice president of the student body serves as speaker. 
The Legislature represents the interests of students in social and academic matters 
and promotes and funds projects of benefit to the student body and the larger 
community. It oversees disbursement of funds to student groups and recommends 
the chartering of student groups seeking recognition by the University. Major 
committees are the Charter Committee, the Committee on Committees, the Campus 
Life Committee, the Economics Committee, the Judicial Committee, the Academic 
Committee, the Appropriations and Budget Committee, and the Student Relations 
Committee. 

The honor system is an expression of the concern that students act with honor and 
integrity. It is an integral part of the Student Government as adopted by students 
and approved by the faculty. Its essence is that each student's word can be trusted 
implicitly and that any violation of a student's word is an offense against the whole 
community. The honor system obligates students neither to give nor receive 
unauthorized aid on academic work; to have complete respect for the property rights 
of others; to make no false or deceiving statements regarding academic matters to 
another member of the University community; not to interfere with the procedures 



24 



of the honor system; and to confront any student who has violated the honor system 
and to remind that student of the responsibilities dictated by the honor system. 

The Honor Council consists of fourteen members— two officers selected by and from 
the Honor Council of the previous year plus three representatives from each class. 
There are three non-voting faculty advisers. 

It is the duty of the Honor Council to receive and investigate reports of honor system 
violations, to prefer charges where appropriate, and to arrange hearings for all charges 
of violations of the honor system. The minimum penalty for any violation of the honor 
system is a period of probation. A student who is found guilty of premeditated 
cheating is suspended or expelled from the University. Expulsion is normally automatic 
upon conviction for a second offense. All actions of the Honor Council are reported 
in writing to the dean of the College or the dean of the School of Business and 
Accountancy. 

Any student convicted of violating the honor system is ineligible to represent the 
University in any way until the period of punishment— whether suspension, proba- 
tion, or another form— is completed and the student is returned to good standing. 
A student who has been suspended can be readmitted to the College only on the 
approval of the faculty or its Committee on Academic Affairs. During the period of 
suspension, the student cannot be certified to another institution as being in good 
standing. 

The Case Referral Panel receives reports from the Office of the Dean of Students on 
student violations of University social regulations, conducts necessary investigations, 
and draws up specific charges. When a plea of guilty is entered, the Case Referral 
Panel levies a penalty, if one is appropriate. If a plea of not guilty or no plea is entered, 
the case is forwarded to the Student Judicial Board. 

The Student Judicial Board is composed of twelve members, at least three men and 
three women, who are elected at large from the student body. It is the duty of the 
Board to receive, prefer, and try all charges of social misconduct and violations of 
University rules and regulations for individual students as well as student organiza- 
tions not covered by the Honor Council, the director of residence life and housing, 
or the Traffic Appeals Board. A student who violates these regulations or who behaves 
in such a way as to bring reproach upon him/herself or upon the University is sub- 
ject to penalties ranging from verbal reprimand to suspension on the first offense. 
For further offenses, expulsion may occur. 

The interim judicial process, which provides trial before a five-person panel of facul- 
ty and students, is available at times when the normal processes are not functioning. 

The Judicial Council, a nine-person panel consisting of five faculty members, two 
administrators, and two students, hears appeals from the Honor Council, the Case 
Referral Panel, the Student Judicial Board, and the Interim Judicial process. The Judicial 
Council also supervises the undergraduate judicial system. 

Student Union 

Under the director of the Student Union, there are meeting and recreation rooms, 
lounges, offices for student organizations, a coffee house, a game room, and an in- 



25 



formation center. The Student Union is responsible for scheduling entertainment ac- 
tivities, developing and presenting educational and cultural programs to complement 
academic studies, assisting other student organizations, and providing supporting 
equipment and services. The Student Union board of directors, representing all 
students, cooperates with the staff in daily operations and supervises the efforts of 
eleven committees and a large body of student volunteers. 

Resident Student Association 

Each residence hall has a House Council which makes decisions about hall activities 
and budget allocations. House Council meetings also are forums for discussion of 
issues affecting student life in the residence halls. The Councils are comprised of 
an executive board of resident student representatives from each floor. Although each 
floor elects a House Council representative, every resident is encouraged to attend 
and to participate in meetings and functions. 

The House Councils fall under the guidance and supervision of a larger student 
governing organization: the Resident Student Association (RSA). The RSA consists 
of representatives from each House Council and elected student executive officers. 
The RSA provides financial and programming support to the House Councils, and 
acts as a liaison between the Councils and the Office of Residence Life and Housing. 
RSA also sponsors campus-wide programs in collaboration with the Student Union 
which serve the Wake Forest community. 

Interfraternity and Intersociety Councils 

The Interfraternity Council is the governing body of thirteen social fraternities: Alpha 
Phi Alpha, Alpha Sigma Phi, Chi Psi, Delta Sigma Phi, Kappa Alpha, Kappa Sigma, 
Omega Psi Phi, Pi Kappa Alpha, Sigma Chi, Sigma Nu, Sigma Phi Epsilon, Sigma 
Pi, and Theta Chi. The purpose of the council is to govern and coordinate the cam- 
pus Greek affairs and activities while promoting high standards of conduct, scholar- 
ship, community service, and fraternal operations. A student must have a C average 
for the previous semester or a cumulative C average to be pledged and initiated. 
Students who are on probation for any reason may not be pledged and initiated into 
any fraternity until the end of their probationary period. 

The Intersociety Council is the governing body of seven societies for women, each 
of which has selective membership: Delphi, Fideles, Lynks, Phoenix, SOPHs, Strings, 
and Thymes. 

Both the Interfraternity and Intersociety Councils must follow University regula- 
tions and the Interfraternity Council is subject to the rules of the national organiza- 
tion. The Greek system is an excellent opportunity for men and women to gain leader- 
ship experience, develop life-long friendships, serve the Wake Forest community, and 
perpetuate excellence in scholastic achievement. 

Honor Societies, Professional Fraternities, and Clubs 

A number of nationally affiliated honor societies have been established: Beta Beta 



26 



Beta (biology), Delta Phi Alpha (German), Eta Sigma Phi (classics), Anthony Aston 
Society (drama), Lambda Alpha (anthropology), Omicron Delta Epsilon (economics), 
Phi Alpha Theta (history), Pi Mu Epsilon (mathematics), Pi Sigma Alpha (political 
science), Omicron Delta Kappa, and Mortar Board. There are student sections of the 
American Institute of Physics, the American Chemical Society, and the American 
Society of Personnel Administration. There are also chapters of the national service 
fraternities Alpha Phi Omega and Circle K, as well as an Accounting Society, an 
Anglican Student Fellowship, an Anthropology Club, the Baptist Student Union, a 
Black Christian Fellowship, a Black Student Alliance, a Catholic Student Association, 
the Circolo Italiano, the College Republicans, the College Democrats, a Dance Club, 
an Economics Society, an Equestrian Club, a Fellowship of Christian Athletes, a Frisbee 
Club, a Gospel Choir, an Intervarsity Christian Fellowship, an Intra-Faith Council, 
a Karate Club, a Literary Society, a Marketing Society a Politics Club, a Pre-Law Society, 
a Presbyterian Fellowship, a Rugby Football Club, a Scuba Club, a Soccer Club, a 
Sociology Club, the Students for America, the Students for Life, the Student Alumni 
Council, and the Wesley Foundation. 

Phi Beta Kappa, established in 1776, is the oldest American Greek letter society. 
Election to membership is the highest recognition of excellence in scholarship that 
an undergraduate can achieve. Students must have qualifications of "high scholar- 
ship, liberal culture, and good character." The number elected each year at Wake Forest 
is approximately eight percent of the graduating class. 

Academic Awards 

The following awards are made annually: the A. D. Ward Medal for the senior mak- 
ing the best address at commencement; the /. B. Currin Medal for the best oration, 
essay, or work of music or art on the topic "Christ in Modern Life"; the D. A. Brown 
Prize to the student whose writing most merits recognition; the M. D. Phillips Prize 
to the outstanding senior in Greek or Latin; the John Y. Phillips Prize to the outstand- 
ing senior in mathematics; the H. Broadus Jones Award to the student whose paper 
shows greatest insight Into the works of Shakespeare; the Ruth Foster Campbell Award 
to the student whose ability in the Spanish language and spirit of joyful inquiry into 
Spanish culture have been most outstanding; the Forrest W. Clonts Award to the out- 
standing senior in history; the Forrest W. Clonts Research Prize for the outstanding paper 
written by a junior or senior non-American history major; the C. Chilton Pearson 
Research Prize for the outstanding paper written by a junior or senior American history 
major; the Phi Alpha Theta Research Prize for the best paper written by a junior or 
senior member; the Claud H. Richards Award to the outstanding senior in politics; 
the John Allen Easley Medal to the outstanding senior in religion; the American Bible 
Society Award for the outstanding senior biblical student; the Lura Baker Paden Medal 
to the outstanding senior in business; the Wall Street Journal Medal and a year's subscrip- 
tion to the Journal to the outstanding senior in finance; the A. M. Pullen and Company 
Medal to the senior with the highest achievement in accounting; the William E. Speas 
Award to the outstanding senior in physics; the Carolina Biological Supply Company 
Award to the major in biology who is judged by the department to have completed 



27 



the outstanding undergraduate research project of the year; the Walter S. Flory Award 
to the senior major in biology who is judged by the department to have made the 
greatest overall contribution by an undergraduate to the Department of Biology. 

The William C. and Ruth N. Archie Award, established by a grant from Ruth N. Ar- 
chie and from the Archies' son and daughter-in-law, William Archie Jr. and Margaret 
Archie, is given each year to the graduating senior who, in the opinion of the dean 
of the College and a faculty committee appointed by the dean, has shown most con- 
spicuously a commitment to liberal learning, to scholarship, and to the ideals of Wake 
Forest College. In odd-numbered years the award is presented to a female student; 
in even-numbered years it is presented to a male student. 

Intramural Athletics 

The intramural program operates under the auspices of the Department of Health 
and Sport Science. It provides a variety of competitive activities for students, facul- 
ty, and staff. There are sports for male, female, and coed participation. Activities 
usually included in the intramural program are basketball, cross-country, football, 
golf, handball, racquetball, soccer, softball, swimming, tennis, volleyball, water polo, 
wrestling, and weight lifting. 

Students occasionally organize club teams for other sports and activities, which 
are not taught or directed by the College, but which are conducted as student 
organizations with the approval of student government and the faculty. Currently 
these include rugby, karate, equestrian, scuba diving, soccer, outing, and dance. 
Students who are interested in a sport not offered through the College may organize 
themselves and petition the student government and faculty for approval. 



Intercollegiate Athletics 

For men: 

Under the director of athletics, Wake Forest is a member of the Atlantic Coast 
Conference of the National Collegiate Athletic Association and participates in inter- 
collegiate football, basketball, baseball, golf, tennis, soccer, cross-country, and track. 

The full scholarship allowed by the National Collegiate Athletic Association covers 
tuition, fees, room, board, and books. Wake Forest offers several special scholar- 
ships and awards: the Brian Piccolo Award for the football player judged by the 
coaching staff to best exemplify the qualities of Brian Piccolo during the annual North 
Carolina game; the Brian Piccolo Scholarship for the Chicago-area high school football 
player entering Wake Forest who best exemplifies the qualities of Brian Piccolo; the 
Arnold Palmer Award for the Wake Forest Athlete of the Year, as judged by lettermen 
from each team; the Buddy Worsham Scholarship for one golfer or more; the John R. 
Knott Scholarship for one golfer or more. Recent additions are the Carl Tacy and Horace 
"Bones" McKinney Scholarships which are for basketball players. The George C. Mit- 
chell and Claude and Anne Bruce Brewer Gore Scholarships are general athletic 
scholarships. 



28 



For women: 

Under the director of women's athletics, Wake Forest is a member of the Atlantic 
Coast Conference of the National Collegiate Athletic Association and participates 
in basketball, field hockey, golf, tennis, volleyball, cross-country, and track. 

The full scholarship allowed by the National Collegiate Athletic Association covers 
tuition, fees, room, board, and books. 

Reserve Officers' Training Corps 

The Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC) has served the nation with distinc- 
tion for almost seventy-five years. The Corps trains and commissions officers for 
the Army. 

The Wake Forest program was established in 1951 and is organized and ad- 
ministered by a student chain of command. Its graduates serve in the highest leader- 
ship positions in the Army, Army Reserve, and National Guard. Participation in 
ROTC develops self-confidence and leader competence, and instills the customs and 
traditions of selfless service to the nation. Services provided include a four-year ROTC 
scholarship won in national high school competition, three-year and two-year scholar- 
ships won in University competition, challenging academics, and counseling. Ac- 
tivities enhance camaraderie and esprit de corps. Military Science 100-level courses 
incur no obligation. 

Religious Activities 

The Campus Ministry provides a variety of opportunities for the spiritual develop- 
ment of students, faculty, and staff. Thursday Worship is a weekly service which 
addresses the needs of the community through scripture, prayer, preaching, and 
music. A pre-school conference for freshmen each fall, a church vocations day in 
winter, and a faith and reason forum each spring promote the integration of spiritual 
and educational concerns. The Campus Ministry sponsors a theme house for residen- 
tial students which focuses on the relationship between religion and the liberal arts. 
A volunteer service corps enables students to get involved in the needs of the 
Winston-Salem community. Nine student religious organizations provide regular 
programs, including Bible study, music, worship, and guest speakers on contem- 
porary Christian concerns. The University chaplain, assistant chaplain, Baptist cam- 
pus minister, Methodist chaplain, Roman Catholic chaplain, Episcopal chaplain, and 
the Intervarsity coordinator compose the Campus Ministry staff. The chaplains are 
available for counseling and spiritual direction, and also advise student religious 
organizations. The Wake Forest Baptist Church cooperates with the Campus Ministry 
in both joint and individual efforts to serve the community. 

Cultural Activities 

The University Theatre presents four major productions and several lab plays 
annually, employing faculty, student, and visiting professional directors. Each year 
the Student Union, with the assistance of the University Theatre, sponsors a dinner 



29 



theatre, directed and performed by students. WFDD-FM broadcasts year-round to 
the campus and Piedmont North Carolina as an affiliate of National Public Radio. 
In addition to student announcers, producers, and technicians, it has a small 
professional staff. WAKE-AM, a completely student-operated radio station, plays 
popular music during a limited broadcast schedule. Intercollegiate debate at Wake 
Forest has a long record of excellence, and the College hosts three annual debate tour- 
naments: the Franklin Shirley Dixie Classic, the Pride in Tobacco, and the High School 
Tournament. 

Student publications include Old Gold and Black, a weekly newspaper; The Student, 
a literary magazine; and Hozvler, the yearbook. The Student Union sponsors a major 
speaker series throughout the academic year, and departments in the College engage 
specialists for other series. The Institute of Literature is a program of writers, critics, 
and scholars in English, classical languages, German, and Romance languages. The 
Hester Philosophy Seminar is an annual colloquium devoted to the major problems of 
philosophy and their impact on the Christian faith and is a joint undertaking of the 
Department of Philosophy and the Ecumenical Institute. The Robinson Lectures are 
held biennially and are administered by the Department of Religion. The Depart- 
ment of Psychology sponsors a colloquium series throughout the academic year. 

The Tocqueville Forum and the Luce Lectures bring nationally-known speakers to 
campus— to lecture and teach— under major grants from the Smith Richardson Foun- 
dation and the Henry Luce Foundation. 

Student musicians perform for academic credit in the Choral Union, the Concert 
Choir, the Madrigal Singers, the Opera Workshop, the University Orchestra, the 
Deacon Marching Band, the Symphonic Wind Ensemble, the Jazz Ensemble, various 
chamber ensembles, and the Collegium Musicum. All student ensembles give public 
performances each semester. 

Major concerts by orchestras and artists from around the world are performed in 
Wait Chapel and Brendle Recital Hall in the Scales Fine Arts Center under the auspices 
of the Secrest Artists Series. The Department of Music also sponsors performances 
by faculty, students, and visiting artists, and, in cooperation with the University 
Theatre, presents musical theatrical productions. Visiting dance soloists and companies 
and other musical programs are held in Brendle Recital Hall. Recitals are played by 
both students and guest carillonneurs on the Janet Jeffrey Carlile Harris Carillon. 
Students in the Chapel Bell Guild play English handbells for convocations and services 
in Wait Chapel. 

All concerts are open to students and to others in the community. 

In addition to studio instruction in the Department of Art, visiting artists teach 
on campus and at the nearby Southeastern Center for Contemporary Art. Reynolda 
House has frequent lectures related to its special collection in American art. The 
Student Union has an expanding collection of contemporary works of art, under stu- 
dent administration and exhibited in Reynolda Hall and elsewhere on campus. The 
T. J. Simmons Collection of paintings, etchings, lithographs, and sculpture also is 
on permanent display throughout the campus. An active group of student 
photographers exhibits its own work and that of professional photographers in the 
Student Union gallery adjacent to DeTamble Auditorium. Cultural resources in the 



30 



community, in addition to Reynolda House and the Southeastern Center for 
Contemporary Art, include the restored historic Moravian village of Old Salem, the 
Museum of Early Southern Decorative Arts, the North Carolina School of the Arts 
and its associated professional performing companies in theatre, dance, and music, 
and the Winston-Salem Symphony and Chorale. Folk art, professional art, and crafts 
fairs are frequent. 

Career Planning and Placement 

The Office for Career Planning and Placement in Reynolda Hall offers a full range 
of career services, including placement counseling, library resources, and a computer 
program which helps students determine career and graduate or professional school 
interests. Other services include career exploration, choice of an academic major, 
resume writing and interviewing skills, and interviews with prospective employers. 
The office helps students choose careers and find full-time, part-time, and summer 
jobs. It also helps them arrange internships and plan graduate or professional studies. 

The office maintains a file on each registered student to help with on-campus 
interviews and off-campus job search. More than 200 companies, agencies, and 
colleges and universities interview registered undergraduate and graduate students 
during the year. Job vacancy listings, employer directories, company profiles, and 
alumni contacts provide leads for the off-campus job search. 

Students are invited to take advantage of these services, beginning early in their 
college years. The office resources are available on a walk-in basis during regular of- 
fice hours and individual consultations are available by appointment. 

University Counseling Center 

The University Counseling Center offers a broad range of counseling and 
psychological services. Students can discuss their personal, educational, and career 
concerns with a professional counselor or psychologist. A variety of tests are available 
to help students identify their vocational aptitudes, educational interests, study/ 
learning skills, and personality traits. Special programs help students increase their 
self-confidence, manage their emotions, modify their behavior, or improve their rela- 
tionships. Brochures on studying, stress management, substance abuse, and other 
topics are available. Psychological emergencies on campus are handled through the 
Center. Appointments are available Monday through Friday between the hours of 
8:30 a.m. and 12:30 p.m. and between 1:30 p.m. and 5:00 p.m. Confidentiality is 
assured and no fees are charged to students. 

Learning Assistance Program 

Another service sponsored by the Counseling Center is the Learning Assistance 
Program. The program's services include study skills training and computer-assisted 
instruction in a wide range of topics, including vocabulary and reading improvement. 
The Learning Assistance Program staff presents mini-courses and seminars in 
academic skills throughout the year. Tutorial assistance and academic counseling can 



31 



be arranged. The Learning Assistance Program office is located in the west foyer of 
the Z. Smith Reynolds Library and is open Monday through Thursday from 8:30 
a.m. to 9 p.m., on Friday from 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m., and on Sunday from 3 p.m. to 
9 p.m. 

Student Health Service 

The office of Student Health Service is located in Kitchin House and provides 
primary care services, including general health maintenance, diagnostic and treat- 
ment procedures, and referral to specialists. It is open when residence halls are in 
operation; a health information questionnaire is required to be on file for all students. 
The services of the clinical staff are covered by tuition; there are additional charges 
for injections, medications, laboratory tests, special physical examinations, and bed 



Office of Minority Affairs 

The Office of Minority Affairs helps minority students to assess their educational 
goals and academic skills in order to achieve a satisfying college experience at Wake 
Forest. The staff also helps students to understand the history of the University and 
promotes an appreciation of each student's heritage and background. A variety of 
orientation services are offered to new students to facilitate their transition to campus 
life. 




Director of Minority Affairs Ernest Wade 



32 

Procedures 



All students are responsible for familiarizing themselves with the portions of this bulletin 
which pertain to their course of study. Statements concerning courses and expenses are not 
to be regarded as irrevocable contracts between the student and the institution. The University 
reserves the right to change the schedule of classes and the cost of instruction at any time 
within the student's term of residence. 

Admission 

Candidates for admission must furnish evidence of maturity and educational 
achievement. The Committee on Admissions carefully considers the applicant's 
academic records, scores on tests, and evidence of character, motivation, goals, and 
general fitness for study in the College. The applicant's secondary school program 
must establish a commitment to the kind of broad liberal education reflected in the 
academic requirements of the College. 

Admission as a freshman normally requires graduation from an accredited 
secondary school with a minimum of sixteen units of high school credit. These should 
include four units in English, three in mathematics, two in history and social studies, 
two in a single foreign language, and one in the natural sciences. An applicant who 
presents at least twelve units of differently distributed college preparatory study can 
be considered. A limited number of applicants may be admitted without the high 
school diploma, with particular attention given to ability, maturity, and motivation. 

All persons admitted are required to submit a health history, along with the results 
of a physical examination and certain laboratory tests, to the director of the Student 
Health Service. If a person who has been accepted but has not yet enrolled has or 
develops a health problem which, in the judgment of the director of the health ser- 
vice, creates a danger to the safety and well-being of the student or others, that per- 
son may be required to delay matriculation until the problem is resolved. 

North Carolina law requires that all students enrolling in the College after June 
30, 1986 submit proof of immunization against diptheria and tetanus (DT), polio, 
rubeola, and rubella before registration. There are exceptions; the student handbook 
has a detailed statement. A certificate from the student's high school, physician, or 
county health department director is acceptable proof of immunization. The Student 
Health Service will furnish a form for this purpose. In addition, North Carolina law 
requires that students who do not submit proper proof of immunization within thirty 
days of enrollment cannot attend Wake Forest University until these immunizations 
have been documented. 

Application 

An application is secured from the Office of Admissions in person or by mail (7305 
Reynolda Station, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27109). It should be completed and 
returned to that office, if possible no later than January 15 for the fall semester. Most 
admissions decisions for the fall semester are made by March 15, with prompt notifica- 
tion of applicants. For the spring semester, application should be completed and 



33 



returned, if possible, no later than October 15. Except in emergency, the final date 
for applying for the fall semester is August 1 and for the spring semester January 
1. Application on this last-date basis is primarily for non-resident students. 

The admission application requires records and recommendations directly from 
secondary school officials. It also requires test scores, preferably from the senior year, 
on the Scholastic Aptitude Test of the College Entrance Examination Board. Accom- 
panying achievement tests are optional. All test scores should be sent directly to the 
University by Educational Testing Service. A $25 fee to cover the cost of processing 
must accompany an application. It cannot be applied to later charges for accepted 
students or refunded for others. The University reserves the right to reject any applica- 
tion ivithout explanation. 

A $200 admission deposit is required of all students accepted and must be sent 
to the Office of Admissions no later than three weeks following notice of acceptance. 
It is credited toward first semester fees and is refunded in the event of cancellation 
of application by the student, provided a written request for refund is received by 
the Office of Admissions no later than May 1 for the fall semester or November 1 
for the spring semester. (Students notified of acceptance after May 1 for the fall 
semester or November 1 for the spring semester should make the admission deposit 
within two weeks of notification.) Deposits made after May 1 and November 1 are 
not refundable. Failure to make the admission deposit is taken as cancellation of 
application by the student. No deposit is required for summer session enrollment. 

Early Decision 

An early decision plan is available to well-qualified high school students who decide 
by the close of their junior year that their first college choice is Wake Forest. An early 
decision agreement is required with the application, which is sent to the Office of 
Admissions after completion of the junior year and not later than October 15 of the 
senior year. Along with high school record, recommendations, and scores on the 
Scholastic Aptitude Test, at least one achievement test, especially in English 
composition, is strongly recommended. 

Candidates for early decision are normally expected to have completed, or be 
enrolled in courses to complete, all the natural science, foreign language, literature, 
and mathematics requirements of the secondary school; to offer a minimum 3.5 quality 
point average in work of record; and to have achieved a minimum on the Scholastic 
Aptitude Test of 1200. 

Early decision applicants are notified of acceptance by November 1 for the fall 
semester, and the admission deposit is required by January 1. Applicants not admitted 
are asked to submit a senior year Scholastic Aptitude Test score and first semester 
senior year grade record, or are advised to apply elsewhere. 

Admission of Handicapped Students 

Wake Forest College will consider the application of any qualified student on the 
basis of personal and academic merit, regardless of handicap. A system of ramps 
and elevators makes all of the programs at Wake Forest accessible to those in 



34 



wheelchairs or with limited mobility. The University will gladly help handicapped 
students make arrangements to meet special needs. Students who seek further 
information should consult the admissions office or the University's equal opportunity 
officer. 

Advanced Placement and CLEP 

Advanced placement credit for college-level work done in high school is available 
on the basis of the Advanced Placement Examination of the College Entrance 
Examination Board and supplementary information. Especially well-qualified 
applicants for advanced standing may also be exempt from some basic and divisional 
courses with credit on the authorization of the department concerned. Credit by 
advanced standing is treated in the same manner as credit transferred from another 
college. 

Under certain conditions, especially well-prepared applicants may be granted limited 
college credit through the subject tests of the College Level Examination Program 
(CLEP) of the Educational Testing Service. Such credit may be assigned with the 
approval of the department concerned or the dean of the School of Business and 
Accountancy. 

Admission of Transfer Students 

The number of transfer students who can be admitted each year depends upon 
the availability of space in the freshman (second semester), sophomore, and junior 
classes. An applicant for admission who has attended another college must be a 
graduate of a standard junior college or furnish a certificate of honorable dismissal 
stating eligibility in all respects to enter the college last attended, and must have an 
overall average of at least C on all college work attempted. A student who is admitted 
from another college before fully meeting the prescribed admissions requirements 
for entering freshmen must remove the entrance conditions during the first year at 
Wake Forest. 

The writing of transfer students is evaluated during the orientation period each 
semester, and students whose writing is deficient are given a composition condition. 
For removal of a composition condition, the student is required to take English 11 during 
the first semester for which he or she registers following the assignment of the cc. 
Removal of the deficiency is prerequisite to graduation. 

Courses satisfactorily completed in other accredited colleges are accepted subject 
to faculty approval. In general, no credit is allowed for courses not found in the Wake 
Forest curriculum. The minimum residence requirement for a baccalaureate degree 
is two academic years, the senior and one other. 

Expenses 

Statements concerning expenses are not to be regarded as forming an irrevocable contract 
between the student and the University. The costs of instruction and other services outlined 
herein are those in effect on the date of publication of this bulletin, and the University reserves 
the right to change without notice the cost of instruction and other services at any time. 



35 



An admission deposit of $200, which is applied toward tuition and fees for the 
semester for which the student has been accepted, is required to complete admission. 
Charges are due in full on August 1 for the fall semester and December 15 for the 
spring semester. Faculty regulations require that student accounts be settled in full 
before the student is entitled to receive a grade report, transcript, or diploma, or to 
register for the following semester or term. 

Tuition 

Per Semester Per Year 

Full-Time (twelve or more credits) $3,975 $7,950 

Part-Time $220 per credit 

Students enrolled in the College or in the School of Business and Accountancy 
for full-time residence credit are entitled to full privileges regarding libraries, 
laboratories, athletic contests, concerts, publications, the Student Union, the University 
Theatre, and the health service. Part-time students are entitled to the use of the libraries 
and laboratories but not to the other privileges mentioned above. They may secure 
a part-time student ID card, admissions to games and concerts, and publications by 
paying an activity fee of $125 per semester. 

Room Charges 

Per Semester Per Year 

Double occupancy $630 $1,260 

Most rooms available for first-year students are $630 per semester. Other room rentals 
range from $490 to $850. 

Food Services 

A cafeteria, soda shop, and table service dining room are located in Reynolda Hall. 
Board plans are available for $1,180, $1,340, $1,500, and $1,650 per year. The format 
of these plans is a credit card system in which the student is charged only for the 
amount of food purchased at the time it is purchased. The plan may be used at any 
University food services facility, and it allows a great deal of flexibility for eating off 
campus. 

Freshmen living in dormitories are required to participate in one of the board plans. 

Other Charges 

Admission application fee of $25 is required with each application for admission to cover 
the cost of processing and is non-refundable. 

Admission deposit of $200 is required of each student entering for the first time or 
returning after a period of non-attendance and must be sent to the director of 
admissions within three weeks after acceptance for admission or readmission. The 
deposit is credited to the student's charges for the semester for which he or she has 



36 



been accepted for admission. It is refunded if the director of admissions is notified 
in writing prior to May 1 for the fall semester and November 1 for the spring semester 
of cancellation of plans to enter the College. 

Applied music fees are required in addition to tuition for students enrolling for individual 
class study in applied music in the Department of Music and are payable in the 
controller's office. The fee for one credit per semester is $110; for two credits per 
semester, $175. 

Hospital bed and board charges, made when the student is confined to the Student 
Health Service, are $44.50 per day. An additional charge is made for special services 
and expensive drugs. Students must have hospital insurance. A group plan is available 
through the University for those not covered by a family plan. A $2 charge is added 
to overdue bills. 

Key deposit of $5 is required for each key issued to a residence hall room and is refunded 
when the key is returned. 

Late registration fee of $10 is charged to students registering after the dates set by the 
faculty. 

Library fines are charged for lost books and for violation of other library regulations 
and are payable in the library. 

A tuition deposit of $200 is required, at a date set by the Office of the Controller, of 
students enrolled in the spring semester who expect to return for the fall semester. 
It is credited to the student's University charges and is refunded if the controller is 
notified in writing prior to June 1 that the student will not return. 

Room change fee of $5 is charged for authorized room changes made after February 
15 in the spring semester. The fine is $20 for any unauthorized change. 




37 



Special examination fee of $2.50 is required for each examination taken to remove a 
course condition. 

Student apartment rental is payable at $170 per month. 

Motor vehicle registration and traffic fines are $60 and $10 to $20, respectively. All 
students operating a vehicle on campus (including student apartments and the 
Graylyn Conference Center) must register vehicles they are operating day or night, 
whether or not owned by the operator. All vehicle registrations must be completed 
within twenty-four hours from the first time the vehicle is brought to campus. Fines 
are assessed against students violating parking regulations; copies of the violations 
are obtainable from the University security office. Proof of ownership must be 
presented when applying for vehicle registration. 

Transcripts of a student's record are issued at a cost of $2 each. 

Refunds 

During the academic year, all students, full-time and part-time, receive tuition 
refunds according to the following schedule. This policy applies to students dropping 
courses as well as those withdrawing. Withdrawals must be official and students must 
return their ID cards before claiming refunds. There is no refund of room rent. 

Number of Weeks Percentage of Total Tuition 

Attendance to be Refunded 
(Including first day of 
registration) 

1 week Total Tuition Less $200 

2 weeks 75 percent 

3 weeks 50 percent 

4 weeks 25 percent 

Housing 

All unmarried first-year students are required to live in residence halls, except (1) 
when permission is granted by the dean of students for the student to live with parents 
or a relative in the Winston-Salem area or (2) by special arrangement when space 
is not available on campus or (3) if the student has lost residence hall space because 
of a room contract violation or disciplinary action. Fifth-year students are ineligible 
for housing. Married students are not usually allowed to live in residence halls except 
when permitted to do so by the director of residence life and housing. Residence 
halls and apartments are supervised by the director of residence life and housing, 
the associate director of residence life and housing, the housing manager, area 
coordinators and hall directors. 

The following charges per year apply for each student in the residence halls: in 
Kitchin House, Poteat House, Davis House, Taylor House, Huffman Hall, and Efird 
Hall, $980 for triple rooms, $1,070 for small double rooms, $1,260 for large double 
rooms, and $1,560 for single rooms; rooms in suites with interior lounges are $1,400 
for large rooms and $1,120 for small rooms; in Johnson and Bostwick Halls, $1,260 



38 



for double rooms and $1,560 for single rooms; in Babcock Hall, $1,470 for double rooms 
and $1,700 for single rooms; in Luter Hall, $1,600 for double rooms; in South Hall, 
$1,570 for double rooms. Theme housing in the French, German, Spanish, Russian 
and Italian Houses, as well as the Rosedale Circle and Henning Drive Houses and 
the town house apartments, cost $1,600 each. Shared apartments in the Student Apart- 
ment complex cost $1,260 per student. Overseas housing is $800 per semester. For 
each of the small married or graduate student apartments, the charge is $170 per month 
unfurnished or $235 furnished. This rate can be shared when two single graduate 
students occupy each of the ten apartments set aside for them. 

Academic Calendar 

The academic calendar of the College and the School of Business and Accountancy 
includes a fall semester ending before Christmas, a spring semester beginning in 
January and ending in May, and two five-week summer sessions. Semesters usually 
last fifteen weeks. 

Orientation and Advising 

A four-day orientation period for new students in the College precedes registra- 
tion for the fall semester. A faculty adviser and an upperclass student provide guidance 
during and between registration periods throughout the student's freshman and 
sophomore years. Advisers meet with students both individually and in small groups. 
Students are encouraged to take the initiative in arranging additional meetings at 
any time they feel a need for advice or other assistance. The adviser suggests and 
approves courses of instruction until the student declares a major in a field of study 
toward the end of the sophomore year. At that time, a new adviser is assigned from 
the department or departments concerned. 

Registration 

A two-day registration period for all students in the College and the School of 
Business and Accountancy opens the fall semester and the spring semester. Registra- 
tion involves (1) payment of all tuition and fees in full to the controller, (2) obtaining 
a summary of prior record from the registrar, (3) consultation with the academic 
adviser, and (4) sectioning into courses. 

Classification 

Classification of students by class standing and as full-time or part-time is calculated 
in terms of credits. Most courses in the College and the School of Business and 
Accountancy have a value of four credits, but others vary from one credit to five. 
The normal load for a full-time student is eighteen credits per semester, with a 
maximum of nineteen (twenty if only four courses are involved) permitted on registra- 
tion day. A student wishing to register for more than twenty credits per semester 
must seek the permission of the appropriate dean or the Committee on Academic 
Affairs after registration day. 



39 



Twelve credits per semester constitutes minimum full-time registration. (Recipients 
of North Carolina Legislative Tuition Grants must be enrolled by the tenth day of 
classes for at least fourteen credits each semester. Recipients of veterans' benefits, 
grants from state government, and other governmental aid must meet the guidelines 
of the appropriate agencies.) A student may not register for fewer than twelve credits 
without specific permission from the Committee on Academic Affairs to register as 
a part-time student. 

A full-time student in the fall semester of any year may not be a part-time student 
in the spring semester immediately following. Any student who petitions for part- 
time status within the semester in which he or she wishes to gain such status is not 
eligible for a tuition refund. 

The requirements for classification after the freshman year are as follows: 
sophomore— the removal of all entrance conditions and the completion of no fewer 
than 29 credits toward a degree, with a minimum of 58 grade points; junior— the 
completion of no fewer than 60 credits toward a degree, with a minimum of 120 grade 
points; senior— no fewer than 108 credits toward a degree, with a minimum of 216 
grade points. 

Class Attendance 

Attendance regulations place the responsibility for class attendance on the stu- 
dent, who is expected to attend classes regularly and punctually. A vital aspect of 
the residential college experience is attendance in the classroom; its value cannot 
be measured by testing procedures alone. Students are considered sufficiently mature 
to appreciate the necessity of regular attendance, to accept this personal responsibility, 
to demonstrate the self-discipline essential for such performance, and to recognize 
and accept the consequences of failure to attend. Students who cause their work 
or that of the class to suffer because of absence or lateness may be referred by the 
instructor to the dean of the College or to the dean of the School of Business and 
Accountancy for suitable action. Any student who does not attend classes regularly 
or who demonstrates other evidence of academic irresponsibility is subject to such 
disciplinary action as the Committee on Academic Affairs may prescribe, including 
immediate suspension from the College or from the School of Business and 
Accountancy. 

The Office of the Dean of the College maintains a list of students who have been 
absent from class because of illness as certified by the Student Health Service, because 
of other extenuating circumstances, or as authorized representatives of the College 
whose names have been submitted by appropriate officials forty-eight hours in ad- 
vance of the hour when the absences are to begin. Such absences are considered 
excused and a record of them is available to the student's instructors upon request. 
The instructor determines whether work missed may be made up. 



40 



Auditing Courses 

When space is available after the registration of regularly enrolled students, others 
may request permission of the instructor to enter the course as auditors. No addi- 
tional charge is made to full-time students in the College or the School of Business 
and Accountancy; for others the fee is $80 per course. Permission of the appropriate 
dean, as well as that of the instructor, is required. An auditor is subject to atten- 
dance regulations and to other conditions imposed by the instructor. Although an 
auditor receives no credit, a notation of audit is made on the final grade report and 
entered on the record of regularly enrolled students who have met the instructor's 
requirements. In no case may anyone register for an audit course before the first 
meeting of the class. An audit course may not be changed to a credit course, and 
a credit course may not be changed to an audit course. 

Dropping a Course 

The last day in each term for dropping a class without a grade of F is listed in 
the calendar in the front of this bulletin. A student who wishes to drop any course 
before this date must consult the registrar and his or her faculty adviser. After this 
date, the student who wishes to drop a course must consult his or her faculty adviser, 
the course instructor, and the dean of the College or the dean of the School of Business 
and Accountancy, as appropriate. If the dean approves the request, he or she 
authorizes the student to discontinue the course. Except in cases of emergency, the 
grade in the course will be recorded as F. 

If, at any time, a student drops any course without prior, written approval of the 
appropriate dean, the student will be subject to academic probation for the follow- 
ing semester or to such other penalties as the Committee on Academic Affairs of 
the faculty may impose. 

Withdrawal from the College 

A student who finds it necessary to withdraw from the College or the School of 
Business and Accountancy must do so through the office of the appropriate dean. 
With the approval of the dean of the College or the dean of the School of Business 
and Accountancy, no grades are recorded for the student for that semester, but the 
student's standing in courses at the time of the withdrawal is taken into considera- 
tion when readmission is sought. If withdrawal is for academic reasons, failing grades 
may be assigned in all courses in which the student is doing unsatisfactory work. 
A student who leaves the College or the School of Business and Accountancy without 
officially withdrawing is assigned failing grades in all current courses, and the unof- 
ficial withdrawal is recorded. 

Examinations 

Final examinations are given at regularly scheduled times. All examinations are 
conducted in accordance with the honor system adopted by the student body and 



41 



approved by the faculty. Under it, the student is expected to refrain from unfairness 
in any form and to report to the Honor Council any student whom he or she knows 
to be cheating. 

Grading 

For most courses carrying undergraduate credit, there are five final and two 
conditional grades: A (exceptionally high achievement), B (superior), C (satisfactory), D 
(passing but unsatisfactory), E (conditional failure), F (failure), and I (incomplete). 

Grade of E. The grade of E entitles the student to re-examination at any regular 
examination period within a year, or during the first week of the fall semester. A 
permit for re-examination must be obtained in advance from the registrar, and no 
grade higher than D may be assigned as a result of re-examination. A student who 
does not remove a conditional failure by re-examination must repeat the course to 
obtain credit for it. 

A candidate for graduation in the final semester who receives a grade of E in the 
previous semester may apply to the registrar for re-examination thirty days after 
the opening of the final semester but not less than thirty days before its close. All 
conditions, including the grade of E, must be removed not less than thirty days before 
the end of the term in which the student graduates. The name of a candidate who 
has a condition after that date is dropped from the list of candidates. A candidate 
who receives a grade of E in the final semester or term of the graduation year is 
not allowed re-examination before the next examination period. 

Grade of I. The grade of I may be assigned only when a student fails to complete 
the work of a course because of illness or some other emergency. If the work recorded 
as I is not completed within thirty days after the student enters for his or her next 
semester, the grade automatically becomes F. The instructor must report the final 
grade to the registrar within forty-five days after the beginning of that semester. 

Grade Points. Grades are assigned grade points for the computation of academic 
averages, class standing, and eligibility for continuation, as follows: for each credit 
of A, four points; for each credit of B, three points; for each credit of C, two points; 
for each credit of D, one point; for each credit of E or F, no points. 

Pass/Fail. To encourage students to venture into fields outside their major areas 
of competence and concentration, the undergraduate schools make available the 
option, under certain conditions, of registering in courses on a Pass/Fail basis rather 
than for a letter grade. Courses taken under the Pass/Fail option yield full credit 
when satisfactorily completed but, whether passed or not, they are not computed 
in the grade-point average. In no case may a student change from grade to Pass/Fail 
mode, or from Pass/Fail to grade mode, after the last day to add a course, listed 
in the calendar at the front of this bulletin. 

A student may count toward the degree no more than twenty-four credits taken 
on a Pass/Fail basis. Freshmen and sophomores are not eligible to elect the Pass/Fail 
mode, but may enroll for courses offered only on a Pass/Fail basis. Juniors and seniors 
may elect as many as sixteen credits on a Pass/Fail basis, but no more than five credits 
in a given semester. Courses used to fulfill basic, divisional, or major requirements 



42 



may not be taken on a Pass/Fail basis unless they are offered only on that basis. 
Courses in the major(s) not used for satisfying major requirements may be taken 
on a Pass/Fail basis if the department of the major does not specify otherwise. 

Grade Reports and Transcripts 

A mid-term report and a final report of grades are issued to students by the registrar 
in the fall and spring semesters. A final report of grades is issued for each summer 
term. 

Copies of a student's cumulative record are issued by the registrar, but only on 
the written authorization of the student and payment of $2 per transcript. 

Dean's List 

The Dean's List is issued at the end of the fall and spring semesters. It includes 
all full-time students in the College and the School of Business and Accountancy 
who have a grade-point average of 3.0 or better for the semester and who have earned 
no grade below C during the semester. 

Graduation Distinctions 

Graduation distinctions are determined by the grade-point system. A degree 
candidate with a cumulative average of not less than 3.80 for all courses attempted 
is graduated with the distinction summa cum laude. A candidate with a cumulative 
average of not less than 3.50 for all courses attempted is graduated with the distinc- 
tion magna cum laude. A candidate with a cumulative average of not less than 3.00 
for all courses attempted is graduated with the distinction cum laude. The entire record 
of a student is considered, with the understanding that a transfer student may receive 
no distinction which requires a grade-point average greater than that earned at Wake 
Forest University. Details are available in the Office of the Registrar. 

Repetition of Courses 

A student may not repeat a course in which he or she has received a grade of C 
or higher. When a student at Wake Forest repeats a course in which he or she has 
received a grade of D or F, all grades received will be shown on the transcript, but 
the course may be counted only one time for credit. For purposes of determining 
the grade-point average, a course will be considered as attempted only once, and 
the grade points assigned will reflect the highest grade received. If a student fails 
a course previously passed, the credit originally earned will not be lost. 

Probation 

A student is responsible at all times for knowing his or her academic standing. 
Any student who, at the end of the fall semester, does not have the grade-point 
average normally required for continuation at the end of the following spring semester 
is automatically on academic probation. 



43 



Any student who is placed on probation because of honor code or conduct code 
violations is placed on such special academic probation as the Committee on Academic 
Affairs imposes. The Committee on Academic Affairs may at any time suspend or 
place on probation any student who has given evidence of academic irresponsibili- 
ty, as, for example, by failing to attend class regularly or to complete papers, ex- 
aminations, or other work on time. 

If poor academic performance is attributable to circumstances over which the 
student clearly had no control (e.g., serious injury or illness), the student may, after 
consultation with one of the academic deans, petition the Committee on Academic 
Affairs for further consideration of his or her status. 

In deciding whether to permit an exception to the foregoing eligibility requirements, 
the Committee on Academic Affairs will take into account such factors as convic- 
tions for violations of the College honor code or social conduct code, violations of 
the law, and any other behavior demonstrating disrespect for the rights of others. 

Any student convicted of violating the honor code is ineligible to represent the 
University in any way until the period of suspension or probation is completed and 
the student is returned to good standing. Students who are on probation for any 
reason may not be initiated into any fraternity until the end of their probationary 
period. 

Requirements for Continuation 

Each student is expected to be aware at all times of his or her academic status and 
to be responsible for knowing whether he or she has met the University's minimum 
academic requirements for continuation as outlined below. 

On the basis of their cumulative records at the end of the spring semester, those 
students are academically ineligible to enroll for the following fall (1) who have 
attempted fewer than 54 credits in all colleges and universities attended and have 
a grade-point average of less than 1.35 on work attempted for a grade in the College 
or the School of Business and Accountancy; (2) who have attempted as many as 
54 but fewer than 98 credits in all colleges and universities attended and have a grade- 
point average of less than 1.65 on work attempted for a grade in the College or the 
School of Business and Accountancy; (3) who have attempted as many as 98 but 
fewer than 135 credits in all colleges and universities attended and have a grade- 
point average of less than 1.85 on all work attempted for a grade in the College or 
the School of Business and Accountancy; (4) who have attempted 135 credits or more 
in all colleges and universities attended and have a grade-point average of less than 
1.90 on work attempted for a grade in the College or the School of Business and 
Accountancy. Non-credit courses, courses taken Pass/Fail, and CLEP and advanced 
placement credit are not computed in the grade-point average. (For the purpose of 
determining eligibility for graduation, the grade-point average is computed in two 
ways: on all work attempted in Wake Forest College and the School of Business and 
Accountancy; and also collectively on work attempted in all accredited colleges and 
universities.) 

Students who, at the end of the spring semester, have not met the above condi- 



44 



tions to continue in the following academic year may— unless they are ineligible for 
other reasons— attend the first summer session at Wake Forest College, but not 
elsewhere. If successful in raising the grade-point average to the required minimum, 
they may enroll for the following fall semester. Students may attend the second 
summer session if unsuccessful in the first, and if successful then, may enroll for 
the following spring semester. If unsuccessful in meeting the minimum requirements 
by the end of the second summer term, the student may apply for readmission no 
earlier than the following summer session. 

Under unusual circumstances and after consultation with the appropriate dean, 
the student may petition the Committee on Academic Affairs for an exception to 
the foregoing eligibility requirements. 

The Committee on Academic Affairs may suspend at the end of any semester or 
term any student who has not attended class regularly or has otherwise ignored 
the rules and regulations of the College or the School of Business and Accountancy, 
or whose record for that term has been unsatisfactory, particularly with regard to 
the number of courses passed and failed. The Committee will suspend at the end 
of any semester any student who has earned no more than eight grade points in 
courses other than Military Science 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 211, 212, 251, 252; 
Music 111-113 (ensemble courses); and elective 100-level courses in health and sport 
science. 

A student who has or develops a health problem which, in the judgment of the 
director of the Student Health Service, creates a danger to the safety and well-being 
of the student or others may be required to withdraw until the problem is resolved. 



Requirements for Readmission 

A student seeking consideration for readmission to the College should be in good 
standing and meet the minimum academic requirements for continuation. However, 
a student who has not met the requirements (1) may apply for admission to the 
summer session only, (2) may apply for readmission after an absence from the Col- 
lege of at least a year and a half, (3) may apply for readmission after less than a 
year and a half if enrolled in another college or university, or (4) may apply for read- 
mission if the failure to meet minimum requirements was due to circumstances over 
which the student clearly had no control. 

When applications for readmission to the College are considered, both academic 
and non-academic criteria will be taken into account. Non-academic grounds for possi- 
ble denial of readmission may include convictions for violations of the College's honor 
code or social conduct code, for violations of the law, and other behavior 
demonstrating disrespect for the rights of others. If a student is readmitted, the Com- 
mittee on Academic Affairs may impose on that student conditions designed to pro- 
mote academic progress. The conditions may include but are not limited to the follow- 
ing: a reduced course load, choice of courses approved by one of the appropriate 
academic deans, and a specified number of courses satisfying basic and divisional 
requirements. 



45 



Summer Study 

In addition to regular courses, a number of special summer programs for credit 
are described in the bulletin of the summer session. 

Courses taken in the summer at another college or university require the advance 
approval of the head of the department concerned and the registrar. Courses taken 
elsewhere on the semester-hour plan are computed as transfer credit at 1.125 credits 
for each approved semester hour. 

Transfer Credit 

All work attempted in other colleges and universities must be reported to the 
registrar of Wake Forest University. Students wishing to receive transfer credit for 
work satisfactorily completed elsewhere must obtain faculty approval, preferably 
in advance. Students should be aware that the minimum grade-point average (2.0) 
for graduation is computed in two ways: on all work attempted in Wake Forest 
College and the School of Business and Accountancy; and also on work attempted 
at Wake Forest and other accredited colleges and universities collectively. 




46 

Scholarships and Loans 

Any student admitted to Wake Forest College who demonstrates financial need 
will receive assistance commensurate with that need. 

By regulation of the Board of Trustees, all financial aid must be approved by the 
Committee on Scholarships and Student Aid. Applications should be requested from 
the committee at 7305 Reynolda Station, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27109. 
Scholarships supported by funds of the undergraduate schools are not granted to 
students enrolled in other schools of the University. To receive consideration for 
financial aid, the applicant must either be enrolled as an undergraduate or have been 
accepted for admission. The financial aid program comprises institutional, state, and 
federal scholarship, loan, and work funds. Full-time students are eligible to apply 
for federal funds. Half-time and part-time students are eligible to apply for limited 
institutional funds. 

Need is a factor in the awarding of most financial aid, and each applicant must 
file a financial statement with the application for financial aid. After reviewing the 
standard financial analysis, the Committee on Scholarships determines aid awards, 
and aid is credited, by semester, to the student's account in the Office of the 
Controller. The Committee on Scholarships reserves the right to revoke financial 
aid for unsatisfactory academic achievement or for violation of University regula- 
tions or federal, state, or local laws. To be eligible for renewal of aid, a student must 
remain enrolled on a normal full-time basis and be in good standing, making satisfac- 
tory progress toward a degree. The committee does not award institutional scholar- 
ships to students earning less than a 2.0 grade average on all work attempted at 
Wake Forest. 

Scholarships 

The Reynolds Scholarships are awarded each year to five extraordinarily capable men 
and women entering the College as first-year students. Made possible through a 
grant from the Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation in honor of Nancy Susan Reynolds, 
these scholarships cover the cost of tuition, room, and board, and include an 
allowance for books and personal expenses. Scholars may receive up to $1,500 each 
summer for travel or study projects approved by the Reynolds Committee. The 
Reynolds Scholarships are awarded without regard to financial need and will be 
renewed annually through the recipient's fourth year of college, subject to satisfac- 
tory performance. A separate application is required. 

The O. W. Wilson Scholarship, created under the will of O. W. Wilson of Yancey 
County, North Carolina, is awarded to an individual who demonstrates outstan- 
ding qualities of intellectual promise and leadership. The scholarship has a value 
equivalent to annual tuition and provides summer grant opportunities to encourage 
individual study projects. No separate application is required. 

The Doctor George E. and Lila C. Bradford Fund awards a renewable full-tuition 
academic scholarship annually to a student possessing outstanding leadership and 
aptitude who intends a pre-medical course of study. No separate application is 
required. 



47 



The Robert P. Holding Scholarship Fund, given by members of the Holding family 
of North Carolina, recognizes North Carolina students with exceptional promise of 
intellect and leadership. One or more renewable full-tuition scholarships are offered 
annually. No separate application is required. 

The Guy T. Carswell Scholarships, made possible by and established in honor of the 
late Guy T. Carswell and his wife Clara Carswell of Charlotte, North Carolina, have 
an annual value ranging from a minimum stipend of $3,000 to a maximum stipend 
of $10,800, with awards for more than $3,000 determined on the basis of need. Each 
scholar may apply for at least one summer grant of up to $1,000 to fund travel and 
study projects of the student's design. A Carswell scholar must be a student apply- 
ing to the College who possesses outstanding qualities of intellect and leadership. 
Up to forty scholars are selected annually. A separate application is required. 

The Alumni Scholarships, established by the University's alumni, award ten 
renewable $3,000 scholarships on the basis of exceptional talent and leadership. Can- 
didates must be students who will enrich and add to the diversity of life at Wake 
Forest through their special talents in the areas of the fine arts (including music, 
art, theatre, dance, film, and other arts), debate and public speaking, writing, leader- 
ship, public service, and entrepreneurial achievement. In the 1988-1989 school year, 
twenty scholarships will be awarded. A separate application must be submitted by 
December 1. 

The Wake Forest Minority Scholarships, established by endowment from the Univer- 
sity's Sesquicentennial Fund and gifts from the Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation, 
recognize the outstanding achievements of minority students and are awarded each 
year to entering freshmen who demonstrate academic promise and leadership poten- 
tial. Wake Forest Minority Scholarships include seven full-tuition scholarships and 
three $2,000 per year scholarships. All scholarships are renewable annually through 
the recipient's fourth year. Awards are made without regard to financial need. A 
separate application is required. 

The George Foster Hankins Scholarships for Freshmen, made possible by the late Colonel 
George Foster Hankins of Lexington, North Carolina, for residents of North Carolina 
or children of alumni living in other states, with preference given to residents of 
Davidson County, North Carolina, have an annual value of up to $10,800. Recipients 
must demonstrate need as well as academic promise. A separate application is 
required. 

The George Foster Hankins Scholarships for Upperclassmen for students who have been 
enrolled for at least one semester, with preference given to applicants from Davidson 
County, North Carolina, vary in value according to need. No separate application 
is required. 

For all the following scholarships, there is no separate application required except 
where noted. Students who complete the normal application for financial aid, 
including the Wake Forest application and an FAF (Financial Aid Form), will be 
considered for appropriate scholarships. 

The Alcoa Foundation Scholarship, donated by the Alcoa Foundation, is available to 



48 



a freshman from the Piedmont area of North Carolina who is majoring in chemistry. 
The scholarship has a value of $2,000 and is awarded on the basis of need. 

The Charles 1. and Louise Allen Scholarship Fund, established under the will of Louise 
Lambeth Allen, is awarded on the basis of ability and need to a student who may 
be interested in pursuing a medical career. 

The Alpha Phi Omega Scholarship, established by the Kappa Theta Chapter of Alpha 
Phi Omega, is made available in alternate years to a freshman who presents evidence 
of need and an excellent high school record. It has a minimum value of $200. 

The Arthur Andersen Accounting Leadership Award is presented to a senior accounting 
major who has demonstrated excellence in the areas of academic performance, leader- 
ship, and civic/community responsibility. 

The Camillo Artom Fund for Italian Studies was established in 1976 in honor of Camillo 
Artom, professor of biochemistry from 1939 to 1969. Scholarship aid is made available, 
usually to one or two students each semester, to assist with their expenses. Well- 
qualified students who can demonstrate need are eligible to apply. (Interested persons 
should apply in the Office of the Provost.) 

The George M. and Daisy Olive Beavers Scholarship Fund, donated by Lydia Beavers 
in memory of her parents, is for one scholarship awarded on the basis of leader- 
ship, good citizenship, and excellence of character. 

The Robert D. Bridgerjr. Scholarship, donated by George R. Bridger in honor of his 
father, is made to a senior major in the School of Business and Accountancy. Selec- 
tion of the recipient is based on demonstrated academic ability and financial need, 
with preference given to students from Bladen County or southeastern North 
Carolina. 

The Claude U. Broach Scholarship is awarded to a freshman or upperclassman with 
preference given to students from the St. John's Baptist Church of Charlotte, North 
Carolina. 

The J. Melville and Alice W. Broughton Scholarship Fund, established in honor of 
Governor, Senator, and Wake Forest Trustee J. Melville Broughton and his wife, 
Alice W. Broughton, by the Broughton family of Raleigh, North Carolina, awards 
one scholarship annually to a North Carolina student on the basis of academic ability 
and financial need. 

The Eliza Pratt Brown Scholarship, donated by the late Junius Calvin Brown of 
Madison, North Carolina, in honor of his wife, Eliza Pratt Brown, is used to assist 
needy, worthy, and deserving students from North Carolina, with preference given 
to students from the town of Madison and Rockingham County, for a maximum 
of $2,000. 

The Dean D. B. Bryan Memorial Scholarship Fund was established in honor of D. B. 
Bryan, dean of Wake Forest College from 1923 to 1957. It awards a partial or full- 
tuition scholarship to a student who plans to pursue a career in education, and who 
demonstrates financial need and academic ability. The recipient must pledge to work 
in the education field for a minimum of five years following graduation or must repay 
the scholarship to the University. 

The]. G. Carroll Memorial Athletic Scholarship, donated in memory of J. G. Carroll, 



49 



former associate professor of mathematics, is made to a deserving athlete who is 
not on a regular athletic scholarship, for a value of approximately $100. 

The ]ames Lee Carver Scholarship, donated by Jean Freeman Carver with her children, 
James Lee Carver II and Elizabeth Jeanine Carver, in memory of her husband, James 
Lee Carver, is for deserving and promising students who demonstrate a need for 
financial assistance, with preference given to students from the Oxford Orphanage 
in Oxford, North Carolina, for a value of approximately $300. 

The ]. D. Cave Memorial Scholarship is awarded to a North Carolina male student 
who demonstrates strong character, a willingness to grow intellectually, and evidence 
of need, for an approximate annual value of $600. 

The Neal M. Chastain Memorial Scholarship, established by Mrs. June Booth of 
Charlotte in memory of her son, is awarded to a senior business major exhibiting 
Christian ideals and good academic achievement. 

The College Scholarships, in the amount of $100 to $6,000 each, are available to 
freshmen and upperclassmen presenting satisfactory academic records and evidence 
of need. 

The William Henry Crouch Scholarship for ministerial students has been established 
by the Providence Baptist Church of Charlotte, North Carolina, in honor of its pastor. 
The scholarship is valued at $3,000 per year and is available for a North Carolina 
Baptist ministerial student or students based upon merit or need. 

The O. B. Crowell Memorial Scholarship Fund, donated by Louise T. Crowell of 
Hendersonville, North Carolina, in memory of her husband, O. B. Crowell, is 
awarded on the basis of character, need, and promise, for a value of approximately 
$600. 

The Gary Franklin Culler Scholarship Fund, donated in memory of Gary Franklin 
Culler, is awarded on the basis of academic ability and outstanding leadership poten- 
tial, with preference given to students from High Point, North Carolina, for a value 
of approximately $700. 

The Eleanor Lay field Davis Scholarship Fund awards a scholarship to a student with 
interest and ability in studio art, who has been recommended by the chairperson 
of the art department, to exemplify the talents and interests of Eleanor Layfield Davis. 

The Thomas H. Davis Business Scholarship, established by employees of Piedmont 
Aviation Inc. in honor of its founder and retired chairman, is awarded to a senior 
business major based on academic achievement, financial need, and potential for 
business leadership. 

The A. ]. Fletcher Music Scholarships, funded by the A. J. Fletcher Foundation, will 
award eight scholarships to new and continuing music students, starting in the fall 
1988. Based on merit, the scholarships are worth from $500 to $2,500. Applications 
must be made to the Department of Music. 

The Lecausey P. and Lula H. Freeman Scholarship, donated by Mr. and Mrs. G. H. 
Singleton of Raleigh, North Carolina, in memory of the parents of Mrs. Singleton, 
is available to a freshman, sophomore, or junior whose home is within the West 
Chowan Baptist Association of North Carolina, with preference given to Bertie County 
students, on the basis of need and ability. Residents of the Roanoke Association 



50 



may be considered for the scholarship, which is renewable on the basis of need and 
ability except for the senior year, for a value of approximately $200. 

The Charles A. Frueauff Scholarships are provided annually by the Charles A. Frueauff 
Foundation for middle-income students who live outside North Carolina. Amounts 
vary according to need, up to $1,500. 

The F. Lee Fulton Scholarship Fund, established by friends and associates of F. Lee 
Fulton, is awarded on the basis of leadership, citizenship, moral character, academic 
ability, and need. 

The Gaddy Scholarship Fund awards a need-based scholarship each year to a North 
Carolina student, with preference given to residents of Anson, Union, and Wake 
counties. 

The Lewis Reed Gaskin Scholarship Fund, established by E. Reed Gaskin and Jean 
H. Gaskin in honor of Lewis Reed Gaskin, is awarded to a freshman or 
upperclassman with preference given to a pre-medical student. The award shall be 
made on the basis of academic ability and potential as a physician. Recipients shall 
be known as Lewis Reed Gaskin scholars. 

The David Eugene and Beulah B. Gatewood Scholarship in Accountancy, given by Beulah 
B. Gatewood in honor of her husband, is awarded to an undergraduate accounting 
major based on academic merit and financial need. 

The A. Royall Gay Scholarship is awarded on the basis of scholarship, character, 
and high ideals to a graduating senior from Youngsville High School. 

The James W. Gill Scholarship, donated by Ruth R. Gill in memory of her husband, 
James W. Gill, provides a scholarship for a deserving student, with preference given 
to students from Montgomery and Prince Georges counties, Maryland, for a value 
of approximately $600. 

The Eugene Basil Glover Memorial Scholarship is awarded to an incoming or enrolled 
student based on ability and need, with slight preference given to students from 
Halifax County, North Carolina. 

The Wallace Barger Goebel Scholarship, made possible through a donation from Miriam 
M. Goebel, is based upon ability and financial need, with first preference given to 
a student with an interest in literature, second preference to a student with an interest 
in history, and third preference to a student enrolled in the pre-medical program, 
for a value of approximately $400. 

The Stanley McClayton Guthrie Scholarship Fund awards one scholarship each year 
to a needy student, with preference given to students from Halifax County, Virginia. 

The Fuller Hamrick Scholarship, created under the will of the late Everett C. Snyder 
of Wake Forest, North Carolina, in memory of Fuller Hamrick, is used to educate 
students from the Mills Home in Thomasville, North Carolina, for a value of 
approximately $550. 

The George G. and Georgeine M. Harper Charitable Trust awards scholarships of vary- 
ing stipends annually to students with high academic potential and financial need, 
with preference to a North Carolinian. 

The Henry Russell and Clara Stephenson Harris Scholarship Fund, established by 
Elizabeth Harris in memory of her parents, provides a scholarship awarded on the 



51 



basis of academic ability and financial need to a senior business major who plans 
to pursue a career in banking. 

The Margaret S. Hasty Memorial Scholarship Fund, established by Judge Fred H. Hasty 
in memory and honor of his beloved wife, is for one or more female undergraduate 
students with good academic ability and financial need. The scholarship is renewable 
if the student places in the upper third of her class. 

The Frank P. Hobgood Scholarship, donated by Kate H. Hobgood of Reidsville, North 
Carolina, in memory of her husband, is available to those who qualify on the basis 
of character, purpose, intelligence, and need, with preference given to those who 
plan to enter the ministry, do religious work, become teachers, or become lawyers, 
the preference being in the order named, for the residents of the Reidsville, North 
Carolina area, recommended by the deacons of the First Baptist Church of Reidsville, 
and for a value of $500. 

The W. D. and Alberta B. Holleman Memorial Scholarship Fund, established by Robert 
D. Holleman in memory of his parents, is awarded on the basis of academic ability, 
need, Christian commitment, and leadership to a student from Durham County with 
the advice and counsel of the minister of the Brasstown Baptist Church of Durham, 
North Carolina. 

The Forrest H. Hollifield Scholarship, donated by Mr. and Mrs. H. H. Hollifield in 
memory of their son, Forrest H. Hollifield, is awarded to upperclassmen with evidence 
of character and need, with preference given to natives of Rowan and Rutherford 
counties, North Carolina, and to members of the Delta Nu Chapter of Sigma Chi 
Fraternity. 

The Jones-Holder Business Scholarship Fund, awarded upon the recommendation of 
the dean of the School of Business and Accountancy, recognizes a rising senior 
business major who has demonstrated a high level of achievement. 

The George W. Kane Scholarship, established by the George W. Kane Company in 
honor of George W. Kane, former member of the Wake Forest College Board of Visitors, 
is awarded on the basis of academic merit and need to students interested in pursuing 
a degree in business or accountancy. 

The J. Lee Keiger Sr. Scholarship is an academic scholarship awarded annually to a 
North Carolina student, with preference given to students living in the ALLTEL- 
Carolina Telephone Company service region, for a value of $750. 

The Sarah C. and C. A. Kent Scholarships are awarded to freshmen and upperclassmen 
on the basis of leadership, academic merit, and financial need, without regard to 
race, religion, sex, or geographical origin. 

The Kirkpatrick-Hozuell Memorial Scholarship Fund, donated by the Delta Nu Chapter 
of Sigma Chi Fraternity, makes available one or two scholarships, with preference 
given to members of the Sigma Chi Fraternity, upon recommendation of the 
Kirkpatrick-Howell Memorial Scholarship Board, for a value of approximately $800. 

The Charles L. Little Scholarship Fund, established by Charles L. Little, is given to 
upperclass students. Preference is given to pre-medical students from Anson County 
and immediately adjacent counties in North Carolina who provide satisfactory 
evidence of a willingness to give serious consideration to practicing medicine in 
Wadesboro, or Anson County, North Carolina. 



52 



The James C. Mason Scholarship Fund, created under the will of Oscar W. McManus 
of Laurinburg, North Carolina, is awarded to a worthy student for an annual value 
of approximately $900. 

The Burke M. McConnell Management Excellence Scholarship, established by Pace 
Communications, Inc. of Greensboro, is given to the senior in the School of Business 
and Accountancy who holds the highest grade-point average for his or her first three 
years at the University. 

The Wilma L. McCurdy Memorial Fund Scholarship is awarded on the basis of character, 
academic standing, and need, in the amount of $750 per academic year. Application 
must be made annually. 

The Thane Edward McDonald and Marie Dayton McDonald Memorial Scholarship Fund, 
made possible by the late Thane Edward McDonald, professor of music, is available 
to a deserving and qualified music student for a value of approximately $125. 

The McGladrey, Hendrickson, & Pullen Scholarship, granted by the public accounting 
firm, McGladrey, Hendrickson. & Pullen, is awarded to a senior accounting major 
designated by the accounting faculty on the basis of merit, financial need, and interest 
in public accounting, and has a value of $750. 

The Robert Lee Middleton Scholarship, donated by Sarah Edwards Middleton of 
Nashville, Tennessee, in memory of her husband, is awarded on the basis of character, 
purpose, intelligence, and need, with preference given to the student planning to 
enter the field of literature, accounting, teaching, or the gospel ministry or other full- 
time religious work. 

The Mildred Bronson Miller Scholarship Fund, donated by Mildred B. Miller of Atlanta, 
Georgia, is awarded to students on the basis of leadership, dedication, com- 
petitiveness, and citizenship. 

The Hiram Abif Myers III Scholarship Fund, established in memory of Hiram Abif 
("Bif") Myers who died early in his freshman year at Wake Forest, awards one scholar- 
ship to a senior from Roswell High School, Roswell, Georgia, who best exemplifies 
the ideals and characteristics of Bif Myers. The candidate is recommended by the 
Roswell High School principal. 

The Norfleet Scholarships, donated by Mr. and Mrs. Eustace Norfleet of Wilmington, 
North Carolina, in memory of his parents, John A. and Mary Pope Norfleet, are 
available to deserving and promising students needing financial assistance, for a value 
of $200. 

The North Carolina Scholarships are made available by the North Carolina General 
Assembly and are awarded on the basis of financial need to full-time students who 
are bona fide residents of North Carolina. 

North Carolina Student Incentive Grants are available to undergraduate residents of 
North Carolina with exceptional financial need who require these grants in order 
to attend college, for a value of from $200 to $1,500 per year. The amount of assistance 
a student may receive depends upon need, taking into account financial resources 
and the cost of attending the college chosen. 

The Benjamin Wingate Parham Scholarship, donated by Kate J. Parham of Oxford, North 
Carolina, in memory of her husband, is awarded on the basis of ability and need 
and may be renewed for succeeding years. 



53 



The Thomas F. Pettus Scholarships, administered by the North Carolina Baptist 
Foundation under the terms of the will of the late Thomas F. Pettus of Wilson County, 
North Carolina, make two or more scholarships available each year in memory of 
Mr. Pettus and are awarded on the basis of merit and need, with preference given 
to North Carolina Baptist students. 

The William Louis Poteat Scholarships, valued at $3,000 per year, are available to eleven 
freshmen, one from each Congressional District of North Carolina. To be eligible, 
a student must be an active member of a Southern Baptist Church in North Carolina, 
must be likely to make a significant contribution to church and society, and must 
be appreciative of the quality of education available at Wake Forest University. A 
separate application is required by December 15. 

The H. Ray Pullium Scholarship Fund, established by Mrs. H. Ray Pullium in honor 
of her husband, is awarded on the basis of ability and need. Preference is given to 
students from North Carolina Baptist Children's Homes. 

The Kenneth Tyson Raynor Scholarship, donated by friends of the late Kenneth Tyson 
Raynor, professor of mathematics, is awarded annually by the mathematics faculty. 
The award is made on the basis of academic ability to an individual majoring in 
mathematics who has achieved junior standing. 

The Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC) Scholarships, made available by the US 
Army, are awarded for academic and personal achievement. The four, three, and two- 
year scholarships, each with an annual value of more than $8,000, cover tuition, fees, 
books, and classroom materials. A monthly stipend of $100 is also given during the 
academic year. Recipients must participate in the ROTC program and maintain satisfac- 
tory academic progress. Four-year scholarships must be applied for in the junior or 
senior years of high school. Other scholarships must be applied for through the 
Department of Military Science, Wake Forest University. Some preference is given 
to students of biology, chemistry, mathematics, and physics. Two-year scholarships 
for rising juniors are also available on the basis of academic accomplishment and 
outstanding performance at the six-week ROTC Basic Camp. 

The Franklin R. Shirley Debate Scholarship, established in honor of the late Franklin 
R. Shirley, professor emeritus of speech communication, is awarded to a student who 
has debate experience and who successfully participates in the University's debate 
program. 

The fames F. Slate Fund provides an annual scholarship or loan to a student who 
plans a ministerial career. It is renewable upon evidence of a continuing need and 
interest in the ministry. 

The Robert Forest Smith III Scholarship Fund, donated by the Rev. Mr. and Mrs. Robert 
Forest Smith Jr. and other citizens of Hickory, North Carolina, in memory of Robert 
Forest Smith III, is awarded to an entering freshman who qualifies on the basis of 
need and on distinction in high school government, with preference given to those 
who plan to enter government service, and with strong preference given to students 
exemplifying positive Christian principles, for a value of $1,000. 

The Sigmund Sternberger Scholarships, donated by the Sigmund Sternberger Foun- 
dation, are for needy North Carolinians, with preference given to undergraduate 
students from Greensboro and Guilford County, for a value of $2,000. 



54 



The John Belk Stevens Scholarship in Business, donated by the Belk Foundation in honor 
of John Belk Stevens, is given to senior business majors with particular interests in 
retailing or marketing and is based on academic merit and financial need. 

The Edna and Ethel Stowe Scholarship is awarded to a freshman or an upperclassman, 
with preference given to female students who have a physical handicap. 

The J. W. Straughan Scholarship, donated by Mattie, Mable, and Alice Straughan in 
memory of their brother J. W. Straughan, of Warsaw, North Carolina, with preference 
given to students from Duplin County, North Carolina, who are interested in pursu- 
ing a medical career, especially in the field of family practice, is for those who need 
financial assistance to continue their education. 

The Gilbert T Stephenson Scholarship, established by Grace W. Stephenson in memory 
of her husband, is awarded on the basis of ability and need to a student from Kirby 
Township or Northampton County, North Carolina. 

The Saddye Stephenson and Benjamin Louis Sykes Scholarship, donated by Charles L. 
Sykes and Ralph J. Sykes in memory of their mother and father, is awarded on the 
basis of Christian character, academic proficiency, and financial need, with preference 
given to freshmen from North Carolina, renewable for a value of approximately $400. 

The Harold Wayland and Nelle Futch Tribble Scholarship Fund, established to honor 
President Emeritus and Mrs. Tribble, provides a scholarship to students enrolled in 
the College who demonstrate superior academic ability. 

The Tyner-Pitman Scholarship Fund, donated by Cora Tyner Pitman, makes available 
at least one scholarship for needy North Carolina students. 

The Jesse A. Williams Scholarships, created under the will of the late Jesse A. Williams 
of Union County, North Carolina, with preference given to deserving students of 
Union County, have a value of up to $1,200. 

The James Bennett Willis Scholarship Fund, established by James B. Willis of Hamlet, 
North Carolina, gives preference to North Carolina Baptist students interested in the 
ministry and Christian education. It is awarded on the basis of need. 

The Maria Thornton and Miriam Carlyle Willis Scholarship Fund, established by James 
B. Willis in memory of his wife and daughter, gives preference to North Carolina 
Baptist students who are interested in all phases of the ministry of music. It is awarded 
on the basis of need. 

The Charles Littell Wilson Scholarship, created under the will of Jennie Mayes Wilson 
in memory of her husband, Charles Littell Wilson, is for a freshman, with a value 
from $200 to $600. 

The O. W. Wilson-Yancey County Scholarships, created under the will of O. W. Wilson 
of Yancey County, North Carolina, are awarded to students from Yancey County who 
have excellent academic records and who demonstrate need. 

The Matthew T Yates Scholarship Fund awards scholarships to the children of 
missionaries of the Foreign Mission Board of the Southern Baptist Convention on 
the basis of merit and need. The applicant must notify the Office of Financial Aid 
of his or her eligibility to be considered for this award. 

The William Luther Wyatt III Scholarship Trust, donated by Mr. and Mrs. William L. 
Wyatt Jr. of Raleigh, North Carolina, in memory of their son William Luther Wyatt 
III, with preference given to a male student entering the junior year who has shown 



55 



an interest and an ability in the field of biology, is based on need and ability, for 
a value of approximately $500. 

Federal Financial Aid Programs 

The federal government, through the Department of Education, sponsors five 
programs to help pay college costs. These programs are Pell Grants, Supplemental 
Education Opportunity Grants (SEOG), College Work/Study, Perkins Loans (formerly 
National Direct Student Loans), Guaranteed Student Loans (GSL), and Parent Loans 
for Undergraduate Students (PLUS). To receive assistance through these programs, 
a student must complete the necessary applications, meet basic eligibility 
requirements, and maintain satisfactory academic progress. (See the statement in bold 
face on page 56.) The five programs are outlined as follows: 

Pell Grants are federal funds awarded to undergraduate students with exceptional 
financial need who require these grants to attend college, for a value of from $150 
to $2,300 per year. The amount of assistance a student may receive depends upon 
need, taking into account financial resources and the cost of attending the college 
chosen. 

The Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grants are available to a limited number 
of undergraduate students with exceptional financial need who require these grants 
to attend college and who show academic or creative promise, for a value from $200 
to $4,000 a year. The amount of financial assistance a student may receive depends 
upon need, taking into account financial resources and the cost of attending the college 
chosen. 

The College Work/Study Program makes on-campus employment available to students 
who show evidence of financial need. Students work during the academic year for 
campus minimum wage or above, at an average of ten to fifteen hours per week in 
the Z. Smith Reynolds Library, Reynolda Hall, Student Union, Reynolda Gardens, 
and other places on campus. 

The Carl D. Perkins Loan Program (formerly National Direct Student Loans) makes 
available loans for students in need of financial assistance with an interest rate of 
5 percent. These are examples of typical repayment schedules: 



Aggregate Loan 


Quarterly 


Amount of 


Total Interest 


Total 




Payments 


Payment 


Paid 


Payment 


$2,500 


35 


$ 90.00 


$ 590.22 


$3,090.22 


5,000 


40 


159.61 


1,384.27 


6,384.27 


7,500 


40 


239.41 


2,076.44 


9,576.44 



Aggregate undergraduate sums may not exceed $4,500 for the first two years or 
$9,000 for four years, but may be extended to $18,000 for those who also borrow for 
graduate or professional study, with an interest rate of 5 percent. 

The Guaranteed Student Loan Program makes available loans up to $2,625 for the first 
two years of undergraduate study and $4,000 for subsequent undergraduate study. 
Aggregate undergraduate sums may not exceed $17,250, but may be extended to $54,750 
for those who also borrow for graduate or professional study. The maximum loan 



56 



per year for graduate students is $7,500. Loans are insured by the federal govern- 
ment or guaranteed by a state or private nonprofit guarantee agency. The federal 
government pays the 9 percent interest during in-school and grace periods. Applica- 
tion and information may be obtained from state guarantee agencies or from the ap- 
propriate regional office of the United States Office of Education. 

The North Carolina Insured Student Loan Program makes available loans up to $2,625 
for the first two years of undergraduate study and $4,000 for subsequent undergraduate 
study for legal residents enrolled full-time. Aggregate undergraduate sums may not 
exceed $18,000, but may be extended to $54,750 for those who also borrow for graduate 
or professional study. The maximum loan each year may not exceed $2,625 for 
undergraduates or $7,500 for graduate or professional students. Loans are insured 
by the North Carolina State Education Assistance Authority and are processed by 
the College Foundation. Under certain conditions the United States Office of Educa- 
tion pays the 9 percent interest during the in-school and grace periods. 

Financial aid under the Federal Title IV Program is available to eligible students 
enrolled in a course of study leading to a degree. The normal time in which the 
course should be completed is four years. Federal regulations specify that the student 
maintain satisfactory progress in order to receive federal financial aid. Satisfactory 
progress is defined as meeting the University's minimum academic requirements 
for continuation outlined as follows: On the basis of cumulative records at the end 
of the spring semester, students are academically ineligible to enroll for the follow- 
ing fall (1) who have attempted fewer than 54 credits with a grade-point average 
less than 1.35, (2) who have attempted as many as 54 but fewer than 98 credits with 
a grade-point average of less than 1.65, (3) who have attempted as many as 98 but 
fewer than 135 credits with a grade-point average of less than 1.85, or (4) who have 
attempted 135 credits with a grade-point average of less than 1.90. Students who 
do not meet the minimum requirements at the end of the spring semester may be 
allowed to continue with the permission of the Committee on Academic Affairs. 
Such students may be granted federal financial aid for a period of one additional 
semester. Failure to bring the grade-point average to the stated minimum will result 
in termination of all federal financial aid. 

Exchange Scholarships 

The German Exchange Scholarship, established in 1959 with the Free University of 
Berlin, is available to a student with at least two years of college German or the 
equivalent, who has junior standing by the end of the semester in which application 
is made, but who need not be a German major. It provides 750 German marks per 
month for ten months, remission of fees, 200 marks per semester for books, and 250 
marks per month for rent. (Interested students should communicate with the chair- 
man of the Department of German.) 

The Spanish Exchange Scholarships are available for study at the University of the 
Andes in Bogota, Colombia, and at the University of Salamanca in Spain. The Bogota 
scholarship may be awarded to two students for one semester's study each or to one 



57 



student for two semesters. Applicants must have completed at least two years of col- 
lege Spanish or the equivalent. Scholarships provide remission of fees and the cost 
of books, board, and accommodations. (Interested students should communicate with 
the chairman of the Department of Romance Languages.) 

The French Exchange Scholarship, established with the University of Dijon, France, 
is available to a graduating senior, who receives a graduate teaching assistantship 
at a lycee in Dijon for two semesters. (Interested students should communicate with 
the chairman of the Department of Romance Languages.) 

Loans 

The James F. and Mary Z. Bryan Foundation Student Loan Plan is for residents of North 
Carolina enrolled for full-time for a value of up to $7,500 for undergraduate study. 
The amount of each loan is determined by the College Foundation, with an interest 
rate of 1 percent during the in-school and grace periods and 7 percent during the 
repayment period. 

The Bushnell Baptist Church Loan Fund, established in 1945 with funds supplied by 
the Bushnell Baptist Church of Fontana Dam, North Carolina, is for needy students. 

The Council Fund, established in 1935 by C. T. Council of Durham, North Carolina, 
is for the aid of senior students. 

The James W. Denmark Loan Fund, originated in 1875 by James William Denmark of 
Dudley, North Carolina, is available to qualified students, with preference given to 
students from North Carolina, for an amount not exceeding $2,500 each year and 
$10,000 during the entire period of enrollment. 

The Olivia Dunn Student Loan Fund, established under the will of Birdie Dunn of 
Wake County, North Carolina, in memory of her mother, is for needy students. 

The Duplin County Loan Fund, donated in 1942 by anonymous friends of the College, 
is limited to students from Duplin County, North Carolina. 

The Elliott B. Earnshaw Loan Fund, established by the Board of Trustees, is a memorial 
to the former bursar. 

The Friendly Student Loan Fund, established in 1948 by Nell E. Stinson of Raleigh, 
North Carolina, in memory of her sister, Mary Belle Stinson Michael, is for the benefit 
of worthy students who need financial aid. 

The George Foster Hankins Loan Fund, established under the will of George Foster 
Hankins of Lexington, North Carolina, gives preference to applicants from Davidson 
County, North Carolina. 

The Harris Memorial Loan Fund, established by the late J. P. Harris of Bethel, North 
Carolina, in memory of his first wife, Lucy Shearon Harris, and his second wife, Lucy 
Jones Harris, is for students who have demonstrated ability to apply educational 
advantages to the rendition of enriched and greater Christian service in life and who 
require financial assistance to prevent the disruption of their education. 

The Edna Tyner Langston Fund, established in 1942 by Henry J. Langston of Danville, 
Virginia, in memory of his wife, is available to a student agreed upon by the donor 
and the College. 



58 



The Watts Norton Loan Fund, established in 1949 by L. Watts Norton of Durham, 
North Carolina, is for worthy students enrolled with the Department of Religion who 
need financial assistance. 

The Powers Fund, established in 1944 by Frank P. Powers of Raleigh, North Carolina, 
in memory of his parents, Frank P. and Effie Reade Powers, is for the benefit of needy 
students, with preference given to orphans. 

The Grover and Addy Raby Loan Fund, established in 1945 by J. G. Raby of Tarboro, 
North Carolina, in memory of his parents, gives preference to applicants from the 
First Baptist Church of Tarboro. 

The James F. Slate Loan Fund, established in 1908 by J. F. Slate of Stokes County, 
North Carolina, is available for ministerial students who have been licensed to preach. 

Concessions 

North Carolina Legislative Tuition Grants. The North Carolina General Assembly 
provides yearly grants to all legal residents of North Carolina. To be eligible a student 
must be enrolled for at least fourteen credits each semester (by the tenth day of classes) 
and complete a Residency Form 100. The student must not have received a bachelor's 
degree previously. To receive the grant, the student must also complete an NCLTG 
application and return it to the financial aid office. 

Ministerial students receive an $800 concession per year if they (1) have a written 
recommendation or license to preach from their own church body and (2) agree to 
repay the total amount, plus 4 percent interest, in the event that they do not serve 
five years in the pastoral ministry within twelve years of attendance in the College. 

Children and spouses of pastors of North Carolina Baptist churches receive an $800 
concession per year if they are the children or spouses of (1) ministers, (2) missionaries 
of the Southern Baptist Foreign Mission Board, (3) officials of the Baptist State Con- 
vention of North Carolina, or (4) professors in North Carolina Baptist colleges or 
universities who are ordained ministers. Pastors themselves are also eligible. 

Children of other ministers who are not eligible for the above concession receive a 
$150 concession per year if their parent makes a living chiefly by the ministry and 
they have a demonstrated need. 

Other Financial Aid 

Church Choir Work Grants, given by the College and Wake Forest Baptist Church 
to encourage outstanding music students, are awarded on the basis of talent, reliability, 
and interest in the church on the recommendation of the music committee of the 
church and the Department of Music, for the value of $300. (Interested students should 
communicate with the chairwoman of the Department of Music.) 

The Ministerial Aid Fund, established in 1897 by the estate of J. A. Melke, is available 
to pre-ministerial students on a loan or grant program on the basis of merit and need, 
and, particularly in the case of grants, academic achievement. 

Student /Student Spouse Employment is possible for part-time, on-campus and off- 
campus work, for a recommended maximum of twenty hours per week for full-time 



59 



students. Summer employment may also be available. (Interested students should 
communicate with the Office of Career Planning and Placement.) 

Veterans' Benefits are administered by the Office of the Veterans' Administration in 
the Federal Building at 251 North Main Street in Winston-Salem. Records of progress 
are kept by this institution on veteran and non-veteran students alike. Progress records 
are furnished the students, veterans and non-veterans alike, at the end of each schedul- 
ed school term. 

Outside Assistance 

Students who apply for financial aid from Wake Forest must advise the College 
if they receive any assistance from outside organizations, including but not limited 
to National Merit or Achievement Scholarships; College Scholarship Service- 
sponsored scholarships; local, state, and national scholarship and loan programs. 
This outside assistance will be considered when the financial aid award is calculated. 




60 

Special Programs 

For students of special ability or interest and for students who can take advantage 
of off-campus study opportunities, the College offers a variety of programs. These 
are in addition to programs that combine study in the College with work in a number 
of pre-professional curricula as described in this bulletin. 

Honors Study 

For highly qualified students, a series of interdisciplinary honors courses is described 
under Courses of Instruction. Under the supervision of the coordinator of the Honors 
Program, students may participate in three or more honors seminars during the 
freshman, sophomore, and junior years. Those who complete four seminars with 
a superior record and who are not candidates for departmental honors may complete 
a final directed study course. With a superior record in that course and a grade-point 
average of 3.0 in all work, a student may be graduated with the distinction "Honors 
in the Arts and Sciences." 

For students especially talented in individual areas of study, most departments in 
the College offer special studies leading to graduation with honors in a particular 
discipline. The minimum requirement is a grade-point average of 3.0 in all work and 
3.3 (or higher in some areas) in the major. Other course, seminar, and research re- 
quirements vary from one department to another. 

Open Curriculum 

For students with high motivation and strong academic preparation, the Open Cur- 
riculum provides the opportunity to follow a course of study planned within the 
framework of a liberal arts education but not necessarily fulfilling all basic and divi- 
sional requirements for the degree. Under the Committee on Open Curriculum, a 
limited number of students is selected before or during the freshman year by previous 
record of achievement, high aspirations, ability in one or more areas of study, strength 
of self-expression, and other special talents. The course of study for the degree is 
designed by the student and his or her adviser. 

Residential Language Centers 

For students prepared to speak French, German, Spanish, Italian, or Russian on 
a regular basis with other students studying the same language, the University of- 
fers residential language centers coordinated by members of the Romance languages 
department and the German and Russian department. Such students attend regular 
classes on the campus. Organized social and conversational programs are available 
in all these languages. 



61 



Foreign Area Studies 

The Foreign Area Studies program enables students who wish to do so to choose 
an interdisciplinary concentration in the language and culture of a foreign area. For 
a full description of these programs, see page 70. 

Study at Salem College 

For full-time students, Wake Forest and Salem College share a program of exchange 
credits for courses taken at one institution because they are not offered at the other. 
An application must be approved by the academic adviser and the dean of the College 
or the dean of the School of Business and Accountancy. Except in courses of private 
instruction, there is no additional cost to the student. Grades and grade points earned 
at Salem College are evaluated as if they were earned at Wake Forest. 

Opportunities for Study Abroad 

Wake Forest Programs 

London 

A program of study is offered each semester at Worrell House, the University's 
residential center near Regent's Park in London. Courses typically encompass aspects 
of the art, theatre, literature, and history of London and Great Britain. (See, for 
example, Art 2320: English Art, Hogarth to the Present, and History 2260: History of 
London, in the course listings of those departments.) Each term a different member 
of the faculty serves as the director of the program, which accommodates sixteen 
students. Further information may be obtained in the Office of International Studies. 




62 



Venice 

For students wishing to spend a semester in Italy, a program of study is available 
at Casa Artom, the University's residential center on the Grand Canal in Venice. Under 
various members of the faculty approximately twenty students focus on the heritage 
and culture of Venice and Italy. (Courses offered usually include Art 2693: Venetian 
Renaissance Art, Italian 2213: Spoken Italian, and other courses offered by the faculty 
member serving as director.) Students selected for the Venice program are normally 
required to have completed elementary training in Italian. Limited scholarship aid 
is available to one or two students each semester to assist with expenses. Further 
information may be obtained in the Office of International Studies. 

France 

For students wishing to study in France, arrangements are made for a semester's 
instruction at the University of Dijon. Under a faculty residential adviser from the 
Department of Romance Languages, courses are taken at the University of Dijon by 
student groups of varying levels of preparation. (A major in French is not required, 
but French 221 or its equivalent is recommended.) 

Spain 

For students wishing to study in Spain, arrangements are made for a semester's 
instruction at the University of Salamanca. Under a faculty residential adviser from 
the Department of Romance Languages, courses are taken at the University of 
Salamanca by student groups of varying levels of preparation. (A major in Spanish 
is not required, but Spanish 221 or its equivalent is recommended.) 

Institute of European Studies 

For students who wish to spend a semester or year in a German-speaking country, 
programs of study are available through the Institute of European Studies. Qualified 
Wake Forest applicants may study during their junior or senior year in Freiburg, 
Germany or Vienna, Austria. As with other Wake Forest programs, students receive 
direct credit for all courses taken with I.E.S. and may apply any form of financial 
aid available to them here on campus to their program of study in Freiburg or Vienna. 
Interested students should contact the chairman of the Department of German and 
Russian. 

Other Opportunities Abroad 

The Independent Study Program of the Experiment in International Living is 
recognized by the College. To participate in this program, a student must be regularly 
enrolled and plan to return to the College after study abroad; arrangements must 
be made with the chairperson of the department of the major and the director of 
the Office of International Studies. Up to fourteen credits for a one-semester program 
may be granted upon evidence of satisfactory completion of work taken, but this is 
subject to evaluation by the dean of the College. 



63 



Students wishing to study abroad in a non-Wake Forest program should visit the 
Office of International Studies for assistance. The office houses a sizable collection 
of material on a wide variety of overseas programs. 

All non-Wake Forest programs must be approved in advance by the director of 
international studies. Transfer credit is computed at 1.125 credits for each approved 
semester hour taken abroad. Students in programs other than those offered by Wake 
Forest must apply for readmission to the University. Further information is available 
in the Office of International Studies. 




Casa Axiom in Venice, Italy 



64 

Requirements for Degrees 

Degrees Offered 

The College offers undergraduate programs leading to the bachelor of arts and 
bachelor of science degrees. The bachelor of arts degree is conferred with a major 
in anthropology, art, chemistry, classical studies, economics, English, French, French- 
Spanish, German, Greek, history, Latin, music, philosophy, physics, politics, 
psychology, religion, sociology, Spanish, or speech communication and theatre arts. 
The bachelor of science degree is conferred with a major in biology, chemistry, com- 
puter science, health and sport science, mathematical economics, mathematics, or 
physics. The bachelor of arts degree is available with a major in intermediate educa- 
tion or education with a state teacher's certificate in social studies, and the bachelor 
of science degree is available with a major in education with a state teacher's certificate 
in science. The bachelor of science degree may be conferred in combined curricula 
in dentistry, engineering, forestry and environmental studies, medical sciences, 
medical technology, microbiology, and the physician assistant program. The School 
of Business and Accountancy offers undergraduate programs leading to the bachelor 
of science degree with a major in accountancy or business. (See page 191 of this 
bulletin.) 

A student who receives the bachelor of arts or bachelor of science degree may not 
thereafter receive the other of the two degrees. 



General Requirements 

Students in the College have considerable flexibility in planning their course of 
study. Except for two semesters of required health and sport science courses, only 
three specific courses are required, one in English composition and two in a foreign 
language. To complete preparation for more specialized work in a major field or fields, 
students select three courses in each of four divisions of the undergraduate curriculum: 
(1) literature and the arts; (2) the natural sciences and mathematics; (3) history, religion, 
and philosophy; and (4) the social and behavioral sciences. Normally the basic and 
divisional requirements are completed in the freshman and sophomore years and 
the requirements in the field or fields of the major are completed in the junior and 
senior years. 

All students must complete (1) the basic and divisional requirements (unless ac- 
cepted for the Open Curriculum), (2) a course of study approved by the department 
or departments of the major, and (3) elective courses for a total of 144 credits. No 
more than sixteen credits toward graduation may be earned from among all of the 
following courses: Education 353; all military science courses; Music 111-123 (ensem- 
ble courses); and elective 100-level courses in health and sport science. 

All students must earn a C average on all work attempted at all colleges and univer- 
sities. Of the 144 credits required for graduation, at least 72 must be completed in 
the undergraduate schools of Wake Forest University, including the work of the senior 
year (except for combined degree curricula). 



65 



A student has the privilege of graduating under the requirements of the bulletin 
of the year in which he or she enters, provided that course work is completed within 
six years of entrance. After six years, the student must fulfill the requirements for 
the class in which he or she graduates. 

Basic Requirements 

All students must complete three required basic courses (unless exempted through 
procedures established by the departments concerned): 

English 110 (composition) or 112 (composition and literature) 
Foreign language 153 (intermediate level) 
Foreign language (literature) 

French 213, 214, 216, 217, or the equivalent 

Spanish 215, 216, 217, 218, or the equivalent 

Italian 215, 216, or the equivalent 

German 215 or 216 

Russian (any literature course) 

G:eek 211 or 212 

Latin 211, 212, or 216 

Hebrew 211 

No credit is given for any language course below the one recommended by the 
department on the basis of the placement test unless the student is given permis- 
sion to earn such credit by the Language Placement Appeals Board. 




66 



Divisional Requirements 

All students must complete three courses in each of the four divisions of the 
undergraduate curriculum (unless exempted by completion of advanced placement 
requirements or by participation in the open curriculum): 

Division I. Literature and the Arts (three courses; no more than one course from 
any one of the four groups) 

1. English literature (English 160 or 165) 

2. American literature (English 170 or 175) 

3. Foreign literature (other than the one used for the basic requirement) 
Classical languages 

Greek 211, 212, 231, 241, or 242 

Latin 211, 212, 216, 221, 225, or 226 

Classics 253, 254, 263, 264, 265, or 272 
German 215 or 216 

Romance languages (French, Italian, or Spanish) literature 
Russian literature 
Humanities 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, or 218 

4. Fine Arts 

Art 103 or 111 

Music 101, 102, 181, or 182 

Theatre Arts 121 

Division II. The Natural Sciences and Mathematics (three courses, selected from two 
of the four groups) 

1. Biology 111, 112, 113, 114 (any one; if two, may be any two taken 
in any order) 

2. Chemistry 108, 111, 112 (unless advanced preparation indicates a 
higher course; if one course, 108 or 111; if two courses, 111, 112) 

3. Physics 101, 111, 112, 113, 114 (Physics 101 may not be paired with 
any other physics course) 

4. Mathematics 108, 109, 111, 112, 117, Computer Science 173 (any 
one; if two, the pair must include 108 or 111 but not both) 

Division III. History, Religion, and Philosophy (three courses; no more than one course 
from each group) 

1. History 101, 102, 103, or 104 

2. Religion (100-level course) 

3. Philosophy 111, 171, or 172 

Division IV. The Social and Behavioral Sciences (three courses, no more than one from 
any one department) 

1. Anthropology 151 or 152 

2. Economics 150 

3. Politics 113, 114, 115, or 116 

4. Psychology 151 

5. Sociology 151, 152, 153, or 154 



67 



Requirement in Health and Sport Science 

All students must complete Health and Sport Science 111 and one additional course 
selected from the 100-series of health and sport science courses. The requirement 
must be met before enrollment in additional health and sport science elective courses, 
and in any case before the end of the second year. 

Proficiency in the Use of English 

Proficiency in the use of the English language is recognized by the faculty as a re- 
quirement in all departments. A composition condition, indicated by cc with the grade 
for any course, may be assigned in any department to a student whose writing is 
unsatisfactory, regardless of previous credits in composition. The writing of transfer 
students is checked during the orientation period each term, and students whose 
writing is deficient are given a composition condition. For removal of a composition 
condition, the student is required to attempt English 11 during the first semester for 
which he or she registers following the assignment of the cc. Removal of the deficiency 
is prerequisite to graduation. 

Basic and Divisional Requirements 

The basic and divisional requirements are intended to introduce the student to 
various fields of knowledge and to lay the foundation for concentration in a major 
subject and related fields during the junior and senior years. For this reason, as many 
of the requirements as feasible should be taken in the freshman and sophomore years. 

No course requirements may be set aside or replaced by substitutes except through 
regular procedures already established by the faculty, or through a specific vote of 
the faculty in regular session. 

Declaring a Major 

To enter upon a major, a student should have earned at least sixty credits. The nor- 
mal time for reaching this point is the end of the second semester of the sophomore 
year. Thirty days before the end of the sophomore year, each student who will have 
acquired the requisite credits by the end of the semester or the end of the summer 
school is required to indicate to the registrar and to the department or departments 
concerned the selection of a major for concentration during the junior and senior 
years. Before this selection is recorded by the registrar, the student must present a 
written statement from the authorized representative of the department or depart- 
ments indicating that the student has been accepted as a candidate for the major 
in that department. An adviser is available to assist the student in planning a course 
of study for the junior and senior years. A department which rejects a student as 
a major must file with the dean of the College a written statement indicating the 
reason(s) for the rejection. 

If thirty days before the end of the sophomore year a student sees that he or she 



68 



will begin the fifth semester without attaining sixty credits, he or she should consult 
the registrar's office about the proper course to follow. 

A student wishing to major in business or in accountancy should make applica- 
tion to the School of Business and Accountancy. (See page 191 of this bulletin.) 

The undergraduate schools try to provide ample space in the various major fields 
to accommodate the interests of students. It must be understood, however, that the 
undergraduate schools cannot guarantee the availability of space in a given major 
field or a given course, since the preferences of students change and there are limits 
to both faculty and facilities. 

After the beginning of the junior year, a student may not change from one major 
to another without the approval of the departments concerned. The student's course 
of study for the junior and senior years includes the minimum requirements for the 
departmental major, with other courses selected by the student and approved by the 
adviser. 

At least half of the major must be completed at Wake Forest University. 

The following fields of study are recognized for the major: accountancy, 
anthropology, art, biology, business, chemistry, classical studies, computer science, 
economics, education, English, French, French-Spanish, German, Greek, health and 
sport science, history, Latin, mathematical economics, mathematics, music, 
philosophy, physics, politics, psychology, religion, sociology Spanish, and speech 
communication and theatre arts. Students preparing for the ministry are advised to 
elect three courses in religion beyond the course included in the divisional 
requirements. 

Maximum Number of Courses in a Department 

Within the College, a maximum of 48 credits in a single field of study is allowed 
within the 144 credits required for graduation. Fifty-six credits toward graduation are 
allowed in any department authorized to offer two fields of study or more, except 
for those double-majoring within the Department of Mathematics and Computer 
Science. 

These stipulations exclude required related courses from other departments. They 
further exclude, for students majoring in English, English 110 and 112; for students 
majoring in mathematics and minoring in computer science, Mathematics 111 and 
112; and, for students majoring in a foreign language, elementary courses in that 
language. These limits may be exceeded in unusual circumstances only by action of 
the dean of the College. 

Options for Meeting Major Requirements 

For purposes of satisfying graduation requirements, a student must select one, and 
only one, of the following options, which will receive official recognition on the 
student's permanent record: (1) a single major, (2) a joint major, (3) a single major 
and a minor, (4) a double major. In addition to the options above, a student may complete 
the requirements of a foreign area studies program. 



69 



Double Majors and Joint Majors 

A student may major in two departments in the College with the written permis- 
sion of the chairperson of each of the departments and on condition that the student 
meets all requirements for the major in both departments. For administrative purposes, 
the student must designate one of the two fields as the primary major, which appears 
first on the student's record. For purposes of the double major only, the Department 
of Mathematics and Computer Science is considered as two departments. 

A joint major consisting of fifty-six credits in two fields of study is available in 
classical studies, in mathematical economics, and in French-Spanish. 

Minors 

A minor is not required. Those students, however, who select a single major— not 
those working toward a double or joint major— may choose a minor field from among 
the following: anthropology, art, biology, chemistry, computer science, educational 
studies, professional education, English, French language and culture, French 
literature, German, Greek, health and sport science, history, Latin, mathematics, 
music, philosophy, physics, politics, psychology, religion, Russian, sociology, Spanish 
language and culture, Hispanic literature, and speech communication and theatre arts. 

For details of the various minors, see the appropriate departmental headings in 
the section of this bulletin that lists course offerings. 

Interdisciplinary Minors 

A Minor in Cultural Resource Preservation. The departments of anthropology, art, 
history, and sociology offer an interdisciplinary minor in cultural resource preserva- 
tion (CRP) which will give students preliminary training in the field of historic preser- 
vation and cultural resource management aimed at the protection and enhancement 
of archeological, historical, and architectural resources. 

The minor requires the following twenty credits: Anthropology 310, Museum Design 
and Operation; Anthropology 361, Conservation Archeology; Art 223, American Architec- 
ture; History 366, Studies in Historic Preservation; and Sociology 333, The Urban Com- 
munity. It is recommended but not required that students take some of the following 
courses: Anthropology 151, General Anthropology I: Archeology and Human Evolution 
(may count as a Division IV requirement); Sociology 151, Principles of Sociology (may 
count as a Division IV requirement); Anthropology 356, Old World Prehistory; 
Anthropology 359, Prehistory of North America; Art 294, Modern Architecture; Art 393, 
Practicum; Anthropology 261, Museum Practicum; and History 398, Individual Study. 
Students should consult the adviser for the minor in CRP before declaring such a 
minor. Students are strongly advised to declare their intention to minor in cultural 
resource preservation during the first semester of their junior year. Successful com- 
pletion of the minor in cultural resource preservation will be noted on the student's 
transcript. 

A Minor in International Studies. The minor in international studies consists of a total 



70 



of twenty credits. Candidates for the minor are required to take Politics 116, Interna- 
tional Politics, and one of the following: Economics 251, International Trade; Economics 
252, International Finance; Economics 253, Economics of Communism; Economics 254, 
Capitalism and Planning; or Politics 253, The Politics of International Economic Relations. 
In addition, students must take twelve other credits in international studies from an 
approved list on file in the Office of International Studies. No more than eight of 
the twenty credits for the minor may be taken in a single department. Study of a 
foreign language beyond the basic requirement is strongly recommended. Formal 
advising of minors is not required but the director of international studies is respon- 
sible for certifying the successful completion of requirements for the minor. For more 
information, contact the director of international studies. 

A Minor in Women's Studies. The interdisciplinary minor in women's studies requires 
a core course (Humanities 121) and five other courses. At least two of the five courses 
must be in the humanities and two must be in the social sciences, and the courses 
must be distributed among at least three departments, for a total of twenty-four credits. 
It is recommended that one of these courses be the upper division seminar, 
Humanities 321. This structure gives students an understanding of the interdisciplinary 
nature of women's studies within the context of the traditional liberal arts curriculum. 
A student minoring in women's studies might take Humanities 121 as a sophomore, 
one humanities and one social science course as a junior, and Humanities 321, another 
humanities course, and another social science course as a senior. 

The following courses may be included in the minor: 

Humanities: Art 251, Women and Art; Classics 252, Women in Antiquity; English 
340, Women and Literature; English 376, American Poetry from 1855 to 1900; History 
365, Women in American History; Music 208, Women and Music; Religion 334B, 
Feminist Theology; Speech Communication and Theatre Arts 357, The Rhetoric of 
the Women's Rights Movement. 

Social Sciences: Psychology 265, Human Sexuality; Psychology 270L, Sex Stereotypes 
and Roles; Psychology 358, Psychology of Women; Sociology 153, Marriage and the 
Family; Sociology 305, Male and Female Roles in Society; Sociology 309, Sex and Human 
Relationships; Sociology 311, Women in Professions. 

Students intending to minor in women's studies should consult the adviser 
appointed from one of the participating departments and listed with the registrar. 
Students are strongly urged to consult the adviser during the sophomore year. 
Successful completion of the minor in women's studies will be noted on the student's 
transcript. 



Foreign Area Studies 

The foreign area studies programs enable students to choose an interdisciplinary 
concentration in the language and culture of a foreign area. An area studies concen- 
tration may include courses in the major and also in the minor field, if a minor is 
chosen. Foreign area studies do not replace majors or minors; they may supplement 



71 



either or both. A faculty adviser coordinates each foreign area studies program and 
advises interested students. Further questions may be directed to Richard Sears, 
director of international studies. These programs are currently available: 

East European Studies. Coordinator, Carl Moses (politics) 

Russian 215 or 216 is required, plus twenty-four credits from the following: 

four additional credits in Russian at the 200 level, History 331, History 332, Politics 

232, Economics 253, Anthropology 371, Humanities 215, Humanities 218, and 

relevant seminars, colloquia, or independent studies in any of the departments 

above. 

German Studies. Coordinator, Donald Schoonmaker (politics) 
Twelve or thirteen credits from German 153, 211, 212, 217, or 220 are required. 
In addition, the student should take four courses from the following groups, at 
least one from each group: (1) History 320 and History/German 231; (2) Politics 
233 and 273; (3) Philosophy 241 and 242. Appropriate credit in the above areas 
could be obtained by study in Germany. 

Italian Studies. Coordinator, Bianca Artom (Romance languages) 
Italian through the 215 level is required, plus three courses from the following 
groups, at least one each from 2 and 3. (1) Literature: Italian 216, Classics 251, 
Classics 272, and Religion 277; (2) Fine Arts: Art 245, 267, 268, 296C, and 2693; 
and Music 181, 201, 206, 220, and 221; (3) History and the Social Sciences: Classics 
271; History 221, 222, 223, and 398. A semester in Venice or another approved 
course of study in Italy is also required. 

Latin American Studies. Coordinator, Margaret Snook (Romance languages) 
History 272, Politics 236, and Spanish 218 and 223 are required, plus twelve credits 
from the following: Anthropology 305, Anthropology 342, Economics 252, Politics 
235, Spanish 219, 221, and 229. Students are asked to take either Spanish 230, 
264, 265, or 266 to fulfill the foreign literature requirement in Division I and are 
strongly urged to spend a semester studying in Latin America. 

Spanish Studies. Coordinator, Kathleen Glenn (Romance languages) 
History 2019, Sociology 2029, Spanish 217, and Spanish 224 are required, plus 
twelve credits from the advanced courses in Spanish language and literature of- 
fered by the Department of Romance Languages or from the courses offered at 
the University of Salamanca. Students are required to participate in the semester 
in Spain program at Salamanca and are strongly urged to live at the Spanish House 
for at least one semester. 

Senior Testing 

All seniors are required to participate in a testing program designed to provide ob- 
jective evidence of educational development and employing measures of academic 
achievement such as selected portions of the Graduate Record Examination and other 
tests deemed appropriate by the Committee on Academic Affairs. The tests are 
administered during the spring semester, and relevant results are made available to 



72 



the student for his or her information. The primary purpose of the program is to 
provide the University with information for assessing the total educational process. 
The program does not supplant the regular administration of the Graduate Record 
Examination for students applying for admission to graduate school. 

Combined Degrees in the School of Law 

A combined course makes it possible for the student to receive the two degrees 
of bachelor of arts and juris doctor in six academic years or their equivalent, instead 
of the usual seven years. The first three years of the combined course are in the College 
and the last three are in the School of Law. 

A student pursuing this plan must (1) complete the basic and divisional course 
requirements and become qualified for admission to the upper division; (2) initiate 
an application for admission to the School of Law and secure through the law school 
adviser, who is a member of the law faculty, permission to pursue the combined course 
plan; (3) perform the junior year of study in the College under the supervision of 
a departmental academic adviser and the law school adviser; and (4) complete at 
least 110 credits in the College with a minimum average of C and the first full year 
of law in the School of Law with an average sufficient to remain in the School of 
Law. (Admission to the School of Law is based on the applicant's entire undergraduate 
record, Law School Admission Test scores, and other criteria, and permission to pursue 
the combined degree program does not constitute admission to the School of Law.) 

The last year of required college academic work must be taken in the College. A 
student who transfers from another college or university at the end of the first or 
second year must maintain a minimum average of C on all academic work under- 
taken in the College. 

A student who completes the program successfully is eligible to receive the bachelor 
of arts degree at the end of the first full year in the School of Law; the juris doctor 
degree is awarded to the student who, having received the bachelor of arts degree, 
also fulfills requirements for the juris doctor degree. The quantitative and qualitative 
academic requirements set forth here are minimum requirements for the successful 
completion of the combined degree program; satisfying the requirements of the three- 
year program in the College does not necessarily entitle an applicant to admission 
to the School of Law. 

Combined Degrees in Medical Sciences 

A limited number of students may receive a bachelor of science degree with a major 
in medical sciences. 

Under this plan, the student fulfills the requirements for the degree by completing 
three years of work in the College with a minimum average grade of C and by satisfac- 
torily completing the first full year of medicine (at least thirty semester hours) as outlin- 
ed by the faculty of the Bowman Gray School of Medicine, with a record entitling 
promotion to the second-year class. (Under current scheduling, successful candidates 
receive the baccalaureate degree in August rather than in May.) At least one year (thirty- 



73 



six credits) of the required academic work must be completed in the College. 

Before entering the Bowman Gray School of Medicine, candidates for the bachelor 
of science degree with a major in medical sciences must complete the basic course 
requirements; the divisional course requirements in Divisions I, III, and IV; the health 
and sport science requirement; Biology 111, 112, 113, 114 (any two courses); Biology 
312, 320, 321, 326, 351, 360, 371 (any two courses); Chemistry 111 and 112; Chemistry 
221 and 222; Physics 113 and 114; mathematics (one course); and electives for a total 
of 108 credits. 

The completion of the prescribed academic subjects does not necessarily entitle 
an applicant to admission to the Bowman Gray School of Medicine. (All other fac- 
tors being equal, applicants who have done all their work in the College are given 
preference.) 

Combined Degrees in Medical Technology 

Students may qualify for the bachelor of science degree in medical technology by 
completion of the academic requirements outlined in the following paragraph and 
by satisfactory completion of the full program in medical technology offered by the 
Division of Allied Health Programs of the Bowman Gray School of Medicine. A grade 
of at least C is required in all courses taken in the program in medical technology. 
At least one year (thirty-six credits) of the required academic work must be completed 
in the College. (Under current scheduling, successful candidates receive the bac- 
calaureate degree in August rather than in May.) 

Students seeking admission to the program must file application in the fall of the 
junior year with the Division of Allied Health Programs of the medical school. Selec- 
tion is based upon recommendations of teachers, college academic record, Allied 
Health Professions Admissions Test score, impressions made in personal interviews, 
and work experience (not essential, but important). Students must complete the basic 
course requirements; the divisional course requirements in Divisions I, III, and IV; 
the health and sport science requirement; Biology 111, 112, 113, 114 (three courses 
or equivalents); Biology 326; Chemistry 111, 112, 221, and 222; mathematics (one 
course); and electives for a total of 108 credits. Desirable electives outside the area 
of chemistry and biology include physics, data processing, and personnel and manage- 
ment courses. (Interested students should consult a biology department faculty 
member during the freshman year for further information.) 

Degrees in the Physician Assistant Program 

Students may qualify for the bachelor of science degree in the physican assistant 
program by completion of three years (108 credits) in the College with a minimum 
average grade of C, and by satisfactory completion of the full twenty-four-month course 
in the physician assistant program offered by the Division of Allied Health Programs 
of the Bowman Gray School of Medicine. At least one year (thirty-six credits) of the 
required academic work must be completed in the College. Candidates for the degree 
must complete the basic course requirements, the divisional course requirements, 



74 



the health and sport science requirement, and at least four courses in biology 
(including one course in microbiology). At least four courses in the social sciences 
(including sociology, psychology, and economics), a course in statistics, and three 
or four courses in chemistry are recommended. Applicants to the program must have 
a minimum of six months of clinical experience in patient care services. (Interested 
students should consult a biology department faculty member during the freshman 
year for further information.) 

Degrees in Microbiology 

Students may qualify for the bachelor of science degree in microbiology by com- 
pletion of three years (112 credits) in the College with a minimum average grade of 
C, and by satisfactory completion of a thirty-two hour major in microbiology in the 
Bowman Gray School of Medicine. At least one year (thirty-six credits) of the required 
academic work must be completed in the College. Candidates for the degree must 
complete the basic course requirements, the divisional course requirements, and the 
health and sport science requirement; Microbiology 302, 304 (or Biology 462), and 
Biology 371. Additional courses to complete the major will be selected from 
Microbiology 402, 403, 404, 405, 408, 410, 411, 413, 414, 432, 433, 434, Biology 321, 360, 
372, 373, 380, and 391, 392. Required related courses are two courses in physics and 
at least two courses in organic chemistry. Additional chemistry and mathematics 
courses may be suggested by the major adviser for students progressing toward 
advanced work in microbiology. The student should consult the microbiology adviser 
during the sophomore year to establish a program of study. Work on the major must 
begin no later than the fall semester of the junior year. 

Degrees in Dentistry 

A student may fulfill the requirements for the bachelor of science degree with a 
major in dentistry by completing three years of work in the College with a minimum 
average grade of C, and by satisfactorily completing the first two years of work in 
one of certain approved dental schools designated by the University, with a record 
entitling advancement to the third-year class. 

For this degree, the requirements in the College are the same as those for the degree 
with a major in medical sciences. 

Degrees in Engineering 

The College cooperates with North Carolina State University and other engineer- 
ing schools in offering a broad course of study in the arts and sciences combined 
with specialized training in engineering. A program for outstanding students covers 
five years of study, including three years in the College and approximately two years 
in one of the schools of engineering. (Depending upon the field chosen, it may be 
advisable for a student to attend the summer session in the engineering school after 
transfer.) Admission to Wake Forest does not guarantee admission to the engineer- 
ing school. Those decisions are based on the student's transcript, performance, and 



75 



status at the time of application. Upon successful completion of the five years of study, 
the student receives the bachelor of science degree from the University and the 
bachelor of science degree in one of the specialized engineering fields from the 
engineering school. 

The curriculum for the first three years must include the basic and divisional 
requirements. Suggested courses for the freshman year are English 110 and 160 (or 
a foreign literature); foreign language courses 211, 215, or 216; Mathematics 111, 112; 
Physics 113, 114; and Health and Sport Science 111, 112. Suggested courses for the 
sophomore year are English 170 (or a foreign literature); Philosophy 111; Mathematics 
113 or 251; Physics 141, 161, and 162; and Chemistry 111, 112. Suggested courses for 
the junior year are a history course, a religion course, Mathematics 311, and Economics 
150. 

This rigorous curriculum demands special aptitude in science and mathematics. 
Electives are chosen in consultation with the chairman of the Department of Physics. 



Degrees in Forestry and Environmental Studies 

The College cooperates with the Duke University School of Forestry and 
Environmental Studies to offer students interested in these areas the possibility of 
earning both bachelor's and master's degrees within five years. For details about the 
program, students should consult a faculty member in the biology department. 

. . HP 




76 

Courses of Instruction 



Plans of study, course descriptions, and the identification of instructors apply to the academic 
year 1987-88, unless otherwise noted, and reflect official faculty action through March 16, 1988. 

The University reserves the right to change programs of study, academic requirements, 
assignment of lecturers, or the announced calendar. 

Odd-numbered courses are normally taught in the fall, even-numbered in the 
spring. Exceptions are noted after course descriptions. Number of credits is shown 
by numerals immediately after the course title— for example, (3) or (3,3). The symbols 
P— and C— followed by course numbers or titles are used to show prerequisites and 
corequisites for a course. 

Courses 101-199 are primarily for freshmen and sophomores; courses 200-299 are 
primarily for juniors and seniors; courses 301-399 are for advanced undergraduates 
and graduate students. (Other graduate courses are described in the Bulletin of the 
Graduate School; a complete listing of summer courses is in the Bulletin of the 
Summer Session.) 



Anthropology 

David S. Weaver, Chairman 

Professors E. Pendleton Banks, David K. Evans, 

Stanton K. Tefft, J. Ned Woodall 

Associate Professor David S. Weaver 

Director/Curator, Museum of Anthropology/Instructor, Mary Jane Berman 

Adjunct Associate Professor Jay R. Kaplan 

Research Associate/Instructor Ben P. Robertson 

Research Associates Lawrence E. Abbott, Perry L. Gnivecki 

A major in anthropology requires a minimum of thirty-six credits and must include 
Anthropology 151, 152, 340, 388, and either 356 or 359. 

Students are encouraged but not required to enroll in a course offering intensive 
field research training. However, only four credits from Anthropology 381, 382 and 
four credits from Anthropology 383, 384 may be used to meet major requirements. 
Additional courses are counted within the limits specified for a single field of study. 

A minimum grade-point average of 2.0 in anthropology courses is required at the 
time the major is declared. A minimum grade-point average of 2.0 in all anthropology 
courses is required for graduation. 

A minor in anthropology requires twenty-four credits and must include 
Anthropology 151, 152, and 340. Minors will not receive credit for Anthropology 388, 
398, or 399. Only four credits from Anthropology 345, 381, 382, 383, and 384 may 
be used to meet minor requirements and departmental permission must be obtained 
for minor credit in these courses. 

To be graduated with the designation "Honors in Anthropology," highly qualified 
majors should apply to the department for admission to the honors program. They 



77 



must complete a senior research project, document their research, and satisfactorily 
defend their work in an oral examination. For additional information, members of 
the departmental faculty should be consulted. 

151. General Anthropology I: Archeology and Human Evolution. (4) Origin and 
evolution of man with a focus on human biological and sociocultural change during 
the Plio-Pleistocene. 

152. General Anthropology II: Cultural Anthropology. (4) A cross-cultural analysis 
of human institutions with a survey of major theories explaining cultural variety and 
human nature. 

261. Museum Practicum. (3) Designed to give the student practical experience while 
working at the Museum of Anthropology in six basic areas of museum operation: 
administration, research, curatorial duties, conservation, exhibition design, and educa- 
tion. P— Permission of instructor. 

310. Museum Design and Operation. (4) The principles of museum design and opera- 
tion through lectures, readings, workshops with visiting experts in the field, and field 
trips to neighboring museums (possibly to Washington, DC). Students have an 
opportunity to put some of the principles in practice by planning and designing 
exhibits in the Museum of Anthropology. P— Permission of instructor. 

321. The Anthropology of Art. (4) The arts (primarily visual) in folk and tribal cultures 
from comparative, structural, and functional points of view. P— Permission of 
instructor. 

331. The Ethnographic Documentary. (4) Through the use of ethnographic documen- 
tary films and videos from different historical periods and by filmmakers from different 
cultural backgrounds, this course will present a historical and cross-cultural perspective 
on cultural systems. The course will analyze the technological and aesthetic aspects 
of film and video production and assess the effectiveness of visual communication 
in conveying ideas about culture and society. P— Anthropology 151 or Anthropology 
152 or permission of instructor. 

340. Images of Man: Perspectives on Anthropological Thought. (4) A study and 
evaluation of the major anthropological theories of man and society, including cultural 
evolutionism, historical particularism, functionalism, structuralism, cultural ecology, 
and cultural materialism. The relevance and significance of these theories to modern 
anthropology are discussed. P— Anthropology 151 and Anthropology 152, and 
sophomore or junior standing, or permission of instructor. 

344. Medical Anthropology. (4) The impact of Western medical practices and theory 
on non-Western cultures and anthropological contributions to the solving of world 
health problems. P— Anthropology 151 or permission of instructor. 

345. Mountain Folklore in North Carolina. (4) The role folklore plays in all human 
cultures in general and in the culture of the mountain people of Western North 



78 



Carolina in particular. Field trips to mountain counties conducted. P— Permission of 
instructor. 

351. Physical Anthropology. (4) Introduction to biological anthropology, human 
biology, evolution, and variability. P— Anthropology 151. 

353. Peoples and Cultures of Africa. (4) The ethnology and prehistory of Africa south 
of the Sahara. P— Anthropology 151 or Anthropology 152. 

354. Primitive Religion. (4) The world-view and values of non-literate cultures as 
expressed in myths, rituals, and symbols. P— Anthropology 151 or Anthropology 152. 

356. Old World Prehistory. (4) Survey of Old World prehistory, with particular atten- 
tion to geological and climatological events affecting culture change. P— Anthropology 
151 or permission of instructor. 

357. Archeology of Early Complex Societies. (4) Comparison of the archeology of 
early complex societies, with special attention to the Maya, Aztec, and Teotihuacan 
cultures in Mesoamerica; the Huari and Inca in South America; the Anasazi of North 
America; and Egyptian and Mesopotamian groups of the Old World. An emphasis 
will be given to theories of origins and change in complex societies. P— Anthropology 
151 or permission of instructor. 

358. The American Indian. (4) Ethnology and prehistory of the American Indian. 
P— Anthropology 151 or Anthropology 152. 

359. Prehistory of North America. (4) The development of culture in North America 
as outlined by archeological research, with an emphasis on paleoecology and 
sociocultural processes. P— Anthropology 151 or permission of instructor. 

360. Archeology of the Southeastern United States. (4) A study of human adapta- 
tion in the Southeast from Pleistocene to the present, emphasizing the role of 
ecological factors in determining the formal aspects of culture. P— Anthropology 151. 

361. Conservation Archeology. (4) A study of the laws, regulations, policies, programs, 
and political processes used to conserve prehistoric and historic cultural resources. 
P— Anthropology 151 and Anthropology 359 or permission of instructor. 

362. Human Ecology. (4) The relations between the human being and the inorganic 
and organic environments as mediated by culture; laboratory experience with aerial 
photography and other remote sensing techniques. P— Anthropology 151 or 
Anthropology 152 or permission of instructor. 

363. Peoples and Cultures of China. (4) A survey of the Han and non-Han (Mongolian, 
Tibetan, Shan, Mia, etc.) peoples of China and their traditional cultures drawing on 
ethnographic and village studies. P— Permission of instructor. 

364. Human Osteology. (4) A survey of human skeletal anatomy and analysis, 
emphasizing archeological and anthropological applications. P— Anthropology 151 
and permission of instructor. 



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366. Human and Non-Human Evolution. (4) Investigation of primate and human 
evolution, both in anatomy and in behavior. P— Anthropology 151 and permission 
of instructor. 

371. European Peasant Communities. (4) Lectures, reading, and discussion on selected 
communities and their sociocultural contexts, including folklore, folk art, and processes 
of culture change. P— Anthropology 151 or Anthropology 152 or permission of 
instructor. 

380. Anthropological Statistics. (4) Basic statistics, emphasizing application in 
anthropological research. (A student who receives credit for this course may not also 
receive credit for Biology 348, Business 201, Mathematics 109, or Sociology 380.) 

381, 382. Archeological Research. (4,4) The recovery of anthropological data through 
the use of archeology, taught in the excavation and interpretation of a prehistoric site. 
P— Anthropology 151. 

383, 384. Field Research in Cultural Anthropology. (4,4) Training in techniques for 
the study of foreign cultures, carried out in the field. P— Anthropology 151 or 
Anthropology 152. 

385, 386. Special Problems Seminar. (4) Intensive investigation of current scientific 
research within the discipline. The course concentrates on problems of contemporary 
interest. P— Permission of instructor. 

388. Senior Seminar. (4) A review of the contemporary problems in the fields of 
archeology and physical and cultural anthropology. P— Senior standing or permis- 
sion of instructor. 

398, 399. Individual Study. (1,2,3, or 4) A reading, research, or internship course 
designed to meet the needs and interests of selected students, to be carried out under 
the supervision of a departmental faculty member. 



Art 

Paul H. D. Kaplan, Acting Chairman 

Professors Terisio Pignatti (Venice), Margaret S. Smith 

Associate Professors Paul H. D. Kaplan, Robert Knott 

Assistant Professors David Faber, Harry B. Titus Jr. 

Visiting Assistant Professors Sarah Ferguson, 

Page H. Laughlin, Norman Tuck 

Lecturers Brian Allen (London), David Bindman, Martine L. Sherill 

Gallery Director and Lecturer Victor Faccinto 

Adjunct Assistant Professor Mary Ellen Carr Soles 

The department offers courses in the history of art and in the practice of drawing, 
painting, printmaking, sculpture, and photography The program is designed to 



introduce students to the visual arts within the context of liberal arts study. The courses 
are intended to increase the student's understanding of the meaning and purpose 
of the arts, their historical developments, their role in society, and their relationship 
to other humanistic disciplines. Work in both classroom and studio is designed to 
intensify the student's visual perception and to develop a facility in a variety of 
technical processes. A visiting artist program and varied exhibitions in the gallery 
of the Scales Fine Arts Center as well as internships in local cultural organizations 
supplement the regular academic program of the department. 

The major in art requires forty credits. For an art history major, eight courses are 
to be in art history and two in studio art. For a studio art major, eight courses are 
to be in studio art and two in art history. 

A minor in art requires five courses, including at least one course in art history 
and one course in studio art. 

Any student interested in majoring or minoring in art should consult the chair of 
the art department. 

Qualified students in both the art history and studio areas may ask to participate 
in the department's honors program. To be graduated with the designation "Honors 
in Art," students must execute a written project or create a body of work; the results 
of their efforts must be presented and defended before a committee of the depart- 
mental faculty. Interested students should consult any member of the department 
for additional information concerning the requirements for this program. 

Art History 

103. Introduction to the Visual Arts. (4) A historical introduction to the arts of various 
cultures and times with discussions of technique, style, methodology, and terms. 
Satisfies the Division I requirement. 

223. Idea and Form in Indian Art. (4) An examination of Indian ideas on the sacred 
and profane as revealed in architectural and sculptural forms in Hindu, Buddhist, 
and Muslim art in India. 

228. Egyptian Art. (4) The art and architecture of ancient Egypt from the pre-dynastic 
period through Roman Egypt. 

230. African Art. (4) The traditional arts of Africa south of the Sahara. 

233. American Architecture. (4) A survey of American architecture from 1650 to the 
present. 

235. Art and Architecture of the South. (4) A survey of architecture, painting, and 
sculpture in the South from 1600 to the present. 

241. Ancient Art. (4) A survey of architecture, painting, and sculpture from the 
prehistoric through the late Roman periods. 

244. Greek Art. (3) A survey of architecture, painting, and sculpture from the 
prehistoric through the Hellenistic periods. 



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245. Roman Art. (4) A survey of Etruscan and Roman architecture, painting, and 
sculpture. 

246. Greek and Roman Architecture. (4) A survey of classical architecture, from the 
Archaic Greek through the late Roman period. 

250. Twentieth Century American Art and Literature. (4) An exploration of the ideas, 
values, and feelings found in the art and literature of twentieth century figures such 
as Kandinsky, Stevens, Picasso, and Kafka. 

251. Women and Art. (4) A historical examination of the changing image of women 
in art and the role of women artists. 

252. Romanesque Art. (4) Art and architecture from the Carolingian Renaissance 
through the twelfth century. 

253. The Gothic Cathedral. (4) The character and evolution of Gothic cathedrals and 
the sculpture, stained glass, metal works, and paintings designed for them. 

254. Romanesque Sculpture. (4) An examination of the re-emergence and develop- 
ment of sculpture in Western Europe during the period 1000-1150. 

255. Patronage in Medieval Art. (4) This course examines medieval art from the point 
of view of those who paid for it, from Constantine to the Due de Berry. Emphasis 
will be placed on the impact of patronage on both the form and content of art and 
architecture from the fourth to the fifteenth centuries. 

256. History of Books and Printing. (2-4) An examination of the development of the 
book from the invention of printing to the present. 

257. Printing on the Hand Press. (4) A study of the history of printing and books 
combined with the practical experience of learning the art and craft of printing. The 
objectives of the course are to provide a basis for the appreciation of fine printing 
and to allow the student an opportunity to learn the techniques of hand printing. 
P— Permission of instructor. 

266. Art in the Age of Discovery. (4) An exploration of the visual imagery which 
recorded the expansion of Western civilization, and the active role which art played 
in that expansion, from Marco Polo and Giotto to Captain Cook and Tiepolo 
(c. 1300-c. 1775). 

267. Early Italian Renaissance Art. (4) An introduction to the painting, sculpture, 
and architecture of Italy from 1250 to 1500, with a concentration on the arts in fifteenth 
century Florence. 

268. Italian High Renaissance and Mannerist Art. (4) A study of the arts in sixteenth 
century Italy, with emphasis on the achievements of Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, 
Michelangelo, Giorgione, and Titian, and the dissolution of Renaissance idealism in 
the art of the early Mannerists. 



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270. Northern Renaissance Art. (4) A survey of painting, sculpture, graphic art, and 
patronage in Northern European art from 1300 to the death of Diirer in 1528. 

271. Studies in French Art. (2) Lectures and field trips in French painting, sculpture, 
and architecture, concentrating on the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Offered 
in Dijon. 

272. Baroque Art. (4) A survey of European painting and sculpture from 1600 to 1700. 

275. History of Landscape Architecture. (4) Study of garden design, beginning with 
Roman gardens and continuing through the creation of public parks in the nineteenth 
century. 

281. Modern Art to 1900. (4) A survey of European painting and sculpture from 1700 
to 1900, emphasizing the nineteenth century. 

282. Modern Art after 1900. (4) A survey of European and American painting and 
sculpture from 1900 to the present. 

283. Impressionism. (4) A detailed study of the French Impressionist painters, with 
some consideration of Impressionism in other forms. 

284. Contemporary American Art. (4) An intensive study of American painting and 
sculpture from 1950 to the present. 

286. Studies in Twentieth Century Art: Myth in Modern Art. (3) An analysis of tradi- 
tional Western and non-Western myths as expressed and interpreted by twentieth 
century artists. 

288. Modern Architecture. (4) A survey of European and American architecture from 
1900 to the present. 

291. Individual Study. (4) A course of independent study with faculty guidance. 

292. Individual Study. (4) A course of independent study with faculty guidance. 

293. Practicum. (4) Internships in local cultural organizations, to be arranged by the 
art department. Pass/Fail. 

296. Art History Seminar. (4) Offered by members of the faculty or visiting faculty 
on topics of their choice. A paper is required. P— Permission of instructor. 

a. Ancient Art f. Contemporary Art 

b. Medieval Art g. American Art 

c. Renaissance Art h. Modern Architecture 

d. Baroque Art i. American Architecture 

e. Modern Art 

297. Seminar: Art and Politics. (4) In-depth examinations of works of art from the 
medieval period to the Russian Revolution, selected for their significant political 
content. 



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2320. English Art, Hogarth to the Present. (4) A survey of English painting, sculpture, 
and architecture in the Georgian, Victorian, and modern periods. Slide lectures, stu- 
dent reports, museum visits, and lectures. Taught by special lecturer. Offered in London. 

2693. Venetian Renaissance Art. (4) A survey of the art of the Venetian Renaissance, 
with slide lectures and museum visits. Offered in Venice. 

Anthropology 321. The Anthropology of Art. (4) The arts (primarily visual) in folk 
and tribal cultures from comparative, structural, and functional points of view. P— 
Permission of instructor. 

Studio Art* 

111. Introduction to Drawing and Design. (4) An introduction to the basic elements 
of two-dimensional and three-dimensional design, to include drawing, painting, and 
sculpture. Six class hours per week. Satisfies the Division I requirement. 

112. Introduction to Painting. An introduction to painting fundamentals in a variety 
of contemporary styles in the oil or acrylic media. P— Art 111. 

115. Introduction to Sculpture. (4) An introduction to basic sculptural styles and multi- 
media, with emphasis on contemporary concepts. P— Art 111. 

117. Introduction to Printmaking. (4) An introduction to one or more of the follow- 
ing areas of printmaking: lithography, intaglio, and silkscreen. P— Art 111. 

119. Introduction to Photography. (4) An introduction to photography as an expressive 
medium, including basic camera and darkroom techniques. Preference to art majors. 
Not open to students who have had Sociology 205. P— Art 111. 

211. Intermediate Drawing. (4) Continuation of Art 111, with concentrated emphasis 
on drawing fundamentals and idea development in realistic and abstract styles, 
emphasizing composition, value, line, and form. Six class hours per week. P— Art 111. 

212. Intermediate Painting. (4) Continuation of Art 112, with concentrated emphasis 
on idea development. P— Art 112. May be repeated. 

215. Intermediate Sculpture. (4) Continuation of Art 115, with emphasis on idea 
development. P— Art 115. May be repeated. 

217. Intermediate Printmaking. (4) Continuation of Art 117, with emphasis on idea 
development. P— Art 117. May be repeated. 

218. Figure Drawing. (4) An introduction to figure drawing. P— Art 111. 

221. Advanced Drawing. (4) A course of individual study with faculty guidance. May 
be repeated. P— Art 211. 



'Prerequisites may be waived with permission of instructor 



84 



222. Advanced Painting. (4) A course of individual study with faculty guidance. May 
be repeated. P— Art 212. 

225. Advanced Sculpture. (4) A course of individual study with faculty guidance. 
May be repeated. P— Art 215. 

226. Kinetic Sculpture. (4) A studio course in which students develop original projects 
involving light, sound or movement. Course includes a review of the history of kinetic 
sculpture and the development of the participatory science exhibit. P— Art 111 or per- 
mission of instructor. 

227. Advanced Printmaking. (4) A course of individual study with faculty guidance. 
May be repeated. P— Art 217. 

295. Studio Seminar. (2,4) Offered by members of the faculty or visiting faculty on 
topics of their choice and related studio activities. P— Permission of instructor. 



Asian Studies 

Balkrishna Govind Gokhale, Director 

The Asian Studies program, established in 1960 with financial assistance from the 
Mary Reynolds Babcock Foundation, is interdisciplinary and involves the coopera- 
tion and resources of several departments in the humanities and social sciences. Its 
objectives are to broaden the traditional curriculum with the infusion of a systematic 
knowledge and understanding of the culture of Asia. 

Art 221. Idea and Form in Indian Art. (4) An examination of Indian ideas on the 
sacred and profane as revealed in architectural and sculptural forms in Hindu, 
Buddhist, and Muslim art in India. 

Chinese 111, 112. Elementary Chinese. (4,4) Emphasis on the development of listen- 
ing and speaking skills in Mandarin. Brief introduction to the writing system and 
to basic sentence patterns. Lab— one hour. 

History 339. India in the English Mind. (4) An exploration of the changing images 
of India, its people, and culture as reflected in English literature, especially Kipling, 
Forster, Kaye, and Paul Scott. The three major themes will be confrontation, 
accommodation, and nostalgia. 

History 342. The Middle East from Suleiman the Magnificent to the Present. (4) 

Major subjects covered are the rise and fall of the Ottoman Empire, the Arabs and 
Persians under Ottoman hegemony, the rise of Arab nationalism, and the emergence 
of the modern Arab states and their roles in the post-World War II era. 

History 343. Imperial China. (4) Development of traditional institutions in Chinese 
society to 1644; attention to social, cultural, and political factors, emphasizing 
continuity and resistance to change. 



85 



History 344. Modern China. (4) The Manchu Dynasty and its response to the Western 
challenge, the 1911 Revolution, the warlord era and the rise of the Communists, 
Chinese Communist society, and the Cultural Revolution. 

History 345, 346. History and Civilization of South Asia. (4, 4) An introduction to 
the history and civilization of South Asia, with emphasis on historical developments 
in the social, economic, and cultural life of the area. 

History 348. Modern Japan. (4) Tokugawa era; Meiji Restoration; industrialization 
and urbanization; relations with the West; World War II; occupation; Japan in the 
contemporary world. 

History 349, 350. East Asia. (4,4) An introduction to the social, cultural, and political 
development of China, Japan, and Korea. 349: to 1600; 350: since 1600. 

Politics 234. Government and Politics of East Asia. (4) An analysis of the political 
institutions and processes in China and Japan, with emphasis on the problems of 
modernization. 

Politics 245. Government and Politics of South Asia. (4) A study of the governments 
of India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Ceylon; emphasis on political organizations, party struc- 
tures, and sub-national governmental systems. 

Religion 360. Hinduism. (4) A study of the fundamental features of the Hindu 
tradition. 

Religion 361. Buddhism. (4) A study of the Buddhist tradition, its fundamental 
features, and its impact on the cultures of Asia. 

Religion 364. Islam. (4) A study of the fundamental concepts of Islamic thought and 
the historical context of its development. Both ancient and contemporary impact of 
the teachings of Islam are considered. 




Museum of Anthropology 



86 



Biology 

Ronald V. Dimock Jr., Chairman 

Professors Charles M. Allen, Ralph D. Amen, Ronald V. Dimock Jr., 

Gerald W. Esch, Mordecai J. Jaffe, Raymond E. Kuhn, 

Peter D. Weigl, Raymond L. Wyatt 

Associate Professors Nina Stromgren Allen, Carole L. Browne, 

Robert A. Browne, William E. Conner, Herman E. Eure 

Hugo C. Lane, A. Thomas Olive 

Assistant Professors Wayne L. Silver, William A. Thomas 

Adjunct Professors J. Whitfield Gibbons, Harold O. Goodman, 

Stephen H. Richardson 

Adjunct Assistant Professor Margaret Mulvey 

At the end of the sophomore year, a student electing to major in biology meets 
with a major adviser to plan the course of study for the junior and senior years. The 
requirements for completion of the major are those in effect at the time of the 
conference, since the curriculum and departmental requirements may change slightly 
during the student's period of residence. All majors are required to take Biology 112, 
113, 114, in any order, plus at least three 300-level 5-credit courses. Co-major 
requirements are Chemistry 111 and 112 and two additional courses in the physical 
sciences. 

For students declaring majors in the spring, the requirement for a major is a 
minimum of forty-one credits in biology. A minimum grade average of C on all courses 
attempted in biology at Wake Forest University is required for graduation with a major 
in biology. (Students declaring a major later than the spring should consult with a 
biology major adviser for the specific major requirement at that time.) 

A minor in biology requires twenty credits. Courses taken Pass/Fail cannot count 
toward a minor. A minimum overall grade average of C must be earned on all Wake 
Forest University biology courses taken to complete a minor. 

Prospective majors are strongly urged to select their first course in biology from 
among Biology 112, 113 and 114 (any order). Most prospective majors also should 
take Chemistry 111-112 as freshmen; the majority continue with Chemistry 221 and 
222 (organic chemistry) as sophomores. 

Advanced work in many areas of biology may require additional courses in 
mathematics, the physical sciences, and other areas of biology. The adviser calls these 
to the attention of the student, depending on individual needs. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to 
the honors program in biology. To be graduated with the distinction "Honors in 
Biology," they must complete a research project under the direction of a staff member 
and pass a comprehensive oral examination. 

All 300-level courses presume a background equivalent to the core curriculum, that 
is, the 112-114 series. 

111. Biological Principles. (5) A study of the general principles of living systems with 



87 



focus on the cellular, organismal, and populational levels of biological organization, 
emphasizing the role of heredity and evolution in these systems. Course may count 
for major credit in biology, but is intended for students with little or no previous 
experience in biology. Lab— three hours. 

112. Comparative Physiology. (5) An introduction to the form and function of 
organisms, with emphasis on physical principles, structural organization, and critical 
function of plants and animals. Intended as a beginning course in biology for 
prospective majors and for any students with adequate high school preparation in 
biology. Lab— three hours. No prerequisites. 

113. Evolutionary and Ecological Biology. (5) An introduction to the principles of 
genetics, ecology, and evolution as they apply to organisms, populations and 
communities, with emphasis on evolutionary processes within an ecological context. 
Intended as a beginning course in biology for prospective majors and for any students 
with adequate high school preparation in biology. Lab— three hours. No prerequisites. 

114. Cellular and Molecular Biology. (5) An introduction to the principles and pro- 
cesses of cellular and molecular biology including molecular organization of cellular 
structures, energetics, metabolism, and regulation of cellular functions. Intended as 
a beginning course in biology for prospective majors and for any students with 
adequate high school preparation in biology. Lab— three hours. No prerequisites. 

115. Advanced Placement Seminar. (1) A team-taught course involving lecture, discus- 
sion, laboratory, and field experiences to examine a variety of topics in biology. The 
course is available to all students who have received advanced placement credit for 
Biology 111, especially those intending to major in biology. P— Advanced placement 
credit for Biology 111. 

301-305. Topics in Biology. (1-5) Seminar and/or lecture courses in selected topics, 
some involving laboratory instruction. 

312. Genetics. (5) A study of principles of inheritance and their application to plants 
and animals, including humans. Laboratory work in the methods of breeding some 
genetically important organisms and of compiling and presenting data. Lab— three 
hours. 

314. Evolution. (4) Analysis of the theories, evidences, and mechanisms of evolution. 

320. Comparative Anatomy. (5) A study of chordate animals, with emphasis on com- 
parative anatomy and phylogeny. Dissection of representative forms in the laboratory. 
Lab— four hours. 

321. Parasitology. (5) A survey of protozoan, helminth, and arthropod parasites from 
the standpoint of morphology, taxonomy, life histories, and host/parasite relation- 
ships. Lab— three hours. 

323. Animal Behavior. (4) A survey of laboratory and field research on animal behavior. 
(May count as biology or psychology but not both; choice to be made at registration.) 



325. Plant Anatomy. (5) A study of comparative anatomy of the vascular plants, with 
emphasis on phylogeny. Lab— four hours. 

326. Microbiology. (5) The structure, function, and taxonomy of microorganisms with 
emphasis on the bacteria. Some immunological processes are considered. Lab— four 
hours. 

327. Nonvascular Plants. (5) An examination of representative nonvascular plants, 
with emphasis on morphology and phylogeny. Lab— four hours. 

328. Vascular Plants. (5) A comparative survey of the vascular plants, with emphasis 
on structure, reproduction, classification, and phylogeny. Lab— four hours. 

331. Invertebrates. (5) Systematic study of invertebrates, with emphasis on functional 
morphology, behavior, ecology, and phylogeny. Lab— three hours. 

333. Vertebrates. (5) Systematic study of vertebrates, with emphasis on evolution, 
physiology, behavior, and ecology. Laboratory devoted to systematic, field, and 
experimental studies. Lab— three hours. 

335. Insect Biology. (5) A study of the diversity, structure, development, physiology, 
behavior and ecology of insects. Lab— three hours. 

338. Plant Taxonomy. (5) A study of the classification of seed plants, with emphasis 
on the comparative study of orders and families. Lab— four hours. 

340. Ecology. (5) Interrelationships among living systems and their environments; 
structure and dynamics of major ecosystem types; contemporary problems in ecology. 
Lab— three hours. 




89 



341. Marine Biology. (5) An introduction to the physical, chemical, and biological 
parameters affecting the distribution of marine organisms. Lab— three hours. 

342. Aquatic Ecology. (5) A course designed to cover the general principles and con- 
cepts of limnology and aquatic biology as they apply to lentic and lotic habitats. A 
major portion of the field study is centered at the Charles M. Allen Biological Station. 
Lab— three hours. 

344. Evolutionary Theory. (4) Lectures, readings, and seminars on the scientific and 
philosophic implications of evolutionary theory, including: structure and content of 
evolutionary theory, role of chance in evolution, units-of-selection controversy, nature 
of populations, nature of species, nature of selection, adaptation, sociobiology, and 
the evolutionism/creationism debates. 

345. Neurobiology. (4) Introduction to the structure and function of the nervous system 
including the neural basis of behavior. Anatomical, physiological, and neurochemical 
approaches will be integrated in the study of the peripheral and central nervous 
systems. 

346. Neurobiology. (5) Introduction to the structure and function of the nervous system 
including the neural basis of behavior. Anatomical, physiological, and neurochemical 
approaches will be integrated in the study of the peripheral and central nervous 
systems. The laboratory will emphasize electrophysiological techniques with 
experiments from the cellular to the behavioral level. Lab— three hours. P— Permission 
of instructor. 

350. Physiology. (5) A lecture/ laboratory course dealing with the physiochemical func- 
tions common to multicellular organisms, with emphasis on the principles and pro- 
cesses of nutrition, metabolism, development, and behavior. Lab— three hours. 

351. Animal Physiology. (5) A lecture and laboratory course which discusses and 
demonstrates the principles of bioelectricity and biomechanics. Regulatory principles 
and the physiology of the cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal systems of vertebrates 
are covered. Lab— three hours. 

352. Plant Physiology. (5) A study of the mechanisms by which various plant systems 
function, thematically structured around the plant life cycle. Lab— three hours. 

354. Endocrinology. (4) A lecture course which considers the evolution of the 
endocrine glands and hormones and the physiology of the main hormonal pathways 
of vertebrates. 

355. Developmental Physiology. (5) The application of the principles and postulates 
of molecular biology to the phenomenon of development in multicellular organisms 
with emphasis on the genetic and hormonal mechanisms of differentiation, 
totipotency, and morphogenesis. Lab— three hours. 

359. Photobiology. (4) A lecture/seminar exploring photochemical mechanisms and 
ecological roles common to a variety of photoresponses in living organisms, including 



90 



vision, bioluminescence, phototaxis, photosynthesis, photoperiodism, and 
photomorphogenesis. 

360. Development. (5) A description of the major events and processes of animal 
development, with an analysis of the causal factors underlying them. Special atten- 
tion is given to the embryonic development of vertebrates, but consideration is also 
given to other types of development and other organisms. Topics include fertiliza- 
tion, early development, growth and cell division, cell differentiation, the role of genes 
in development, cell interaction, morphogenesis, regeneration, birth defects, and 
cancer. Lab— three hours. 

362. Immunology. (4) A study of the components and protective mechanisms of the 
immune system. 

363. Sensory Biology. (4) A study of the nature of energy in the environment, and 
how it is absorbed and transduced in sensory systems. Anatomical, physiological, 
biochemical, and biophysical approaches will be integrated in the study of sensory 
mechanisms in plants and animals. 

365. Cell Motility. (5) A lecture and laboratory course exploring the movements in 
and of cells (for example: mitosis, cytoplasmic streaming, muscle contraction, nerve 
transport). Light and electron microscopic methods as well as biochemical and 
biophysical approaches to the study of cell motility will be discussed. Lab— three hours. 

366. Human and Non-Human Evolution. (4) Investigation of primate and human 
evolution, both in anatomy and in behavior. (May count as either biology or 
anthropology but not both; choice to be made at registration.) P— Permission of 
instructor. 

370. Biochemistry. (4) A lecture course introducing the principles of biochemistry with 
an emphasis on the relationship between structure and function. Included are surveys 
of essential biomolecules, their biosynthesis, and mode of action; techniques in the 
analysis of structure and function; enzyme kinetics; and macromolecular organization. 

371. Biochemistry. (5) A lecture and laboratory course introducing the principles of 
biochemistry with an emphasis on the relationship between structure and function. 
Included are surveys of essential biomolecules, their biosynthesis, and mode of action; 
techniques in the analysis of structure and function; enzyme kinetics; and 
macromolecular organization. Lab— three hours. 

372. Molecular Biology. (4) A lecture course that considers the role of biologically 
important molecules in membrane and intracellular regulation. Topics covered will 
include membrane receptors, transport processes, molecular models of hormonal 
regulation, and controls of gene expression. 

373. Techniques in Electron Microscopy. (5) An introduction to the electron microscope 
as an experimental tool in biology. Includes instruction in common techniques used 
in the field and lecture on recognition and interpretation of cellular ultrastructure. 
Lab— three hours. 



91 



376. Ichthyology. (5) A comparative study of structure/function, classification, and 
phylogeny of fish. Lab— three hours. 

380. Biostatistics. (4) An introduction to statistical methods used by biologists, in- 
cluding descriptive statistics, hypothesis-testing, analysis of variance, and regression 
and correlation. May count as biology or anthropology but not both; choice to be 
made at registration. A student who receives credit for this course may not also receive 
credit for Business 201, Mathematics 109, or Sociology 380. 

391, 392. Special Problems in Biology. (2,2) Independent library and laboratory in- 
vestigation carried out under the supervision of a member of the staff. Pass/Fail or 
for grade at discretion of the instructor. P— Permission of instructor. 

393, 394. Special Problems in Biology. (2,2) Courses designed for students who wish 
to continue special problems beyond Biology 391 and 392. Pass/Fail optional. Not 
to be counted toward major. P— Permission of instructor. 

395. Philosophy of Biology and Medicine. (4) A lecture/seminar course dealing with 
the rational structure of biologic and biomedic sciences with major emphasis on the 
reductionistic, organismic, and telenomic paradigms of modern biology and medicine. 
The structure of selected biologic and biomedic theories will be included. 

396. Biomedical Ethics. (4) Lectures and seminars examining contemporary issues 
in biomedical ethics including the proper role of biomedical research, and current 
controversies in health care and medical practice. 

397. Seminar in Biology. (2-4) Consideration of major biological topics through 
intensive reading and discussions. 



Chemistry 

Phillip J. Hamrick Jr., Chairman 

Professors Paul M. Gross Jr., Phillip J. Hamrick Jr., Roger A. Hegstrom, 

Willie L. Hinze, Ronald E. Noftle 

Associate Professors Huw M. L. Davies, Charles F. Jackels, 

Susan C. Jackels, Frank H. Quina 

Assistant Professors N. Ganapathisubramanian, 

Dilip K. Kondepudi, Mark E. Welker 

Instructor Jimmy Turner III 

The department offers programs leading to the BA and BS degrees in chemistry 
and is on the list of departments certified by the American Chemical Society. 

The bachelor of arts degree in chemistry includes Chemistry 111, 112, or 113, 114; 
221, 222, 341, 342, 361; Mathematics 111; and Physics 113, 114. It is recommended that 
Mathematics 112 be taken before Chemistry 341. Chemistry 231 may be required by 
some graduate and professional schools. 



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The bachelor of science degree in chemistry includes Chemistry 111, 112, or 113, 
114; 221, 222, 334, 341, 342, 361, 231 or 371, 383, 391, or 392; Mathematics HI and 
112; and Physics 113 and 114. Additional mathematics and science courses are strongly 
recommended for BS degree candidates, with the number and selection of these 
courses depending upon the professional plans of the individual student. Examples 
of these courses are Mathematics 113, 301, and 302; Physics 161 and 164; and Biology 
370 and 371. 

The department also offers a five-year BA/MS degree program. Students qualify- 
ing for the program may receive a tuition scholarship in the senior year. For informa- 
tion, consult the department chairman. 

A minor in chemistry requires twenty-three credits in chemistry and must include 
at least one of the following courses: 323, 325, 326, 334, 341, 342, 351, 361, 362, 371. 
The department will not accept courses taken Pass/Fail to count toward the minor. 

Unless otherwise stated, all chemistry courses are open to chemistry majors on 
a letter grade basis only. Majors are also required to complete on a letter grade basis 
the required physics and mathematics courses. 

A minimum GPA of 2.0 in the first two years of chemistry is required of students 
who elect to major in the department. Admission to any class is contingent upon 
satisfactory grades in prerequisite courses, and registration for advanced courses must 
be approved by the department. Candidates for either the BA or BS degree with a 
major in chemistry must have a minimum GPA of 2.0 in their chemistry courses 
numbered 200 or above. 

Qualified majors are considered for honors in chemistry. To be graduated with the 
designation "Honors in Chemistry," a student must have a minimum GPA in chemistry 
courses of 3.3 and a minimum overall GPA of 3.0. In addition, the honors candidate 
must satisfactorily complete an approved research project, prepare a paper describ- 
ing the project, and present results at a seminar for departmental approval. For ad- 
ditional information, members of the departmental faculty should be consulted. 

For the BS major, the following schedule of chemistry and related courses is typical: 

Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior 

Chemistry 111, 112 Chemistry 221, 222 Chemistry 341, 342 Chemistry 334 

or Physics 113, 114 Chemistry 383 Chemistry 361 

Chemistry 113, 114 Mathematics 113 Chemistry 391 or 392 Chemistry 371 

Mathematics 111, 112 Mathematics or Science 

For the BA major the following schedule of chemistry and related courses is typical: 

Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior 

Chemistry 111, 112 Chemistry 221, 222 Chemistry 341, 342 Chemistry 361 

or Physics 113, 114 

Chemistry 113, 114 
Mathematics 111, 112* 

*Mathematics 112 is encouraged as an elective in the freshman or sophomore year. 

For variations in either of the schedules above, the student should consult a member 
of the faculty in chemistry. 



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Students electing laboratory courses in chemistry are required to pay for breakage 
and for certain consumable materials as determined by the department. 

Ill, 112. College Chemistry. (5,5) Fundamental chemical principles. Laboratory covers 
experimental aspects of basic concepts. Lab— three hours. 

113, 114. College Chemistry— Honors. (5,5) Covers the same range of material as 111-112 
but is designed for students with a superior background in chemistry. A student may 
not receive credit for both 111 and 113 or both 112 and 114. Lab— three hours. P— 
Permission of instructor. 

221, 222. Organic Chemistry. (5,5) Principles and reactions of organic chemistry. Lab- 
four hours. P— Chemistry 112 or 114. 

231. Quantitative Analysis. (4) Principles and methods of quantitative analysis. P— 
Chemistry 112 or 114. Lecture— two hours. Lab— four hours. 

301, 302. Elective Research. (0,0) P— Permission of instructor. Summers only. 

323. Organic Analysis. (4) The systematic identification of organic compounds. Lab- 
four hours. P— Chemistry 222. 

325, 326. Organic Synthesis. (4,4) Reagents for and design of synthetic routes to organic 
molecules. P— Chemistry 222. 

334. Chemical Analysis. (5) Theoretical and practical applications of modern methods 
of chemical analysis. Lab— four hours. C— Chemistry 341. 




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341, 342. Physical Chemistry. (5,5) Fundamentals of physical chemistry. Lab— four 
hours. P— Chemistry 112 or 114, Mathematics 111, Physics 113, 114. 

351. Special Topics in Biochemistry. (4) Fundamentals of biochemistry, with particular 
emphasis on mechanistic analysis of metabolic pathways, enzymatic activity and drug 
action. P— Chemistry 222. 

361. Inorganic Chemistry. (5) Principles and reactions of inorganic chemistry. Lab- 
four hours. P— Chemistry 341. 

362. Inorganic Chemistry. (4) Continuation of principles of inorganic chemistry with 
practical applications to inorganic systems. P— Chemistry 361. 

371. Introductory Quantum Chemistry. (4) Introduction to the quantum theory and 
its application to chemical systems. P— Chemistry 342 or permission of instructor. 

381, 382. Chemistry Seminar. (0,0) Discussions of contemporary research. Attendance 
required of BS chemistry majors in the junior and senior years. 

383. Chemical Literature. (1) Introduction to the chemical literature and searching 
techniques for the acquisition of chemical information. P— Chemistry 222. 

391, 392. Undergraduate Research. (2,2) Undergraduate research. Lab— six hours. 



Classical Languages 

John L. Andronica, Chairman 

Professors John L. Andronica, Carl V. Harris 

Associate Professor Robert W. Ulery Jr. 

Visiting Assistant Professors Teri E. Marsh, John E. Rowland 

The Department of Classical Languages offers three majors: Greek, Latin, and 
classical studies. Minors are offered in Greek and Latin. 

A major in Greek requires forty credits in the department. Thirty-two of these credits 
must be in the Greek language. Classics 270 is also a requirement. 

A minor in Greek requires twenty-five credits: Greek 111-112, 153, 211, and either 
212 or 231; and Classics 270. 

A major in Latin requires thirty-two credits in the department beyond Latin 153. 
Twenty-four of these credits must be in Latin courses. Classics 271 also is a require- 
ment, and Classics 270 is recommended. 

A minor in Latin requires three 200-level courses in Latin; Classics 271; and one 
additional course (three or four credits) in Greek or Latin or classics. 

A major in classical studies requires fifty-six credits. A minimum of thirty-six credits 
of course work must be taken in the department. A maximum of forty-eight credits 
in the department may be exceeded only if a student undertakes course work in both 
Latin and Greek. The student must take a minimum of two courses at the 200-level 
in either Greek or Latin and the following: Art 241 (Ancient Art), Classics 265 (Greek 



95 



Literature), Classics 272 (Latin Literature), Classics 270 (Greek Civilization), and Classics 
271 (Roman Civilization). 

A maximum of sixteen credits may be taken in the following: Art 244 (Greek Art), 
245 (Roman Art), 246 (Greek and Roman Architecture), 252 (Romanesque Art); History 
215, 216 (The Ancient World); Philosophy 201 (Ancient and Medieval Philosophy), 230 
(Plato), 231 (Aristotle); Politics 271 (Plato, Aristotle, and Classical Political Philosophy), 274 
(Noble Greeks and Romans); Religion 311 (Poetic Literature of the Hebrew Bible), 314 (Ancient 
Israel and her Neighbors), 363 (Hellenistic Religions); Hebrew 111, 112, 153, 211. Other 
courses may be allowed with the permission of the department. 

The requirements for certification to teach Latin in high school are the same as the 
requirements for a major in Latin. A major in classical studies serves as an appropriate 
part of the program of studies required for certification to teach Latin in high school. 
A student wishing to secure this certification should confer with the chairman of 
the department. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to 
the honors program in Latin, Greek, or classical studies. To be graduated with the 
designation "Honors in Latin," "Honors in Greek," or "Honors in Classical Studies," 
a student must complete an honors research project and pass a comprehensive oral 
examination. For honors in Latin or Greek, at least two of the courses counted toward 
the major must be seminar courses; for honors in classical studies, at least one seminar 
course in Latin or Greek is required. For additional information, members of the 
departmental faculty should be consulted. 

Greek 

111, 112. Elementary Greek. (5,5) Greek grammar; selections from Greek prose writers 
and poets. 

153. Intermediate Greek. (4) Grammar and Xenophon's Anabasis. Thorough drill in 
syntax. 

211. Plato. (4) Selections from the dialogues of Plato. 

212. Homer. (4) Selections from the Iliad and the Odyssey. 

221, 222. Selected Readings. (3,3) Intensive reading courses designed to meet 
individual needs and interests. 

231. The Greek New Testament. (4) Selections from the Greek New Testament. 

241. Greek Tragedy. (3) Euripides' Medea. This course includes a study of the origin 
and history of Greek tragedy, with collateral reading of selected tragedies in transla- 
tion. Seminar. 

242. Greek Comedy. (3) Aristophanes' Clouds. This course includes a study of the 
origin and history of Greek comedy, with collateral reading of selected comedies in 
translation. Seminar. 

291, 292. Honors in Greek. (2,2) Directed research for honors paper. 



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Latin 

111, 112. Elementary Latin. (4,4) Introduction to Latin grammar. 

113. Intensive Elementary Latin. (5) Introduction to Latin grammar. Covers material 
of Latin 111 and 112 in one semester. Not open to students who have had Latin 111 
or 112. 

153. Intermediate Latin. (5) Grammar review and selected readings. 

211. Introduction to Latin Poetry. (4) Readings primarily from Virgil's Aeneid, with 
an introduction to literary criticism. 

212. Introduction to Latin Prose. (4) Readings primarily from the orations of Cicero, 
with attention to the elements of rhetoric in Roman public discourse. 

216. Roman Lyric Poetry. (4) An interpretation and evaluation of lyric poetry through 
readings from the poems of Catullus and Horace. 

221. Roman Historians. (4) Readings in the works of Sallust, Livy, or Tacitus, with 
attention to the historical background and the norms of ancient historiography. 

225. Roman Epistolography. (4) Selected readings from the correspondence of Cicero 
and Pliny the Younger and the verse epistles of Horace and Ovid. 

226. Roman Comedy. (4) Readings of selected comedies of Plautus and Terence, with 
a study of the traditions of comedy and dramatic techniques. 

231. Roman Elegy. (4) Readings from the poems of Tibullus, Propertius, and Ovid, 
with study of the elegiac tradition. 

241. Roman Satire. (4) Selected readings from Horace and Juvenal, with attention 
to the origin and development of hexameter satire. 

243. Latin Readings. (2-4) A course designed to meet individual needs and interests. 

250. Prose Composition. (2) Exercises in writing of Latin prose, with an introduction 
to prose stylistics. 

398, 399. The Teaching of Latin. (4,4) A reading course and workshop in problems 
of Latin pedagogy and the secondary Latin curriculum, designed to meet the needs 
and interests of selected students. 



Seminars 

The following seminars are offered by members of the faculty on topics and authors 
of their choice. A paper is required. 

261. Seminar in Poetry of the Republican Period. (3) 

262. Seminar in Prose of the Republican Period. (3) 



97 



281. Seminar in Augustan and Later Poetry. (3) 

282. Seminar in Augustan and Later Prose. (3) 

291, 292. Honors in Latin. (2, 2) Directed research for honors paper. 

Classics 

220. Greek and Latin in Current Use. (3) A systematic study of Greek and Latin loan 
words, roots, prefixes, and suffixes as elements of English and specialized vocabularies 
(e.g., scientific and legal). A knowledge of the Greek and Latin languages is not 
required. 

251. Classical Mythology. (4) A study of the most important myths of the Greeks 
and Romans. Many of the myths are studied in their literary context. A knowledge 
of the Greek and Latin languages is not required. 

252. Women in Antiquity. (3,4) The course explores the place of women in Greek 
and Roman society, men's views of them, their views of themselves, and their con- 
tribution to society, through primary source readings from the ancient authors. A 
knowledge of the Greek and Latin languages is not required. 

253. Greek Epic Poetry. (4) Oral epic poetry, with primary emphasis on the Iliad and 
the Odyssey of Homer and the later development of the genre. A knowledge of the 
Greek language is not required. 

254. Roman Epic Poetry. (4) A study of the Latin treatment and development of the 
literary form, with emphasis on Lucretius, Virgil, Ovid, and Lucan. A knowledge 
of the Latin language is not required. 

263. Tragic Drama. (4) A study of the origins and development of Greek tragedy and 
its influence on Roman writers, with readings from Aeschylus, Sophocles, and 
Euripides. A knowledge of the Greek and Latin languages is not required. 

264. Greek and Roman Comedy. (4) Representative works of Aristophanes, Menander, 
Plautus, and Terence, with attention to the origins and development of comedy. A 
knowledge of the Greek and Latin languages is not required. 

265. A Survey of Greek Literature. (4) A study of selections from Greek literature 
in English translation. A knowledge of the Greek language is not required. 

270. Greek Civilization. (3) Lectures and collateral reading on those phases of Greek 
civilization which have particular significance for the modern world. A knowledge 
of the Greek language is not required. 

271. Roman Civilization. (3) Lectures and collateral reading on the general subject 
of Rome's contribution to the modern world. A knowledge of the Latin language is 
not required. 

272. A Survey of Latin Literature. (4) A study of selections from Latin literature in 



98 



English translation. A knowledge of the Latin language is not required. 

288. Individual Study. (2-4) 

291, 292. Honors in Classical Studies. (2,2) Directed research for honors paper. 

Economics 

Donald E. Frey, Chairman 

Reynolds Professor John H. Wood 

Professors Donald E. Frey, John C. Moorhouse, J. Van Wagstaff 

Associate Professors J. Daniel Hammond, Claire Holton Hammond 

Assistant Professors John B. Crihfield, 

Michael S. Lawlor, Perry L. Patterson 

Visiting Assistant Professor Gary R. Albreeht 

Instructor Gregory A. Lilly 

The objectives of the economics program are to help prepare students for effective 
participation in the decision-making processes of society, to develop analytical skills 
in solving economic problems, to promote a better understanding of alternative 
economic systems, and to provide a balanced curriculum to prepare students for 
graduate study or positions in industry and government. 

The major in economics requires a minimum of thirty-six credits in economics, in- 
cluding Economics 150, 205, 206, 207, and 208. In order to major in economics, a student 
must have earned a minimum of a C in Economics 150. The department recommends 
that majors take Mathematics 109 and 108 or 111, either to fulfill the Division II 
requirement or as electives. A student may offer up to five credits toward the thirty- 
six credits required for a major by taking one of the following courses, provided that, 
for (c), (d), (e), or (f), the complementary course in economics is successfully 
completed. 

(a) Mathematics 112. Second semester of Calculus. (5) 

(b) Philosophy 279. Philosophy of Science. (4) 

(c) Politics 219. Fundamentals of Public Policy Analysis. (4) 

(Economics 221. Public Finance.) 

(d) Politics 253. The Politics of International Economic Relations. (4) 

(Economics 251. International Trade, or Economics 252. International Finance.) 

(e) History 332. Russia. (4) (Economics 253. Economics of Communism.) 

(f) History 344. Modern China. (4) (Economics 253. Economics of Communism.) 

(g) History 361. Economic History of the U.S. (4) 

The remaining courses for a major in economics and courses in related fields are 
selected by the student and his or her adviser. A minimum grade average of C on 
all courses attempted in economics is required for graduation. 

Economics majors with a grade average of at least 3.0 and 3.3 in economics may 
graduate with "Honors in Economics" by satisfying the research requirement of 



99 



Economics 298. It is recommended but not required that Economics 297 be taken first. 

The Department of Economics and the Department of Mathematics and Computer 
Science offer a joint major leading to a bachelor of science degree in mathematical 
economics. This interdisciplinary program, consisting of no more than fifty-six credits, 
affords the student an opportunity to apply mathematical methods to the develop- 
ment of economic theory, models, and quantitative analysis. The major consists of 
the following course requirements: Economics 150, 205, 207, 208, 215, 218; Mathematics 
111, 112, 113, 121, 251; and three additional courses chosen with the approval of the 
program advisers. Recommended courses are Economics 206, 212, 223, 232, 235, 251 
and Mathematics 253, 311, 312, 348, 352, 353, 357, and 358. Students electing the joint 
major must receive permission from both the Department of Economics and the 
Department of Mathematics and Computer Sience. A minimum grade average of C 
in all courses attempted for the mathematical economics joint major is required for 
graduation. 

Highly qualified majors are encouraged to apply for admission to the honors pro- 
gram in the joint major. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in Mathematical 
Economics," a student must satisfy the requirements of Economics 298 or Mathematics 
381 by successfully completing a senior research project. Consult the program advisers 
for additional information. 

For the BA in economics the following schedule is typical: 

Freshman Sophomore Jwiior* Senior 

Lower Division Economics 150 Economics 205, 206 Four electives 

requirements Mathematics 108 Economics 207 208 in economics 

or 111 
Mathematics 109 

*It is expected that economics majors will complete the intermediate theory sequences in their junior year. 

For the BS in mathematical economics the following schedule is typical: 
Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior 

Mathematics 111, 112 Economics 150 Economics 205, 207 Economics 218 

Lower Division Mathematics 113, Economics 208, 215 Three electives in 

requirements 121 Mathematics 251 economics and/or 

mathematics 

150. Introduction to Economics. (4) A survey of micro and macroeconomic principles. 
Introduction to basic concepts, characteristic data and trends, and some analytic techni- 
ques. Preference in enrollment will be given to students with sophomore or upperclass 
standing. 

205. Intermediate Microeconomics I. (4) Development of demand and supply analysis, 
neoclassical theory of household and firm behavior, and alternative market struc- 
tures. P— Economics 150. 

206. Intermediate Microeconomics II. (4) More advanced theory of maximizing 
behavior of economic agents with discussion of risk, uncertainty, and economic 
dynamics. Theory employed in assessment of policy issues. P— Economics 205. 



100 



207. Intermediate Macroeconomics I. (4) Development of macroeconomic concepts 
of national income, circular flow, income determination, and monetary economics. 
The Keynesian, monetarist, and post-Keynesian analyses of aggregate economic per- 
formance are emphasized. P— Economics 150. 

208. Intermediate Macroeconomics II. (4) Survey of new equilibrium macroeconomic 
theories, including maximization and rational expectations hypotheses. Dynamics 
considered in analysis of economic performance. P— Economics 205, 207. 

210. Economic Indicators. (2) The theory, construction, and interpretation of signifi- 
cant quantitative indicators of economic behavior, such as the unemployment rate 
and the various price indices. P— Economics 150. 

212. Economic Forecasting. (4) A computer-oriented application of modern 
econometric and time series methods for forecasting economic variables. P— Economics 
150. C— Economics 207. 

215. Introduction to Econometrics. (4) Economic analysis through quantitative 
methods, with emphasis on model construction and empirical research. P— Economics 
205, 207 and Mathematics 109 or 121. 

218. Seminar in Mathematical Economics. (4) Calculus and matrix methods used to 
develop basic tools of economic analysis. P— Economics 205, 207 and Mathematics 
111, 112. 

221. Public Finance. (4) An examination of the economic behavior of government. 
Includes principles of taxation, spending, borrowing, and debt-management. P— 
Economics 150. C— Economics 205. 

222. Monetary Theory and Policy. (4) An investigation of the nature of money, the 
macroeconomic significance of money, financial markets, and monetary policy. P— 
Economics 207. 

223. Financial Markets. (4) A study of the functions, structure, and performance of 
financial markets. P— Economics 205, 207. 

224. Law and Economics. (4) An economic analysis of property, contracts, torts, 
criminal behavior, due process, and law enforcement. P— Economics 205. 

225. Public Choice. (4) Traditional tools of economic analysis are employed to explore 
such topics in political science as political organization, elections, coalition forma- 
tion, the optimal provision of public goods, and the scope of government. P— 
Economics 205. 

231. Industrial Organization. (4) A study of market structures of industries and their 
effects on the allocation of resources. P— Economics 150. C— Economics 205. 

232. Economics of Regulation. (4) Analysis of governmental regulation and deregula- 
tion of industries, with particular attention to the theory of natural monopoly, public 
utility regulation, and environmental, product-quality, and health regulation. P— 
Economics 205. 



101 



235. Labor Theory. (4) A survey of neoclassical labor economics. Includes recent 
developments in the macroeconomics of the labor market, including expectations and 
wage inflation and the wage-productivity-price relationship. P— Economics 205, 207. 

236. Economics of Human Resources. (4) Survey of diverse theories outside the 
neoclassical tradition dealing with wages and employment, education, and labor rela- 
tions. Methods of program and policy evaluation are introduced where applicable. 
P— Economics 150. 

245. Local and Regional Economic Development. (2,4) First half of course develops 
essential economic tools for understanding problems of local and regional develop- 
ment. The remainder uses case studies and student projects to investigate issues per- 
tinent to the economies of the Triad, the state of North Carolina, and other localities. 
P— Economics 205. 

246. Urban Economics. (4) Application of economic theory to suburbanization, land 
values, urban decay and redevelopment, zoning, location decisions of firms and 
households, and metropolitan fiscal problems. P— Economics 205. 

247. Regional Economics. (4) Study of the economic structure of subnational and in- 
ternational regions, and of their interactions. Includes analysis of trends and of the 
economic welfare implications of spatial policies. P— Economics 205. 

248. Resource Economics. (4) The economic theory of natural resource allocation and 
environmental quality. P— Economics 205. 

251. International Trade. (4) Development of the theory of international trade patterns 
and prices and the effects of trade restrictions such as tariffs and quotas. P— Economics 
205. 

252. International Finance. (4) A study of foreign exchange and Eurocurrency markets, 
balance of payments, and macroeconomic policy in open economies. P— Economics 
205, 207. 

253. Economics of Communism. (4) A theoretical and institutional examination of 
several non-capitalist economies, with special reference to the Soviet Union, the 
People's Republic of China, and Eastern Europe. P— Economics 150. 

254. Capitalism and Planning. (2,4) The role of strategies of comprehensive govern- 
ment intervention in the economies of the West. Special attention to planning 
mechanisms and industrial policies in Japan and Western Europe. Four-credit version 
devotes additional attention to features of the welfare state. P— Economics 150. 

258. Economic Growth and Development. (4) A study of the problems of economic 
growth, with particular attention to the less developed countries of the world. P— 
Economics 205. 

261. American Economic Development. (4) The application of economic theory to 
historical problems and issues in the American economy. P— Economics 150. 



102 



262. History of Economic Thought. (4) A historical survey of the main developments 
in economic thought from the Biblical period to the twentieth century. P— Economics 

205, 207 

265. Economic Philosophers. (4) An in-depth study of the doctrines and influence 
of three major figures in economics, such as Smith, Marx, and Keynes. P— Economics 
205, 207. 

271, 272. Selected Areas in Economics. (2,4; 2,4) A survey of an important area in 
economics not included in the regular course offerings. The economics of housing, 
education, technology, and health services are examples. Students should consult 
the instructor to ascertain topic before enrolling. P— Economics 205, 207. 

290. Individual Study. (2,4) Directed readings in a specialized area of economics. P— 
Permission of instructor. 

297. Preparing for Economic Research. (2) Designed to assist students in selecting 
a research topic and beginning the study of the selected topic. P— Permission of 
instructor. 

298. Economic Research. (4) Development and presentation of a senior research pro- 
ject. Required of candidates for departmental honors. P— Permission of department. 



Education 

Joseph O. Milner, Chairman 

Professors Thomas M. Elmore, John H. Litcher, 

Joseph O. Milner, J. Don Reeves 

Associate Professors Patricia M. Cunningham, Robert H. Evans, 

Linda N. Nielsen, Leonard P. Roberge 

Lecturers Brian M. Austin, G. Dianne Mitchell, 

Marianne A. Schubert, Stuart Wright 

Instructor Nancy K. Solomon 

Because Wake Forest University believes that the educational profession is impor- 
tant to society and that our welfare is significantly affected by the quality of our educa- 
tional leadership, one of the important objectives of the University has been and 
continues to be the preparation of teachers and other professional school person- 
nel. The University's commitment to quality in teacher education is demonstrated 
by selective admission to the program, a wide range of professional courses, and 
closely supervised internships appropriate to the professional needs of students. 

Prospective teachers either major in other academic areas and take education 
courses to earn secondary or middle grades certification or earn early childhood, 
intermediate, science, or social studies certification as majors in the Department of 
Education. In addition to the professional program, the department provides a non- 
professional minor and elective courses open to all students. 



103 



Teacher Certification. The North Carolina State Department of Public Instruction 
issues the Professional Class A Teacher's Certificate to graduates who have com- 
pleted an approved program, including the specified courses in their teaching field(s) 
and the prescribed courses in education, who have demonstrated specific competen- 
cies, and who receive recommendations from the designated official(s) of their 
teaching area(s) and from the chairman of the department or a deputy. 

Special students (those not having completed prior to graduation an approved 
certification program from this or another institution) should seek academic counsel- 
ing from the department to develop a plan for completing the Class A Certificate. 
Information about certification requirements for other states can be secured from 
the department as assistance in planning a program to meet the certification 
requirements of those states. 

Admission Requirements. Admission to the teacher education program normally oc- 
curs during the sophomore year. Admission involves filing an official application 
with the department's certification officer, being interviewed, and being officially 
approved by the department. All candidates for admission must have a 2.5 GPA 
at the completion of their sophomore year. 

Course Requirements. The approved program of teacher education requires candidates 
to complete successfully a series of professional education courses. The exact se- 
quence of professional and academic courses varies with a student's particular pro- 
gram and is determined in conference with the candidate. For those seeking secon- 
dary certification the majority of the professional work is taken during one semester 
of the senior year. Candidates for the early childhood or intermediate certificate may 
begin course work required for certification as early as the sophomore year. 

Student Teaching. Prerequisites for registering for student teaching include (1) senior, 
graduate, or special student classification; (2) completion of school practicum and 
foundations of education courses; (3) an average of at least C on all courses taken 
in the area(s) of certification; (4) departmental approval for admission to the teacher 
education program. 

Students are assigned to student teaching opportunities by public school officials 
on the basis of available positions and the professional needs of the student and 
the public school system. (The University does not assume responsibility for transpor- 
tation to schools during student teaching.) One semester of the senior year is reserved 
for the student teaching experience and the block of courses preparatory to that ex- 
perience in the schools. Students may not take other courses during this semester 
without the approval of the department chairman. 

Teaching Area Requirements 

Secondary Certificate 

English— Thirty-six credits, including four credits from courses numbered 160-175; 
at least sixteen credits from courses numbered 300-399; 323; 390. 
French— Thirty-six credits, including French 153, 216 or 217, 219, 221, 224, or their 
equivalents; at least eight credits in French literature beyond 217. 



104 



Spanish— Thirty-six credits, including Spanish 153, 215 or 216, 217, 221, 223, 224, or 
their equivalents; eight credits from 225, 226, 227; at least four additional credits 
in literature. 

French and Spanish— Fifty-six credits, including French 153x, 216, 217, 221, 222, and 
224; plus Spanish 153x, either 215 or 216, 219, 221, either 223 or 224; and eight credits 
from 225, 226, 227, or their equivalents. 

German— Thirty-two credits, including German 153, 211, 212; eight credits from Ger- 
man 217, 218, 219, 220; at least twelve credits in German literature beyond 212. 
Latin— The requirements are the same as those for the major in Latin. 
Mathematics— Torty credits, including Mathematics 111, 112, 113, 121, 221, 231, 332; 
at least one additional four-credit, 300-level course. 

Music— Forty-eight credits, including Music 171, 172, 173, 174, 181, 182, 186, 187, 
188; Education 280, 282, 284, 289, and 291. 

Science— Ten credits each in biology, chemistry, and physics; eight credits in 
mathematics; additional work in the area of concentration: biology (ten credits), 
chemistry (ten credits), or physics (ten credits). For certification in the individual 
fields of science, the following are required: biology (thirty-six credits), chemistry 
(thirty-six credits), or physics (thirty-six credits). 

Social Studies— Forty credits, including twenty-four credits in history, with course 
work in United States, European and Third World history; twelve credits with one 
course in politics, sociology, and economics; and four credits in geography. For cer- 
tification in the individual fields of the social studies, the following are required: 
economics (thirty-six credits), politics (thirty-six credits), history (thirty-six credits, 
with at least six to eight credits in United States history and six to eight credits in 
world [European] history), and sociology (thirty-six credits). 

Education courses required for a secondary certificate include Education 201, 202 
or 203, 211, 214, 251, 291, and 383. 

Middle Grades Certificate 

Middle Grades (grades 6-9) Teaching Certificates may be earned by students who 
major in mathematics, science education, social studies, education or English. The 
requirements for this certificate include Education 201, 202 or 203, 351 (for English 
majors only) which precede the student teaching spring term. The block courses 
of the spring semester include Education 211, 352, 291, 383 and 253. 

Elementary Education 

Forty-two credits, including eight credits in language arts; eight credits in social 
studies; eight credits in science; four credits in mathematics; four credits in music 
or in art; six credits in health and sport science. Remaining certification requirements 
include early childhood or intermediate education courses listed below and an 
academic concentration in one of the teaching areas. 

Education courses required for an intermediate certificate include Education 201, 
202 or 203, 211, 221, 222, 250, 271, 293, 294, 295, 296, 313, and 383. 



105 



Education courses required for an early childhood certificate include Education 
201, 202 or 203, 211, 221, 252, 271, 292, 294, 295, 296, 313 and 383. 

A minor in educational studies requires Education 201, 211, 303, 304, 313, and 
Education 393 or 214. A minor in professional education requires Education 201, 202 
or 203, 211, 214, 251 or 253, 291, and 383. 

201. Foundations of Education. (4) Philosophical, historical, and sociological foun- 
dations of education, including analysis of contemporary issues and problems. 

202 or 203. School Practicum. (2) Assigned experiences in elementary and secon- 
dary schools. Weekly seminar. Pass /Fail only. 

211. Educational Psychology. (4) The theories, processes, and conditions of effec- 
tive teaching/learning. P— Education 201 or permission of instructor. 

214. The School and Teaching. (4) Organization of the school system; bases of educa- 
tion; the curriculum; major problems of education and teaching; the role of the 
teacher; psychological aspects of teaching. P— Education 201 and permission of 
instructor. 

221. Children's Literature and Reading. (4) A survey of the types of literature ap- 
propriate for the elementary grades and an investigation of the basic problems in 
reading. 

222. The Arts in the Elementary Grades. (2) The development of skills in music, 
movement, and fine arts, appropriate to the elementary grades. P— Permission of 
instructor. 

223. Health and Physical Education for the Elementary Grades. (4) The develop- 
ment of physical education skills appropriate for the elementary grade teacher and 
an understanding of the personal and community health needs appropriate for the 
grade level. P— Education 201 or permission of instructor. 

250. Student Teaching: Intermediate. (6) Supervised teaching experience in grades 
3-6. Pass/Fail. P— Permission of instructor. 

251. Student Teaching: Secondary. (6) Supervised teaching experience in grades 9-12. 
Pass/Fail. P— Permission of instructor. 

252. Student Teaching: Early Childhood. (6) Supervised teaching experience in 
grades K-4. Pass/Fail. P— Permission of instructor. 

253. Student Teaching: Middle School. (6) Supervised teaching experience in grades 
6-9. Pass /Fail. P— Permission of instructor. 

271. Geography: The Human Environment. (4) A survey of the geography of human 
activity as it occurs throughout the world. Emphasis is placed on current problems 
related to population, resources, regional development, and urbanization. 



106 



272. Geography Study Tour. (4) A guided tour of selected areas to study physical, 
economic, and cultural environments and their influence on man. Background 
references for reading are suggested prior to the tour. 

273. Geography: The Natural Environment. (4) A systematic study of the major com- 
ponents of physical geography with special emphasis on climate and topography. 

280. Orchestration. (4) A study of the orchestra and wind band instruments, how 
composers have used them throughout history, and the development of practical 
scoring and manuscript skills. Offered in alternate years. P— Music 174, 184. 

281. Public Life and the Liberal Arts. (4) The course will be devoted to topics of 
abiding significance. Fundamental dilemmas and resolutions associated with each 
topic will be examined through a consideration of their treatment in the liberal arts 
tradition. The visiting scholars of the Tocqueville Forum will supplement the class 
discussion. Politics and the Arts and Theory and Practice in Public Life are represen- 
tative topics. 

282. Conducting. (4) A study of choral and instrumental conducting techniques, in- 
cluding practical experience with ensembles. Offered in alternate years. P— Music 174, 
184. 

284. Music Literature Seminar. (3 or 4) A survey of repertoire, including an examina- 
tion of teaching materials in the student's special area of interest. P— Music 174, 184, 
and permission of instructor. 

289. Ensemble Methods. (2) A practical study of choral and instrumental techni- 
ques. Discussion of tonal development, administration, bibliography, choral and in- 
strumental repertoire, marching band, and instrumental problems. P— Music 101 or 
102 or permission of instructor. 

291. Methods and Materials. (4) Methods, materials, and techniques used in teaching 
the various subjects. P— Education 201 and permission of instructor. 

Teaching of English. Spring. 
Teaching of Foreign Language. Spring. 
Teaching of Mathematics. Spring. 
Teaching of Music. Spring. 
Teaching of Science. Spring. 
Teaching of Social Studies. Spring. 

292. Primary Methods. (4) Classroom organization, teaching strategies, and materials 
appropriate to subjects taught in grades K-4. P— Permission of instructor. 

293. Intermediate School Curriculum: Theory and Practice. (3) General principles 
of curriculum construction and teaching methods. Introduction to the use of 
audiovisual materials and equipment. 

294. Methods and Materials for Teaching Language Arts. (3) A survey of the basic 



107 



materials, methods, and techniques of teaching language arts in the elementary 
grades. P— Permission of instructor. 

295. Methods and Materials for Teaching Social Studies. (3) A survey of the basic 
materials, methods, and techniques of teaching social studies in the elementary 
grades. P— Permission of instructor. 

296. Methods and Materials for Teaching Science and Mathematics. (4) A survey 
of the basic materials, methods, and techniques of teaching science and mathematics 
in the intermediate grades. P— Permission of instructor. 

297. Trends and Issues in American Schools. (2) An exploration of contemporary 
trends and issues as they affect course content and teaching methods in the schools. 
The course is intended to help those not entering professional education evaluate 
their schools as informed citizens and decision-makers. 

301. Microcomputer and Audiovisual Literacy. (4) An introduction to microcom- 
puters for educators and other users, emphasizing a familiarity with computers, use 
and evaluation of software, and elementary programming skills in BASIC and LOGO. 
Experience with audiovisual materials and techniques will be included. 

302. Production of Instructional Methods. (4) Methods of producing instructional 
materials and other technological techniques. P— Education 301. 

303. History of Western Education. (4) Educational theory and practice from ancient 
times through the modern period, inciuding American education. 

304. Theories of Education. (4) Contemporary proposals for educational theory and 
practice studied in the context of social issues. 

305. Sociology of Education. (4) A study of contemporary society and education, 
including goals and values, institutional culture, and the teaching/learning process. 

306. Studies in the History and Philosophy of Education. (4) A study of selected 
historical eras, influential thinkers, or crucial problems in education. Topics 
announced annually. 

313. Human Growth and Development. (4) A study of the intellectual, emotional, 
and physical components of growth from birth to adolescence, with special concern 
for the educational implications of this process. 

323. Educational Statistics. (4) Descriptive, inferential, and nonparametric statistical 
procedures involved in educational research. Not open to students who have taken 
Psychology 211 and 212. P— Permission of instructor. 

341. Principles of Counseling and Guidance. (4) Counseling history, philosophy, 
theory, procedure, and process. Therapeutic and developmental counseling ap- 
proaches in guidance and personnel work in education, business, and community 
service agencies. 



108 



351. Adolescent Psychology. (4) An introduction to theories of adolescent psychology 
as related to teaching and counseling in various settings The readings emphasize 
researchers' suggestions for parenting, teaching, and counseling adolescents bet- 
ween the ages of thirteen and nineteen. 

352. Middle School Methods. (4) Exploration of the content and method pertinent 
to a specific discipline as well as the general methodological and curriculum con- 
cerns of learning at the middle school (6-9) level. 

383. Reading, Writing and Computers in the Content Areas. (3) The course pro- 
vides an introduction to teaching the basic reading skills at the intermediate and 
secondary level; vocabulary, comprehension, reading rate, selection of texts, and 
critical and interpretive reading. Particularly stressed are diagnoses of reading pro- 
blems and techniques for correcting these problems in specific subject content areas. 

384. Creative Research Methodologies. (2) An investigation of source materials, 
printed and manuscript, and research methods which are applied to creative 
classroom experiences and the preparation of research papers in literature and social 
studies. 

385. Publishing in America and Professional Authorship. (2) A survey of the history 
of publishing and literary authorship in the United States emphasizing social con- 
texts and the impact of books on American institutions. 

387. Tutoring Basic Writing. (4) Review of rhetorical and composition theory, from 
Aristotle to the present. Special attention to modern theories of teaching the basic 
writer, including individual tutoring as used in the Writing Center. A student may 
not receive credit for both Education 387 and English 287. 

391. Teaching the Gifted. (4) An investigation of theory and practice pertinent to 
teachers of the gifted. 

392. The Psychology of the Gifted Child. (4) A discussion of giftedness and creativity 
in children and the relationship of those characteristics to adult superior performance. 
Topics to be covered include a history of the study of precocity, methods and pro- 
blems of identification, the relationship of giftedness and creativity, personality 
characteristics and social-emotional problems of gifted children, and the social im- 
plications of studying giftedness. 

393. Individual Study. (2,4) A project in an area of study not otherwise available 
in the Department of Education. Permitted upon departmental approval of petition 
presented by a qualified student. 

394. Internship in Education of the Gifted. (4) An intensive period of observation 
and instruction of gifted students. Readings and directed reflection upon the 
classroom experience will be used to develop a richer understanding of such a special 
school setting. 

396. Education in Business and Industry. (4) Educational concepts applied to pro- 
grams in education and training in business/industrial settings. 



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English 

Barry G. Maine, Chairman 

Professors John A. Carter Jr., Nancy J. Cotton, Doyle R. Fosso, 

W. Dillon Johnston, Robert W. Lovett, Elizabeth Phillips, 

Lee Harris Potter, Robert N. Shorter, Edwin Graves Wilson 

Associate Professors Mary K. DeShazer, Andrew V. Ettin, 

James S. Hans, Barry G. Maine, Dolly A. McPherson, 

William M. Moss, Gillian R. Overing 

Assistant Professors Timothy Bent, Gale Sigal, Claudia N. Thomas 

Visiting Assistant Professors Anne Boyle, Randy Brandes, Barbara Heusel, 

Kathleen A. Reuter, Emily Seelbinder, Mark S. Sexton 

Professor of Journalism Bynum G. Shaw 

Lecturers Linda C. Brinson, Patricia A. Johansson 

Poet-in- Residence Robert A. Hedin 

Instructor Helen W. Robbins 

The major in English requires a minimum of forty credits, at least thirty-two of 
which must be in advanced language and literature courses numbered 300 to 399. 
These courses must include Shakespeare, two additional courses in British literature 
before 1800, one course in American literature, and, early in the major, one seminar. 
Majors and their advisers plan individual programs to meet these requirements and 
to include work in the major literary types. 

A minor in English requires English 160 or 165 and English 170 or 175, plus five 
advanced language and literature courses. Each minor will be assigned an adviser 
in the English department who will plan with the student a program of study. 

The prerequisite for all 300-level courses in English is any one of the courses in 
British and American literature numbered 160, 165, 170, and 175, all of which are 
offered each semester. Additional courses in journalism and writing are offered by 
the department as related subjects but do not count toward an English major; they 
may be taken as electives regardless of the field of study in which a student majors. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply in the second 
semester of their junior year for admission to the honors program in English. To 
graduate with "Honors in English," students must have a minimum grade-point 
average of 3.5 in the major and 3.0 in all course work and must satisfy the re- 
quirements for English 388 during their senior year. Interested students may con- 
sult departmental faculty members for further information. 



Lower Division Courses 

11. Composition Review. (0) A tutorial in the essentials of standard usage and the 
basic principles of composition. 

105. English Fundamentals. (2) Training in the fundamentals of written English. 



110 



Satisfactory completion required for entry into English 110. Admission by placement 
only; does not satisfy the basic composition requirement. 

*110. English Composition. (4) Training in expository writing; frequent essays 
based upon readings. 

"112. English Composition and Literature. (4) Training in expository writing based 
on the reading of literature. P— Permission of department. 

160. Survey of Major British Writers. (4) Eight to ten writers representing different 
periods and genres. 

165. Studies in Major British Writers. (4) Three to five writers representing different 
periods; primarily discussion, with frequent short papers. Limited enrollment. P— 
Permission of department. 

170. Survey of Major American Writers. (4) Nine to eleven writers representing dif- 
ferent periods and genres. 

175. Studies in Major American Writers. (4) Three to five writers representing dif- 
ferent periods; primarily discussion, with frequent short papers. Limited enrollment. 
P— Permission of department. 

180. Traditions of Humanity: The Liberal Arts. (2) A study of major concepts of 
liberal education in the Western world. 

210. Advanced Composition. (4) Study of prose models of exposition; frequent papers 
and individual conferences. Enrollment limited. P— Satisfaction of basic composi- 
tion requirement. 

225. Reading Short Fiction. (2) Selected readings from the genre of short fiction 
designed to increase students' appreciation and pleasure. 

226. Reading the Novel. (2) Selected readings from the genre of the novel designed 
to increase students' appreciation and pleasure. 

227. Reading Poetry. (2) Selected readings from the genre of poetry designed to in- 
crease students' appreciation and pleasure. 

228. Reading Drama. (2) Selected readings from the genre of drama designed to 
increase students' appreciation and pleasure. 

299. Individual Study. (2-4) A course of independent study with faculty guidance. 
By prearrangement. 



*Either 110 or 112 is a prerequisite for all other courses in English unless the basic requirement is waived. 
Either course fulfills the basic requirement. 



Ill 



Journalism Courses 

270. Introduction to Journalism. (4) Survey of the fundamental principles of news- 
gathering and news-writing; study of news and news values, with some attention 
to representative newspapers. 

272. Editing. (4) A laboratory course in copy-editing, headline-writing, typography, 
and make-up; practice on video display terminal. P— English 270. 

276. Advanced Journalism. (4) Intensive practice in writing various types of 
newspaper stories, including the feature article. Limited to students planning careers 
in journalism. P— English 270. 

278. History of Journalism. (4) A study of the development of American journalism 
and its English origins; detailed investigations of representative world newspapers. 

284. The Essay. (2) Primarily for those interested in writing for publication, with 
concentration on writing various types of essays. 

298. Internship. (2) A course designed to assist students in gaining practical ex- 
perience in news-related enterprises, under faculty supervision. 

299. Individual Study. (2-4) A course of independent study with faculty guidance. 
By prearrangement. 

Writing Courses 

285. Poetry Workshop. (2) A laboratory course in the writing of verse. Study of poetic 
techniques and forms as well as works of contemporary poets. Frequent individual 
conferences. 

286. Short Story Workshop. (2) A study of the fundamental principles of short fiction 
writing; practice in writing; extensive study of short story form. P— Permission of 
instructor. 

287. Tutoring Basic Writing. (4) Review of rhetorical and composition theory, from 
Aristotle to the present. Special attention to modern theories of teaching the basic 
writer, including individual tutoring as used in the Writing Center. A student may 
not receive credit for both Education 387 and English 287. 

383, 384. Theory and Practice of Verse Writing. (4,4) Emphasis on reading and 
discussing student poems in terms of craftsmanship and general principles. 

Advanced Language and Literature Courses 

300. Seminar in the Major. (4) Selected topics in British and American literature. 
Intensive practice in critical discourse, including discussion, oral reports, and short 
essays. Introduction to literary scholarship and research methodology leading to a 
documented paper. Required for all majors. 



112 



301. Individual Authors. (2) Study of selected work from an important American 
or British author. May be repeated. 

302. Ideas in Literature. (2) Study of a significant literary theme in selected works. 
May be repeated. 

304. History of the English Language. (4) A survey of the development of English 
syntax, morphology, and phonology from Old English to the present, with attention 
to vocabulary growth. 

305. Old English Language and Literature. (4) An introduction to the Old English 
language and a study of the historical and cultural background of Old English 
literature, including Anglo-Saxon and Viking art, runes, and Scandinavian 
mythology. Readings from Beowulf and selected poems and prose. 

311. The Legend of Arthur. (4) The origin and development of the Arthurian legend 
in France and England, with emphasis on the works of Chretien de Troyes and Sir 
Thomas Malory. 

315. Chaucer. (4) Emphasis on The Canterbury Tales and Troilus and Criseyde, with 
some attention to minor poems. Consideration of literary, social, religious, and 
philosophical background. 

320. British Drama to 1642. (4) British drama from its beginning to 1642, exclusive 
of Shakespeare. Representative cycle plays, moralities, Elizabethan and Jacobean 
tragedies, comedies, and tragicomedies. 

323. Shakespeare. (4) Thirteen representative plays illustrating Shakespeare's 
development as a poet and dramatist. 

325. Sixteenth Century British Literature. (4) Concentration on the poetry of Spenser, 
Sidney, Shakespeare, Wyatt, and Drayton, with particular attention to sonnets and 
The Faerie Queene. 

327. Milton. (4) The poetry and selected prose of John Milton, with emphasis on 
Paradise Lost. 

328. Seventeenth Century British Literature. (4) Poetry of Donne, Herbert, Vaughan, 
Marvel, Crashaw, prose of Bacon, Burton, Browne, Walton. Consideration of 
religious, political, and scientific backgrounds. 

330. British Literature of the Eighteenth Century. (4) Representative poetry and prose, 
exclusive of the novel, 1700-1800, drawn from Addison, Steele, Defoe, Swift, Pope, 
Johnson, and Bos well. Consideration of cultural backgrounds and significant literary 
trends. 

332. Satire. (4) The nature of the satiric form and the satiric spirit as revealed through 
reading and critical analysis of significant examples, mostly British and American. 

335. Eighteenth Century British Fiction. (4) Primarily the fiction of Defoe, Richard- 
son, Fielding, Smollett, Sterne, and Austen. 



113 



336. Restoration and Eighteenth Century British Drama. (4) British drama from 1660 
to 1780, including representative plays by Dryden, Etherege, Wycherley, Congreve, 
Goldsmith, and Sheridan. 

338. British Literature of the Late Eighteenth Century. (4) A study of the period's 
interest in the exotic, the gothic, the oriental, and the medieval. Authors include 
Goldsmith, Burns, Walpole, and Burke. 

340. Studies in Women and Literature. (4) A. The woman writer in society. B. 
Feminist critical approaches to literature. 

350. British Romantic Poets. (4) A review of the beginnings of Romanticism in British 
literature, followed by study of Wordsworth, Coleridge, Byron, Keats, and Shelley; 
collateral reading in the prose of the period. 

353. Nineteenth Century British Fiction. (4) Representative major works by Dickens, 
Eliot, Thackeray, Hardy, the Brontes, and others. 

354. Victorian Poetry. (4) A study of Tennyson, Browning, Hopkins, and Arnold 
or another Victorian poet. 

360. Studies in Victorian Literature. (4) Selected topics, such as development of 
genres, major authors and texts, and cultural influences. Readings in poetry, fiction, 
autobiography, and other prose. 

362. Blake, Yeats, and Thomas. (3 or 4) Reading and critical analysis of the poetry 
of Blake, Yeats, and Dylan Thomas; study of the plays of Yeats and his contemporaries 
in the Irish Renaissance, especially Synge and Lady Gregory. 

364. Studies in Literary Criticism. (4) Consideration of certain figures and schools 
of thought significant in the history of literary criticism. 

365. Twentieth Century British Fiction. (4) A study of Conrad, Lawrence, Joyce, 
Forster, Woolf, and later British writers, with attention to their social and intellectual 
backgrounds. 

367. Twentieth Century Poetry. (4) Readings of major poets from 1900 to 1965 in 
relation to the development of Modernism. 

368. Studies in Irish Literature. (4) Critical readings of the works of major Irish writers 
within the context of the political, social, and literary history of Ireland. 

369. Modern Drama. (4) Main currents in modern drama from nineteenth century 
naturalism and symbolism through expressionism and absurdism, including represen- 
tative plays by Shaw, O'Neill, Williams, and Pinter. 

370. American Literature to 1820. (4) Origins and development of American literature 
and thought in representative writings of the Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal 
periods. 

372. American Romanticism. (4) Writers of the mid-nineteenth century, including 
Emerson, Thoreau, Hawthorne, and Melville. 



114 



376. American Poetry from 1855 to 1900. (4) Readings from at least two of the 
following poets; Whitman, Dickinson, Melville. 

377. American Jewish Literature. (4) A survey of writings on Jewish topics or 
experiences by American Jewish writers. The course explores cultural and genera- 
tional conflicts, responses to social change, the impact of the Shoah (Holocaust) on 
American Jews, and the challenges of language and form posed by Jewish and non- 
Jewish artistic traditions. 

378. Literature of the American South. (4) A study of Southern literature from its 
beginnings to the present, with emphasis upon such major writers as Tate, Warren, 
Faulkner, O'Connor, Welty, and Styron. 

380. American Fiction from 1865 to 1915. (4) Such writers as Twain, James, Howells, 
Crane, Dreiser, Wharton, and Cather. 

381. Studies in Black American Literature. (4) Reading and critical analysis of selected 
fiction, poetry, drama, and other writing by representative black Americans. 

382. Modern American Fiction, 1915 to the Present. (4) To include such writers as 
Lewis, Hemingway, Fitzgerald, Faulkner, Steinbeck, Wolfe, Wright, Katherine Anne 
Porter, Mailer, Bellow, Malamud, Flannery O'Connor, Baldwin, and Styron. 

386. Directed Reading. (2-4) A tutorial in an area of study not otherwise provided 
by the department; granted upon departmental approval of petition presented by 
a qualified student. 

388. Honors in English. (4) A conference course centering upon a special reading 
requirement and a thesis requirement. For senior students wishing to graduate with 
"Honors in English." 

389. The Use of the Library in Literary Research. (2) Attention to materials, methods, 
and bibliography for the study of literature. 

390. The Structure of English. (4) An introduction to the principles and techniques 
of modern linguistics applied to contemporary American English. 

395. Contemporary American Literature. (4) A study of post-World War II American 
poetry and fiction by such writers as Bellow, Gass, Barth, Pynchon, Lowell, Ashbery, 
Ammons, Bishop, and Rich. 



115 



German and Russian 

Larry E. West, Chairman 

Professors Ralph S. Fraser, Wilmer D. Sanders, 

Timothy F. Sellner, Larry E. West 

Associate Professor William S. Hamilton 

Instructors Christa G. Carollo, Kurt C. Shaw 

A major in German requires thirty-seven credits beyond German 111, 112. These 
must include German 217 and should include 281 and 285. A minor in German 
requires five courses beyond German 153, one of which must be German 217. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to 
the honors program in German. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in 
German," they must complete a senior research project and pass a comprehensive 
examination. For additional information, members of the departmental faculty should 
be consulted. 

Students of German are invited to apply for the exchange scholarship at the Free 
University of Berlin and for programs of study at Freiburg and Vienna administered 
by the Institute of European Studies. Majors and minors are encouraged to live for 
at least one semester in the German House. 

Ill, 112. Elementary German. (4,4) This course covers the principles of grammar and 
pronunciation and includes the reading of simple texts. Lab— one hour. 

113. Intensive Elementary German. (5) A one-semester course covering the material 
of German 111 and 112. For students whose preparation for German 153 is inade- 
quate or who have demonstrated proficiency in another language. Not open to 
students who have had German 111 or 112. 

153. Intermediate German. (5) The principles of grammar are reviewed; reading of 
selected prose and poetry. Lab— one hour. P— German 112 or 113. 

153x. Intermediate German. (4) The principles of grammar are reviewed; reading of 
selected prose and poetry. Lab— one hour. P— Three years of high school German. 

160. German Language and Customs. (4) Students spend one month in four different 
regions of Germany and Austria in a program designed to provide constant exposure 
to the language, customs, geography, and art of these countries. They attend daily 
language classes as well as lectures and cultural events. They are required to keep 
a journal in German. Pass/Fail. Offered in summer. P— German 112 or 113. 

215, 216. Introduction to German Literature. (4,4) The object of this course is to acquaint 
the student with masterpieces of German literature. Parallel reading and reports. P— 
German 153 or equivalent. 

217. Composition and Grammar Review. (4) A review of the fundamentals of German 
grammar with intensive practice in translation and composition. Required for majors. 
P— German 153 or equivalent. 



116 



218. Basic Conversation. (4) Practice in speaking German, stressing correctness of 
structure, phonetics, pronunciation, fluency, and vocabulary for everyday situations. 
P— German 153 or equivalent. 

219. Advanced Conversation. (4) Practice in speaking German at a more advanced 
level, stressing discussion of various topics of current importance in the German- 
speaking countries. Considerable attention is devoted to achieving fluency. P— German 
218 or permission of instructor. 

220. German Civilization. (4) A survey of contemporary German culture, including 
a study of its historical development in broad outline. The course is conducted in 
German. P— German 153 or equivalent. 

240. Modern Masterworks in Translation. (2) Examination and interpretation of 
selected text in English translation. Literary periods, genres, and authors will vary 
according to instructor. Does not count toward a major or minor in German. 

249. Old High German and Middle High German Literature. (4) The study of major 
writers and works from these two areas; emphasizes major writings of the chivalric 
period. P— German 215, 216, or equivalent. 

250. Renaissance, Reformation, and Baroque German Literature. (4) A study of major 
writers and works from the post-chivalric period to approximately 1700. P— German 
215, 216, or equivalent. 

253. Eighteenth Century German Literature. (4) A study of major writers and works 
of the Enlightenment and Sturm und Drang. P— German 215, 216, or equivalent. 

263. German Literature of the Nineteenth Century I. (4) Poetry, prose, dramas, and 
critical works from approximately 1795 to 1848. P— German 215, 216, or equivalent. 

264. German Literature of the Nineteenth Century II. (4) Readings from the beginnings 
of Poetic Realism to the advent of Naturalism. P— German 215, 216, or equivalent. 

270. Individual Study. (1-4) Studies in literature not ordinarily read in other courses. 
P— German 215, 216, and permission of instructor. 

281. Seminar: Twentieth Century Prose. (4) Intensive study of certain works by Thomas 
Mann, Hesse, and Kafka, plus considerable outside reading. P— German 215, 216, 
or equivalent. 

285. Seminar in Goethe. (4) Faust, Part I and other major dramas by Goethe and 
Schiller. Parallel readings in other works by these authors. P— German 215, 216, or 
equivalent. 

287, 288. Honors in German. (3,3) A conference course in German literature. A major 
research paper is required. Designed for candidates for departmental honors. 



117 



Russian 

A minor in Russian requires twenty credits beyond 153, four of which must be earned 
in Russian 221. 

Ill, 112. Elementary Russian. (4,4) The essentials of Russian grammar, conversation 
drill, and reading of elementary texts. Lab required. P— Permission of instructor. 

153. Intermediate Russian. (5) Training in principles of translation with grammar 
review and conversation practice. Lab required. P— Russian 112 or equivalent. 

153x. Intermediate Russian. (4) Open by placement or permission. Lab required. 

215. Introduction to Russian Literature. (4) Reading of edited texts from the nine- 
teenth century. P— Russian 153 or equivalent. 

216. Introduction to Russian Literature. (4) Reading of edited texts from the twen- 
tieth century. P— Russian 153 or equivalent. 

217. Seminar in Nineteenth Century Russian Literature. (4) A study of the foremost 
writers, with reading of representative works. P— Russian 153 or equivalent. 

218. Seminar in Contemporary Russian Literature. (4) Reading of representative works 
in Russian with discussion of political and cultural backgrounds. P— Russian 153 or 
equivalent. 

221. Advanced Conversation and Composition. (4) Study of grammar at the advanced 
level. Intensive practice in composition and conversation based on themes in a review 
text and on articles from the Soviet press. 

242. Research on Language and Culture in the Soviet Union. (2) An investigation 
designed by the student is carried out in the USSR during spring break. An evaluative 
paper follows the class trip. Credit given for the minor when the project is done in 
Russian. P— Russian 111 and permission of instructor. Limited enrollment. 

270. Individual Study. (2-4) Study in language or literature beyond the 215-216 level. 
P— Russian 215 or higher. 



Health and Sport Science 

William L. Hottinger, Chairman 

Professors William L. Hottinger, Paul M. Ribisl 

Associate Professors Dorothy Casey, Leo Ellison, 

Stephen P. Messier, W. Jack Rejeski 

Assistant Professor Michael J. Berry 

Instructors Donald Bergey, Susan Fisher, 

Bobbie Goodnough, Rebecca Myers 

The purpose of the Department of Health and Sport Science is to organize, 
administer, and supervise (1) a health and sport science curriculum; (2) a required/ 



118 



elective health and sport science program consisting of conditioning activities, dance, and 
lifetime sport activities; and (3) an intramural sports program. 

Health and Sport Science Requirement 

All entering students are required to complete two courses in health and sport 
science: Foundations of Health and Physical Fitness (111), and one additional course 
selected from the 100-series of health and sport science courses. The requirement 
must be completed before elective courses are taken. It is recommended that the 
requirement be completed by the end of the student's first year; it must be completed 
by the end of the second year. 

Courses in Basic Instruction and Elective Health and Sport Science 

All the courses listed below are offered for one credit each. 

111. Foundations of Health and Physical Fitness 

112. Sports Proficiency 

113. Adaptive Physical Activity 

114. Weight Control 

115. Physical Conditioning 

116. Weight Training 

119. Aerobic Dancing 

120. Beginning Dance Technique 

121. Intermediate Dance Technique (P— Health and Sport Science 120 or 
permission of instructor) 

122. Advanced Dance Technique (P— Health and Sport Science 121 or 
permission of instructor) 

123. Dance Composition (P— Health and Sport Science 121) 

124. Social Dance 

125. Folk and Social Dance 

126. Jazz Dance 

127. Classical Ballet 

*128. Dance Theatre (P— Permission of instructor) 
130. Beginning Tumbling/Free Exercise 

140. Beginning Swimming 

141. Intermediate/ Advanced Swimming 

145. Advanced Lifesaving and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (P— Strong 
swimming ability) 

146. Water Safety Instructor's Course (P— Current advanced lifesaving 
certification) 

150. Beginning Tennis 

151. Intermediate Tennis 

152. Advanced Tennis (P— Health and Sport Science 151 or equivalent) 



"One course taken two semesters for one credit. May be repeated for a maximum of three credits. 



119 



154. Beginning/Intermediate Badminton 

156. Beginning Racquetball 

157. Intermediate Racquetball 

160. Beginning Golf 

161. Intermediate Golf 
163. Bowling 

170. Volleyball 

179. Beginning Horseback Riding 

180. Intermediate/ Advanced Horseback Riding 

181. S«ow Skiing 

182. Beginning Ice Figure Skating 

183. Intermediate/Advanced Ice Figure Skating 

190. Karate 

191. Yo^fl 

Courses for the Major and Minor 

The department offers a program leading to the BS degree in health and sport 
science. A major requires forty-four credits and must include Health and Sport Science 
203, 204, 209, 212, 230, 350, 351, 352, 353, 360, and 370. A maximum of five 100-level 
activity courses can be counted toward the major, excluding the University require- 
ment. A minimum grade-point average of 2.0 is required for graduation in courses 
that comprise a major in the department. 

A minor in health and sport science requires twenty-four credits. Twelve credits 
must be selected from Health and Sport Science 350, 351, 352, 353, 354, 360, and 
370. The remaining twelve credits may be selected from these courses but may also 
include Health and Sport Science 209, 212, 230, 241, 264, and 363. To minor, a student 
must have department approval. 

A dance minor requires twenty-four credits and must include Health and Sport 
Science 120, 121, 122, 123, 126, 127, 128, and 201; Music 101; Speech Communica- 
tion and Theatre Arts 121; and History of Dance 104 (offered at Salem College). The 
remaining credits may be selected from Health and Sport Science 191, 370; Music 
161, 165p, 165r, 165v, 166r, 168v, 190, 261; and Speech Communication and Theatre 
Arts 122, 221, 317, and 319. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to 
the honors program. Upon successfully meeting specifically outlined requirements, 
they are recommended for graduation with "Honors in Health and Sport Science." 
Consult an adviser in the health and sport science department for more information. 

Any student interested in majoring in health and sport science should consult the 
chairman of the department as soon as possible after entering the University. 

201. Senior Dance Project. (2) A course involving the creative process of developing 
a dance. 

203. Exercise Prescription/Training I. (2) A lecture/laboratory course which presents 
the basic principles of safe and effective exercise prescription for people of all ages. 



120 



Lectures emphasize the scientific concepts of exercise preparation for aerobic-type 
activities. Laboratory sessions emphasize the application of these concepts. P— Health 
and Sport Science 353. 

204. Exercise Prescription/Training II. (2) A laboratory course which emphasizes 
the principles of exercise prescription and conditioning in aquatics and weight train- 
ing. Emphasis on application of scientific concepts, including measurement and 
evaluation, to these activities. P— Health and Sport Science 353. 

205. Basic Skin and Scuba Diving and Open Water Certification. (2) A course in 
skin and scuba diving that offers international certification by the Professional Associa- 
tion of Diving Instructors (PADI). 

208. Current Topics in Sports Psychology. (2) A survey of the field with an emphasis 
on current topics. Students may not receive credit for both 208 and 212. 

209. Introduction to Health and Sport Science. (2) A course which traces the history 
of exercise and sport science. Students also examine the relevance of health and sport 
science in modern society. 

212. Exercise and Health Psychology. (4) A survey of the psychological antecedents 
of exercise and selected topics in health psychology with particular attention to 
wellness, stress, the biobehavioral basis of coronary heart disease, and the 
psychodynamics of rehabilitative medicine. P— Psychology 151 or permission of 
instructor. 

223. Health and Physical Education for the Elementary Grades. (4) The develop- 
ment of physical education skills appropriate for the elementary grade teacher and 
an understanding of the personal and community health needs appropriate for the 
grade level. P— Education 201 or permission of instructor. 

230. First Aid and CPR. (2) A course in first aid and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. 
Red Cross certification offered in both areas. 

241. Growth, Development, and Physical Activity. (2) An examination of the effect 
of physical activity on physical, intellectual, and social/psychological development. 

264. Adapted Physical Activity. (2) A survey of physical disabilities and ways that 
physical activity programs can be adapted to meet the needs of the disabled. 

310. Applied Field Study. (2) A course involving application of theory and methods 
of solving problems in a specialized area according to the student's immediate career 
goals. P— Permission of instructor. 

350. Human Physiology. (4) A lecture course which presents the basic principles 
and concepts of the function of selected systems of the human body, with emphasis 
on the muscular, cardiovascular, pulmonary, and nervous systems. P— Biology 111 
or permission of instructor. 

351. Nutrition and Weight Control. (4) A lecture/laboratory course which presents 



121 



the principles of proper nutrition including an understanding of the basic foodstuffs 
and nutrients as well as the influence of genetics, eating behavior, and activity 
patterns on energy balance and weight control. Laboratory experiences examine in- 
tervention in obesity and coronary heart disease through diet analysis, methods of 
diet prescription, and behavior modification. P— Health and Sport Science 350 or 
permission of instructor. 

352. Human Gross Anatomy. (4) A lecture/laboratory course in which the structure 
and function of the human body are studied. Laboratories are devoted to the dissec- 
tion and study of the human musculoskeletal, neuromuscular, and vascular systems. 

353. Physiology of Exercise. (4) A lecture course which presents the concepts and 
applications of the physiological response of the human body to physical activity. 
The acute and chronic responses of the muscular and cardiorespiratory systems to 
exercise are examined. Other topics mclude exercise and coronary disease, nutri- 
tion and performance, strength and endurance training, somatotype and body com- 
position, sex-related differences, and environmental influences. P— Health and Sport 
Science 350 or permission of instructor. 

354. Laboratory Techniques in Exercise Science. (4) A laboratory course which 
demonstrates the concepts of the physiological response to exercise. Weekly ex- 
periments on a variety of topics give students hands-on experience with data collec- 
tion methods. Experimental results are analyzed and presented in written lab reports. 
P— Health and Sport Science 353. 

360. Evaluation and Measurement. (4) A course in applied univariate statistics and 
measurement techniques in exercise and sport science. Students are introduced to 
both the BMDP statistical software package and the use of microcomputers for data 
management. 

363. Personal and Community Health. (4) A study of life-time personal health needs 
and the community's role in administering health programs. 

370. Biomechanics of Human Movement. (4) Study of the mechanical principles 
which influence human movement, sport technique, and equipment design. 

382. Individual Study. (1-4) Independent study directed by a faculty adviser. The 
student must consult the adviser before registering for this course. 

Sports Medicine 

201. Basic Athletic Training. (4) A study of the basic knowledge and skills in the 
prevention, treatment, and care of common athletic injuries. 

302. Advanced Athletic Training. (4) An in-depth analysis of preventive measures, 
therapeutic modalities, and rehabilitative procedures employed in sports medicine. 
P— Health and Sport Science 352. 



122 



History 

J. Howell Smith, Chairman 

Worrell Professor of Anglo-American Studies James Ralph Scales 

Professors Richard C. Barnett, James P. Barefield, Cyclone Covey, 

Balkrishna Govind Gokhale, J. Edwin Hendricks, 

Thomas E. Mullen, David L. Smiley, J. Howell Smith, 

Lowell R. Tillett, W. Buck Yearns, Richard L. Zuber 

Associate Professors Merrill G. Berthrong, David W. Hadley, 

Michael L. Sinclair, Alan J. Williams 

Assistant Professors Michael L. Hughes, 

Susan P. McCaffray, Sarah L. Watts 

Lecturer Negley Boyd Harte (London) 

The major in history consists of a minimum of thirty-six credits and must include 
History 310, from six to eight credits in European history, three or four credits in 
non-Western history, and from six to eight credits in American history. One of the 
American history courses must be 151, 152, or 153. Majors may include up to eight 
credits of advanced placement work and four credits for any combination of indepen- 
dent study and directed reading. 

A minor in history requires twenty-four credits. 

Highly qualified majors should apply for admission to the honors program in 
history. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in History," the student 
must complete satisfactorily History 287 and 288. For additional information, members 
of the departmental faculty should be consulted. 

Students contemplating graduate study should acquire a reading knowledge of 
one modern foreign language (preferably French, German, or Russian) for the MA 
degree and two for the PhD degree. 

101. The Rise of the West. (4) A survey of ancient, medieval, and early modern history 
to 1700. 

102. Europe and the World in the Modern Era. (4) A survey of modern Europe from 
1700 to the present. 

103. World Civilizations to 1500. (4) A survey of the ancient, classical and medieval 
civilizations of Eurasia with a brief look at American and sub-Saharan societies. 

104. World Civilizations Since 1500. (4) A survey of the major civilizations of the 
world in the modern and contemporary periods. 

131. European Historical Biography. (2) Study of biographies of men and women 
who have influenced the history and civilization of Europe. 

151, 152. The United States. (4,4) Political, social, economic, and intellectual aspects. 
151: before 1865; 152: after 1865. Students who take History 153 may not take either 
of these courses for credit. 



123 



153. The United States. (4) A topical survey combining 151 and 152. Not open to 
students who take either 151 or 152. 

160. Freud. (4) An investigation of Freud's basic ideas in the context of his time. 
Books to be read include The Interpretation of Dreams, Civilization and its Discontents, 
and Jones' biography in the Trilling abridgement. 

162. History of Wake Forest University. (2) A survey of the history of Wake Forest 
from its beginning, including its written and oral traditions. The course may include 
a visit to the town of Wake Forest. 

211. Colloquium. (1-4) 

215, 216. The Ancient World. (4,4) Critical focus on the Greeks in the fall and Romans 
in the spring, but in global context of paleolithic to medieval; psychological/ 
philosophical emphasis. 

221. The Middle Ages. (4) A survey of European history, 400-1300, stressing social 
and cultural developments. 

224. The Reformation. (2) Europe in the age of the Reformation. 

2260. History of London. (4) Topographical, social, economic, and political history 
of London from the earliest times. Lectures, student papers and reports, museum 
visits and lectures, and on-site inspections. Offered in London. 

2262. The Golden Age of Burgundy. (2) Burgundian society, culture, and govern- 
ment in the reigns of Philip the Bold, John the Fearless, Philip the Good, and Charles 
the Rash, 1384-1477. Offered in Dijon. 

2263. Venetian Society and Culture. (4) An examination of Venetian society, including 
the role within Venetian life of music, theatre, the church, and civic ritual. Offered 
in Venice. 

232. European Historical Novels. (2) Study of the accuracy and value, from the stand- 
point of the historian, of a selection of historical novels. 

2370. Churchill. (4) The life and times of Britain's World War II leader (1874-1965). 
Offered in London. 

2380. Scandal in Government: US and British Models. (4) A study of corruption 
in the governments of the two great democracies from the rise of the parliamentary 
system in the eighteenth century to Watergate and the present time. Offered in London. 

265. American Diplomatic History. (4) An introduction to the history of American 
diplomacy since 1776, emphasizing the effects of public opinion on fundamental 
policies. 

270. Oral History. (4) How to research family and community history with the tape 
recorder. 



124 



272. Modern Latin America. (4) A survey of Latin American history since 
Independence, with emphasis on the twentieth century. The course will concen- 
trate chiefly on economics, politics, and race. 

287, 288. Honors in History. (4,4) 287: seminar on problems of historical synthesis 
and interpretation; 288: writing of a major paper and examination on a special field. 

310. Seminar. (4) Offered by members of the faculty on topics of their choice. A paper 
is required. 

311, 312. Social and Intellectual History of Modern Europe. (4,4) Intellectual trends 
in Western European civilization. 311: seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; 312: 
nineteenth and twentieth centuries. 

313, 314. European Economic and Social History, 1300-1973. (4,4) Changes in 
Europe's economic structures and how they affected Europeans' lives. Emphasizes 
how economic forces interacted with social and institutional factors. 313: 1300-1750; 
314: 1750-1973. 

317. The French Revolution and Napoleonic Empire. (4) The revolution and wars 
that constitute one of the pivotal points in modern history. 

319, 320. Germany. (4,4) 319: origins of the German nation and the rise of Prussia 
in a context of particularism; 320: from Bismarck to divided Germany. 

321, 322. France. (4,4) 321: from prehistoric Gaul to 1788, with particular emphasis 
on the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries; 322: 1788 to the present. 

323, 324. England. (4,4) A political and social survey, with some attention to 
Continental movements. 323: to 1603; 324: 1603 to present. 

325. Tudor and Early Stuart England. (4) A constitutional and social study of England 
from 1485 to 1641. 

331, 332. Russia. (4,4) Political, social, economic, and cultural history of Russia. 331: 
origins to 1861; 332: Imperial and Soviet Russia since 1861. 

333. European Diplomacy, 1848-1914. (4) The diplomacy of the great powers, with 
some attention given to the role of publicity in international affairs. Topics include 
the unification of Italy and of Germany, the Bismarckian system, and the coming 
of World War I. 

335, 336. Italy. (4,4) 335: medieval and Renaissance Italy to 1529; 336: 1529 to the 
present. 

338. Twentieth Century Europe. (4) Advent of modernism, World Wars I and II, 
totalitarianism, the Cold War, and Europe in the post-European era. 

339. India in the English Mind. (4) An exploration of the changing images of India, 
its people, and culture as reflected in English literature, especially Kipling, Forster, 
Kaye, and Paul Scott. The three major themes will be confrontation, accommoda- 
tion, and nostalgia. 



125 



340. Afro-American History. (4) The role of Afro-Americans in the development of 
the United States, with particular attention to African heritage, forced migration, 
Americanization, and influence. 

342. The Middle East from Suleiman the Magnificent to the Present. (4) Major 
subjects covered are the rise and fall of the Ottoman Empire, the Arabs and Persians 
under Ottoman hegemony, the rise of Arab nationalism, and the emergence of the 
modern Arab states and their roles in the post-World War II era. 

343. Imperial China. (4) A study of traditional China to 1980, with emphasis on social, 
cultural, and political institutions. 

344. Modern China. (4) A study of China from 1644 to the present. 

345. 346. History and Civilization of South Asia. (4,4) An introduction to the history 
and civilization of South Asia. Emphasis on historical developments in the social, 
economic, and cultural life of the area. 

348. Modern Japan. (4) Tokugawa era; Meiji Restoration; industrialization and 
urbanization; relations with the West; World War II; occupation; Japan in the con- 
temporary world. 

351, 352. American Society and Thought. (4,4) A non-political topical survey of 
American culture and lifestyles. Topics include religion, science, education, architec- 
ture, and immigration. 

353. Colonial English America, 1582-1774. (4) Determinative episodes, figures, 
allegiances, apperceptions, and results of the period, organically considered. 

354. Revolutionary and Early National America, 1763-1815. (4) The American Revolu- 
tion, its causes and effects, the Confederation, the Constitution, and the new nation. 

355. The Westward Movement. (4) The role of the frontier in United States history, 
1763-1890. 

356. Jacksonian America, 1815-1850. (4) The United States in the age of Jackson, 
Clay, Calhoun, and Webster. A biographical approach. 

357. The Civil War and Reconstruction. (4) The political and military events of the 
war and the economic, social, and political readjustments which followed. 

358. The United States from Reconstruction to World War I. (2,4) National progress 
and problems during an era of rapid industrialization. The course may be divided 
into halves for two credits each: (a) the Gilded Age; (b) the Progressive Era. 

359. The United States from Versailles through World War II. (4) The transition 
of America from World War I to 1945, with special emphasis on the significance of 
the New Deal and World War II. 

360. The United States since World War II. (4) Trends and changes in the nation 
from World War II to the present. 



126 



361. Economic History of the United States. (4) The economic development of the 
United States from colonial beginnings to the present. 

362. American Constitutional History. (4) Origins of the Constitution, the controver- 
sies involving the nature of the Union, and constitutional readjustments to meet 
the new American industrialism. 

363. 364. The South. (4,4) Geography, population elements, basic institutions, and 
selected events. 

365. Women in American History. (4) A survey of the roles and activities of women 
in America, with emphasis upon selected individuals. 

366. Studies in Historic Preservation. (4) An analysis of history museums and 
agencies and of the techniques of preserving and interpreting history through 
artifacts, restorations, and reconstructions. P— Permission of instructor. 

369. The American Military Experience. (4) A survey of the military ideas and 
activities of the American people and their armed forces, with emphasis on the rela- 
tionship between war and society. 

391, 392. Historiography. (4,3) The principal historians and their writings from ancient 
times to the present. 391: European historiography; 392: American historiography. 

398. Individual Study. (1-4) A project in an area of study not otherwise available 
in the department; permitted upon departmental approval of petition presented by 
a qualified student. 

399. Directed Reading. (1-4) Concentrated reading in an area of study not other- 
wise available. P— Permission of instructor. 



Humanities 

William S. Hamilton, Coordinator 

Reynolds Professor of American Studies Maya Angelou 

Associate Professor Robert L. Utley Jr. 

121. Introduction to Women's Studies. (4) An interdisciplinary course, taught by 
faculty representing at least two fields, that integrates materials from the humanities 
and the social sciences. Topics include methods and goals of women's studies, 
feminist critical theory, and the place of women in culture and society. 

Humanities courses 213-218 are designed to introduce students to European and 
Latin American works of literature which would not be included in their normal 
course of study. Each course includes a reading in translation of ten to twelve 
representative authors as follows: 



127 



213. Studies in European Literature. (4) Texts studied are by such authors as 
Dante, Montaigne, Cervantes, Goethe, Dostoevsky, and Camus. Satisfies a Divi- 
sion I requirement. 

214. Contemporary Fiction. (4) Texts studied are by such authors as Mann, Sartre, 
Unamuno, Fuentes, Moravia, and Voinovich. Satisfies a Division I requirement. 

215. Germanic and Slavic Literature. (4) Texts studied are by such authors as 
Hoffmann, Kafka, Dostoevsky, Dinesen, Ibsen, Pushkin, and Chekhov. Satisfies 
a Division I requirement. 

216. Romance Literature. (4) Texts studied are by such authors as Boccaccio, 
Calderon, Flaubert, Machado de Assis, Gide, and Lampedusa. Satisfies a Divi- 
sion I requirement. 

217. European Drama. (4) Texts studied are by such authors as Moliere, Garcia- 
Lorca, Pirandello, Schiller, Brecht, Ibsen, and Beckett. Satisfies a Division I 
requirement. 

218. Eastern European Literature. (4) Texts studied are by such authors as Tolstoy, 
Solzhenitsyn, Gogol, Andric, Milosz, and Szabo. Satisfies a Division I requirement. 

242. Research on Culture in the Soviet Union. (2) An investigation designed by the 
student is carried out in the USSR during spring break. An evaluative term paper 
follows the class trip. Students who have studied any Russian should enroll under 
Russian 242. Limited enrollment. P— Permission of instructor. 

280. Reason and Revelation. (4) An investigation of the intellectual roots of Western 
civilization as they are found in the emergence of philosophical universalism and 
Biblical monotheism. These distinctive approaches will be considered through a 
reading of such authors as Plato, Hesiod, Aristophanes, and St. Thomas Aquinas, 
and of selections from the Bible. 

282. Public Life and the Liberal Arts. (4) The course will be devoted to topics of 
abiding public significance. Fundamental dilemmas and resolutions associated with 
each topic will be examined through a consideration of their treatment in the liberal 
arts tradition. The visiting scholars of the Tocqueville Forum will supplement the 
class discussion. "Politics and the Arts" and "Theory and Practice in Public Life" 
are representative topics. 

283. Nature and History in Modern Moral and Social Life. (4) The subject as view- 
ed through such representative writers as Spinoza, Flaubert, Pascal, Eckermann, 
Nietzsche, and Conrad, each of whom in a different way participated in the rejec- 
tion of the teachings of both the Socratic tradition and the Christian church. 

321. Seminar in Women's Studies. (4) Consideration of theoretical and 
methodological questions and research on current topics in women's studies. 

340. Race in the Southern Experience before Emancipation: Four Voices. (1,2) 
Selected writings of David Walker, William Lloyd Garrison, Frederick Douglass, and 



128 



Harriet Beecher Stowe. Pass/Fail only. (Credit not given for Humanities 340 if the 
student has completed Humanities 341.) 

341. Race, Politics, and Literature: Aspects of American Life from 1830 to 1930. (4) 

An examination of the evolution of significant ideas in American civilization. A careful 
reading of Frederick Douglass, Harriet Beecher Stowe, W. E. DuBois, Mark Twain, 
and others. Offered in the fall. 

344. African Culture and Its Impact on the US. (1) A condensed version of Humanities 

345, offered as a minicourse in the spring. Pass/Fail only. (Credit not given for 
Humanities 344 if the student has completed Humanities 345.) 

345. African Culture and Its Impact on the US. (4) The influence of African culture 
on American life will be studied in such areas as dance, music, political approaches, 
grammatical patterns, literature, and culinary preferences. The course will include 
an evaluation of American mores. Offered in the fall. 

350. What the Arts Have Been Saying since 1800. (4) An experiment in developing 
interpretive judgment and insight regarding music, painting, and literature as 
articulations of the frontier consciousness of the period. 

351. Constance Fenimore Woolson. (2,4) A multidisciplinary re-evaluation of her 
life and works during the Western transition to modern Realism and Symbolism, 
with special focus on her relationship to Henry James, W. D. Ho wells, and Alphonse 
Daudet. 

352. The Classical and Surreal Tradition. (4) A venture to define and differentiate 
classical and surreal modes of perception throughout history, their paradoxical rela- 
tionship to each other and to complementary styles, considered in philosophy, music, 
literature, and painting. 

354. The Creative Response to Radical Change. (4) A comparative inquiry into the 
ways in which the American mind has been shaped by works of literature and art 
that reflect radical changes in society. Readings from ancient, medieval, and modern 
periods include the Bible and works of Tacitus, Castiglione, Hoffmann, and Wharton. 

355. Forms and Expressions of Love. (4) Philosophical, religious, and psychological 
delineations of the forms of love; literary, dramatic, musical, and visual portrayals 
of love in selected works of art. 

356. Humanism, "Secular" and Religious. (4) Exploration of the nature of humanism 
through examination of similarities and differences among various forms. Types to 
be considered are: Classical (Platonic, Aristotelian, Stoic, and Epicurean); Christian; 
modern naturalistic; and Confucian. 

360. The Promise and Perils of the Nuclear Age. (4) Scientific, moral, religious, and 
political perspectives on issues associated with nuclear power and nuclear weaponry. 

381. Solzhenitsyn: Witness, Survivor, and Critic. (4) A critical analysis of the political 



129 



and literary development of Solzhenitsyn as seen in his major novels, poems, and 
plays. 

382. Italian Cinema and Society. (4) A survey of some of Italy's greatest postwar 
films with special attention to issues and problems in Italian society as treated by 
major directors such as Fellini, De Sica, Rossellini, Antonioni, and Olmi. 

396. Individual Study. (2-4) Individual projects in the humanities which continue 
study begun in regular courses. By prearrangement. 



£> c 




University Provost and Professor of English Edwin Graves Wilson 



130 



Interdisciplinary Honors 

James P. Barefield, Coordinator 

A series of seminar courses of an interdisciplinary nature is open to qualified 
undergraduates. Students interested in admission to any one of these seminars, 
supervised by the Committee on Honors, should consult the coordinator or a member 
of the committee. 

Students who choose to participate in as many as four interdisciplinary seminars 
and who have a superior record may elect Honors 281, directed study culminating 
in an honors paper and an oral examination. Those whose work has been superior 
in this course and who have achieved an overall grade-point average of at least 3.0 
in all college work may be graduated with the distinction "Honors in the Arts and 
Sciences." Students who choose to be candidates for departmental honors may not 
also be candidates for "Honors in the Arts and Sciences." 

Able students are normally encouraged to choose a departmental honors program 
rather than "Honors in the Arts and Sciences." As a result, most students elect to 
participate in only one or two interdisciplinary seminars in which they are particularly 
interested. The faculty participants for these seminars represent diverse academic 
disciplines. 

131, 132. Approaches to Human Experience I. (4,4) An inquiry into the nature and 
interrelationships of several approaches to man's experience, represented by the work 
of three such minds as Leonardo da Vinci, Dante, Klee, Lorenz, Confucius, 
Dostoevsky, Descartes, Goya, Mozart, Jefferson, and Bohr. Seminar discussion based 
on primary and secondary sources, including musical works and paintings. Written 
reports and a term paper required. Offered in alternate years. 

133, 134. Approaches to Human Experience II. (4,4) A parallel course to Honors 
131, 132, concentrating on the work of a different set of figures such as Einstein, 
Galileo, Keynes, Pascal, Camus, Picasso, Ibsen, Stravinsky, Sophocles, and Bach. 
Offered in alternate years. 

*233. Darwinism and the Modern World. (4) A study of the Darwinian theory of 
evolution and the impact of evolution and evolutionary thought on fields such as 
economics, politics, psychology, literature and the other arts, and philosophy. 

*235. The Ideal Society. (4) Man's effort to establish or imagine the ideal community, 
state, or society; principles of political and social organization; changing goals and 
values. 

*237. The Scientific Outlook. (4) An exploration of the origins and development of 
the scientific method and some of its contemporary applications in the natural and 
social sciencies and the humanities. 



''One or more offered each year at the discretion of the Committee on Honors. 



131 



*238. Romanticism. (4) Romanticism as a recurrent characteristic of mind and art and 
as a specific historical movement in Europe and America in the late eighteenth and 
nineteenth centuries. Emphasis on primary materials in philosophy, literature, music, 
and painting. 

*239. Man and the Irrational. (4) The phenomenon of the irrational, with emphasis 
on its twentieth century manifestations but with attention also to its presence in other 
centuries and cultures. Philosophy, religion, literature, psychology, politics, and the 
arts are explored. 

*240. Adventures in Self-Understanding. (4) Examination and discussion of signifi- 
cant accounts of the quest for understanding of the self, in differing historical periods, 
cultural contexts, and genres. Among figures who may be discussed are Augustine, 
Dante, Gandhi, Montaigne, Descartes, Pascal, and selected modern writers. 

*241. The Tragic View. (4) The theory of tragedy in ancient and modern times; the 
expression of the tragic in literature, art, music, theatre, and film. 

*242. The Comic View. (4) The theory of comedy in ancient and modern times; the 
expression of the comic in literature, art, music, theatre, and film. 

*244. Man and the Structure of the Universe. (4) An investigation of various con- 
ceptions of the universe and their implications for man. Study not necessarily limited 
to the cosmologies of Ptolemy, Copernicus, and their modern successors, but may 
also include theories such as the Babylonian, Mayan, and Taoist. 

*246. Man and the Environment. (4) An interdisciplinary examination of man and 
society in relation to the environment. 

*247. The Mythic View. (4) The nature of myth through creation and hero myths; 
the uses to which myths have been put in different historical periods; various modern 
explanations of myth (literary, religious, anthropological, psychoanalytic, social, and 
historical). 

*248. The Ironic View. (4) An investigation of the ironic view of life in literature, 
art, history, theatre, and film. 

*249. Forms and Expressions of Love. (4) Philosophical, religious, and psychological 
delineations of the forms of love; literary, dramatic, musical, and visual portrayals 
of love in selected works of art. 

*250. Ethical Dilemmas in the Arts and Sciences. (4) An exploration of contemporary 
issues and controversies in the sciences and art, particularly those involved with 
ethical questions resulting from new concepts and discoveries. 

*252. The Mechanistic View of Nature. (4) A study of the controversies, both scien- 
tific and philosophical, arising in the seventeenth century between Cartesians, 
Newtonians, and Leibnizians about the nature and limits of human knowledge. 



"One or more offered each year at the discretion of the Committee on Honors. 



132 



*253. Revolutions in Modern Science. (4) An analysis of the ways in which radically 
new ideas are introduced and accepted in science. Cases studied are space and time 
in relativity theory, the nature of reality in quantum mechanics, evolution of species, 
and continental drift. P— At least one course in one of the relevant areas of science 
or permission of instructor. 

*254. The Promise and Perils of the Nuclear Age. (4) Scientific, moral, religious, and 
political perspectives on issues associated with nuclear power and nuclear weaponry. 

*256. Modern Science and Human Values. (4) Four revolutionary developments in 
science and technology are studied with a focus on their potential to affect human 
values: biotechnology, cognitive science, recent primate research, and the search 
for extraterrestrial life. 

281. Directed Study. (4) Readings on an interdisciplinary topic approved by the 
Committee on Honors; presentation of a major research or interpretive paper based 
on these readings, under the direction of a faculty member; an oral examination on 
the topic, administered by the faculty supervisor and the Committee on Honors. 
Eligible students who wish to take this course must submit a written request to the 
Committee on Honors by the end of the junior year. Not open to candidates for 
departmental honors. 



Mathematics and Computer Science 

Marcellus E. Waddill, Chairman 

Professors John V. Baxley, Richard D. Carmichael, Ivey C. Gentry, 

Frederic T. Howard, James Kuzmanovich, J. Gaylord May, W, Graham May, 

John W. Sawyer Jr., Ben M. Seelbinder, Marcellus E. Waddill 

Associate Professors Elmer K. Hayashi, David J. John, Ellen E. Kirkman 

Assistant Professors Stan J. Thomas, Daniel Canas 

Lecturer Gene T. Lucas 

Instructors Jule M. Connolly, David C. Wilson 

A major in mathematics requires a minimum of forty credits. A student must include 
courses 111, 112, 113, 121, 221, one of the courses 311, 317, 352, 357, and at least 
two additional 300-level courses. A prospective teacher in the education block may 
take 231 in lieu of the course from 311, 317, 352, or 357. Lower division students 
are urged to consult a member of the departmental facuhy before enrolling in courses 
other than those satisfying Division II requirements. 

A major in computer science requires thirty-six credits in computer science and 
three courses in mathematics. The courses in computer science must include 173, 
271, 275, 277, and 279. The required courses in mathematics are 117 plus two 
additional courses numbered 108 or higher. Students considering graduate work 



k One or more offered each year at the discretion of the Committee on Honors. 



133 



in computer science should consult a major adviser in the department for assistance 
in planning an appropriate course of study. 

A minor in computer science requires four courses (sixteen credits) in computer 
science numbered higher than 171 and two courses in mathematics other than 105. 

A minor in mathematics requires Mathematics 111, 112, either 121 or 113, and three 
other courses numbered higher than Mathematics 108, two of which must be 
numbered above 200. 

A minimum GPA of 2.0 in courses which comprise a major or minor in the depart- 
ment is required for graduation with any major or minor which the department offers. 

A regularly scheduled activity in mathematics is an informal seminar of students 
and faculty on topics not discussed in regular courses (for example, finite differences, 
game theory, Monte Carlo method, divergent series). 

The Department of Mathematics and Computer Science and the Department of 
Economics offer a joint major leading to a bachelor of science degree in mathematical 
economics. This interdisciplinary program, consisting of no more than fifty-six credits, 
offers the student an opportunity to apply mathematical methods to the develop- 
ment of economic theory, models, and quantitative analysis. The major has the follow- 
ing course requirements: Mathematics 111, 112, 113, 121, 251; Economics 150, 205, 
207, 208, 215, 218; and three additional courses chosen with the approval of the pro- 
gram advisers. Recommended courses are Mathematics 253, 311, 312, 348, 352, 353, 
357, 358 and Economics 206, 212, 223, 232, 235, 251. Students selecting the joint major 
must receive permission from both the Department of Mathematics and Computer 
Science and the Department of Economics. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to 
the honors program in mathematics or in the joint major. To be graduated with the 
designation "Honors in Mathematics," or "Honors in Mathematical Economics," 
they must complete satisfactorily a senior research paper and pass a comprehensive 
oral or written examination. For additional information, members of the depart- 
mental faculty should be consulted. 

Students who are enrolled at Wake Forest may not take courses in mathematics 
and/or computer science at other institutions to satisfy divisional requirements. 

Computer Science* 

171. Introduction to Computer Programming. (2) Lecture and laboratory. A first 
course in computer programming. Does not count toward computer science major 
or minor. Not available on Pass/Fail basis. 

173. Fundamentals of Computer Science. (4) Lecture and laboratory. A course in 
structured programming, problem solving, and coding in a high level programming 
language. P— Computer Science 171 or equivalent. 



*Other courses in which computing is used or taught extensively are Mathematics 355, Physics 130, 
and Physics 330. 



134 



175. File Processing Techniques with COBOL. (4) Lecture and laboratory. A study 
of file access and organization techniques for processing direct and sequential files 
using the COBOL language. P— Computer Science 171 or Computer Science 173. 

271. Computer Software Organization. (4) Lecture and laboratory. A study of the 
ways information is stored and handled in a computer; an introduction to machine 
and assembly language. P— Computer Science 173 and Mathematics 117. 

272. Computer Hardware Organization. (4) Lecture and laboratory. Basic computer 
architecture. Study and design of combinational logic circuits, arithmetic units, and 
memory devices. P— Computer Science 271. 

275. Data Structures. (4) Lecture and laboratory. Data representation and manipula- 
tion. Includes the data types of list, string, tree, set, and graph. P— Computer Science 
173 and Mathematics 117. 

277. Programming Languages. (4) Lecture and laboratory. A study of the properties 
of programming languages including syntax, semantics, control structures, and run- 
time representations. P— Computer Science 173 and Mathematics 117. 

279. Algorithm Design. (4) Lecture and laboratory. Techniques for designing and 
analyzing algorithms. Topics include sorting and searching, graph algorithms, 
geometric algorithms, pattern matching, and data compression techniques. P— 
Computer Science 173 and Mathematics 117. 

361. Selected Topics. (2,3, or 4) Topics in computer science which are not studied 
in regular courses or which further examine topics begun in regular courses. P— 
Permission of instructor. 




135 



372. Compilers. (4) Lecture and laboratory. A study of techniques for compiling 
computer languages including scanning, parsing, translating, and generating code. 
P— Computer Science 271 and Computer Science 275. 

374. Database Management Systems. (4) Lecture and laboratory. An introduction 
to large-scale database management systems. Topics include data independence, 
database models, query languages, security, integrity, and concurrency. P— Computer 
Science 275. 

375. Operating Systems. (4) Lecture and laboratory. The study of algorithms for 
sequencing, controlling, scheduling, and allocating computer resources. P— Computer 
Science 271 and Computer Science 275. 

377. Theory of Computation. (4) Basic theoretical principles of computer science. 
Topics include the relationship between automats and grammars, Church's thesis, 
unsolvability, and computational complexity. P— Computer Science 279. 

379. Artificial Intelligence. (4) An introduction to problems in artificial intelligence. 
Techniques of representation and heuristic search in areas such as problem solving, 
pattern recognition, theorem proving, and information processing. P— Computer 
Science 279. 

381. Individual Study. (2,3, or 4) A course of independent study directed by a faculty 
adviser. By prearrangement. Not to be counted toward the minor in computer science. 

391, 392. Senior Research. (2,2) A two-semester directed course of study. By 
prearrangement . 

Mathematics 

105. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry. (2,3, or 4) A review of the essen- 
tials of algebra and trigonometry. Admission by permission only (generally, a student 
must have taken fewer than three years of high school mathematics to be eligible 
for admission). Not to be counted toward the major or minor in mathematics. 

108. Essential Calculus. (5 or 4) A one-semester course in differential and integral 
calculus with application to business and the social sciences. No student allowed 
credit for both 108 and 111. A student who might take additional calculus should 
not take Mathematics 108. Lab— two hours. 

109. Elementary Probability and Statistics. (5 or 4) Probability and distribution 
functions, means and variances, and sampling distributions. Lab— two hours. 

Ill, 112. Calculus with Analytic Geometry I, II. (5 or 4; 5 or 4) Calculus of functions 
of one variable; infinite series. Computer lab using BASIC. No student allowed credit 
for both 108 and 111. 

113. Multivariable Calculus. (4) Vector and space curves. Differentiable functions; 
surfaces and max-min problems. Multiple integrals and Green's theorem. P— 
Mathematics 112. 



136 



117. Discrete Mathematics. (4) An introduction to various topics in discrete 
mathematics applicable to computer science including sets, relations, Boolean algebra, 
propositional logic, functions, computability, proof techniques, graph theory, and 
elementary combinatorics. 

121. Linear Algebra. (4) Vectors and vector spaces, linear transformations and 
matrices, linear groups, and determinants. 

221. Modern Algebra I. (4) An introduction to modern abstract algebra through the 
study of groups, rings, integral domains, and fields. P— Mathematics 121. 

231. Euclidean Geometry. (4) Postulates, definitions, theorems, and models of 
Euclidean geometry. 

251. Ordinary Differential Equations. (4) Linear equations with constant coefficients, 
linear equations with variable coefficients, and existence and uniqueness theorems 
for first order equations. P— Mathematics 112. 

253. Operations Research. (4) Mathematical models and optimization techniques. 
Studies in allocation, simulation, queuing, scheduling, and network analysis. P— 
Mathematics 111. 

301. Vector Analysis. (2) Vector functions, partial derivatives, line and multiple 
integrals, Green's theorem, Stokes' theorem, divergence theorem. Not to be counted 
toward any major or minor offered by the department. P— Mathematics 112. 

302. Matrix Algebra. (2) Matrices, determinants, solutions of linear equations, special 
matrices, eigenvalues and eigenvectors of matrices. Not to be counted toward any 
major or minor offered by the department. Credit not allowed for both 121 and 302. 

303. Complex Variables. (2) Topics in analytic function theory, Cauchy's theorem, 
Taylor and Laurent series, residues. Not to be counted toward any major or minor 
offered by the department. Credit not allowed for both 303 and 317. P— Mathematics 
112. 

311, 312. Advanced Calculus I, II. (4,4) Limits and continuity in metric spaces, 
differentiation and Riemann-Stieltjes integration, sequences and series, uniform 
convergence, power series and Fourier series, partial differentiation and functions 
of n real variables, implicit and inverse function theorems. P— Mathematics 113. 

317. Complex Analysis I. (4) Analytic functions, Cauchy s theorem and its conse- 
quences, power series, and residue calculus. P— Mathematics 113. 

322. Modern Algebra II. (4) A continuation of modern abstract algebra through the 
study of additional properties of groups and fields and a thorough treatment of vector 
spaces. P— Mathematics 221. 

323, 324. Matrix Theory I, II. (4,4) Basic concepts and theorems concerning matrices 
and real number functions defined on preferred sets of matrices. P— Mathematics 121. 



137 



332. Non-Euclidean Geometry. (4) Postulates, definitions, theorems, and models 
of Lobachevskian and Riemannian geometry. 

345, 346. Elementary Theory of Numbers I, II. (4,4) Properties of integers, 
congruences, arithmetic functions, primitive roots, sums of squares, magic squares, 
applications to elementary mathematics, quadratic residues, arithmetic theory of 
continued fractions. 

348. Combinatorial Analysis. (4) Enumeration techniques, including generating func- 
tions, recurrence formulas, the principle of inclusion and exclusion, and Polya's 
theorem. 

352. Partial Differential Equations. (4) The separation of variables technique for the 
solution of the wave, heat, Laplace, and other partial differential equations, with 
the related study of the Fourier transform and the expansion of functions in Fourier, 
Legendre, and Bessel series. P— Mathematics 251 or permission of instructor. 

353. Mathematical Models. (4) Development and application of probabilistic and 
deterministic models. Emphasis given to constructing models which represent 
systems in the social, behavioral, and management sciences. P— Mathematics 253. 

355. Numerical Analysis. (4) A computer-oriented study of analytical methods in 
mathematics. Lecture and laboratory. P— Mathematics 112 and Computer Science 171. 

357, 358. Mathematical Statistics I, II. (4,4) Probability distributions, mathematical 
expectation, sampling distributions, estimation and testing of hypotheses, regres- 
sion, correlation, and analysis of variance. C— Mathematics 113, or P— Permission 
of instructor. 

361. Selected Topics. (2,3, or 4) Topics in mathematics which are not considered 
in regular courses or which continue study begun in regular courses. Content varies. 

381. Individual Study. (2,3, or 4) A course of independent study directed by a faculty 
adviser. By prearrangement. 



Military Science 

Lieutenant Colonel Thomas A. Glenn, Professor 

Assistant Professors Major James W. DeVocht, Major Stanley R. Lawson, 

Captain Scott A. Marquardt, Sergeant Major Lincoln C. Mitchell, 

Sergeant First Class James R. Degenkolb 

Completion of the Reserve Officers' Training Corps requirements results in the 
conferring of a commission as a second lieutenant in the United States Army. The 
basic courses (100-level) are designed to provide the fundamentals of military history, 
Army organization and operation, leadership, and managerial assessment methods. 
No military obligation is incurred by enrollment in the basic courses. They are 



138 



primarily for freshmen and sophomores; others must seek permission of the 
instructor. The advanced courses (211, 212, 251, 252) provide study in professional 
knowledge subjects and development of the managerial skills required for 
commissioning. 

110. ROTC and the National Defense. (1) Introduction to the Reserve Officers' 
Training Corps program, the United States Army, and the basic professional 
knowledge subjects. 

111. Military History. (2) Survey of the ideas and activities of the American people 
which contributed to the development of the Armed Forces; relationship between 
war and society. 

112. Operations in Special Environments. (2) Planning and preparation for military 
operations in mountain, desert, jungle, and arctic environments; fundamentals of 
survival; mountaineering techniques. 

113. Tactical Considerations of Modern Battle. (2) A progressive study of tactical 
techniques from pike and shot formations to the mechanized battalion task force. 
Emphasis on NATO vs. Warsaw Pact. Extensive use of simulations. 

114. Leadership. (2) An examination of the fundamentals contributing to the develop- 
ment of a personal style of leadership with emphasis on the dimensions of junior 
executive management. 

116. Orienteering. (2) A study of navigational aids, linear time/distance relationships, 
and mapping techniques. Includes navigating in unfamiliar terrain. 

117, 118. Leadership Laboratory. (1,1) Develops basic military skills of command, 
drill, and ceremonies. Prepares the student to command a military formation. Pass/Fail 
only. 

211, 212. First Year Advanced. (2,2) Accelerated leadership training; professional 
knowledge subjects; preparation for ROTC Advanced Summer Camp; advanced 
instruction on the Soviet Army. Lab— one and one-half hours per week. P— Credit 
for one of the following: 

(1) 110, 114, 115, and an optional two credit course (Health and Sport Science 
111 may be substituted for 115; History 369 may be substituted for the optional 
course), or 

(2) Attendance at ROTC Basic Summer Camp, at Fort Knox, Kentucky (no 
academic credit). 

251, 252. Second Year Advanced. (2,2) Professionalism and ethics; active duty 
orientation; military administration, law, training, management, and logistics; written 
and oral communications; leadership. Lab— one and one-half hours per week. P— 
Military Science 211 and 212. 



139 



Music 

Susan Harden Borwick, Chairwoman 

Associate Professors Susan Harden Borwick, Stewart Carter, 

Christopher Giles, Louis Goldstein 

Assistant Professors David B. Levy, Dan Locklair, Teresa Radomski 

Director of Instrumental Ensembles George Trautwein 

Assistant Director of Instrumental Ensembles Martin Province 

Director of Choral Ensembles Brian Gorelick 

Instructors Patricia Dixon, Lucille S. Harris 

A major in music requires forty-eight credits. This includes a basic curriculum of 
thirty-six credits (Music Theory 171, 172, 173, and 174, sixteen credits; Music History 
181, 182, six credits; ten credits of applied music; and four credits of ensemble, taken 
in four semesters) plus twelve credits of elective courses in music, excluding 
ensembles, and six semesters of Music Recitals 100. In addition to the course work, 
music majors are required to present a senior recital, lecture-recital, or project. 

Students anticipating a major in music are urged to begin their studies during the 
freshman year and are required to audition during the second semester of their 
sophomore year before officially being admitted to the program. 

Highly qualified majors may be invited by the music faculty to apply for admission 
to the honors program in music. To be graduated with the designation "Honors 
in Music," a candidate must complete one of the following requirements: (1) an 
honors-level research paper, (2) an original composition, or (3) an analytical lecture 
related to music performed by the candidate in public recital. 

A minor in music requires twenty-four credits: Music 171, 172; 181, 182; two credits 
of ensemble, taken in two semesters; two semesters of applied music (performance 
level in applied music must be equal to the level expected of majors at the time of 
the spring sophomore audition); six credits of music electives (excluding ensemble); 
and four semesters of Music Recitals 100. Each minor will be assigned an adviser 
in the music department and is encouraged to begin private lessons and Music 100 
as early as possible. 

Any student interested in majoring or minoring in music should consult the chair- 
woman of the department as soon as possible after entering the University. 

General Music 

100. Recitals. (0) Recitals, concerts, and guest lectures sponsored by the Department 
of Music and the Secrest Artists Series. (Specific attendance requirements will be 
established at the beginning of each semester.) Six semesters are required of music 
majors; four semesters are required of music minors. 

101. Introduction to the Language of Music. (3,4) Basic theoretical concepts and 
musical terminology. Survey of musical styles, composers, and selected works from 
the Middle Ages through the twentieth century. Satisfies the Division I requirement. 
For students not majoring in music. 



140 



102. Language of Music I. (3,4) Survey of musical styles, composers, and selected 
works from the Middle Ages through the twentieth century. For students who can 
read music. Not open to music majors. Satisfies the Division I requirement. P— 
Permission of instructor. 

202, Language of Music II. (2) An in-depth study of selected major works. Not open 
to music majors. P— Music 101 or 102 or permission of instructor. 

Music Theory 

104. Basic Music Reading and Skills. (2) A study of the fundamentals of music theory 
including key signatures, scales, intervals, and chords, and basic sight-singing and 
ear-training skills. Designed for students wishing to participate in University 
ensembles and those wishing to pursue vocal, instrumental, and compositional 
instruction. 

105. Music Theory for Non-Majors. (4) A study and application of music fundamen- 
tals and music theory for the non-music major; analytical and compositional techni- 
ques. P— Music 104 or permission of instructor. 

171. Music Theory I. (4) Music fundamentals: key signatures, scales, modes, inter- 
vals, triads, elements of music. Ear training, sight-singing, and rhythm skills. (A 
one-hour piano class is required of students having no keyboard background.) 

172. Music Theory II. (4) Seventh chords, beginning part-writing, basic counter- 
point, ear training, sight-singing, rhythm skills, keyboard harmony. P— Music 171. 

173. Music Theory HI. (4) Altered chords, continuation of part-writing, eighteenth 
and nineteenth century forms, ear training, sight-singing, rhythm skills, keyboard 
harmony. P— Music 172. 

174. Music Theory IV. (4) Expanded harmonic system of Impressionism and the 
twentieth century. New concepts of style and form. Ear training, sight-singing, 
rhythm skills, keyboard harmony. P— Music 173. 

270. Sixteenth Century Counterpoint. (2) Analysis of sixteenth century contrapuntal 
music, in particular that of Palestrina. Examination of Renaissance writings on 
counterpoint. Composition of canon and motet. P— Music 174. 

271. Eighteenth Century Counterpoint. (2) Analysis of eighteenth century contrapun- 
tal styles, with concentration on the Well-Tempered Clavier and Art of the Fugue of 
J. S. Bach. Composition of invention, canon, and fugue. P— Music 174. 

272. Analysis Seminar. (2) A study of analytical writings of theorists and composers 
and the development of practical skills as they can be used in research and perfor- 
mance preparation. P— Music 174. 

273. Composition. (1 or 2) Individual instruction in the craft of musical composi- 
tion. May be repeated for credit. P— Permission of instructor. 



141 



276. Current Practices. (2) A survey of twentieth century compositional techniques, 
notation, and performance problems involving the study of music and theoretical 
writings associated with major trends from 1900 to the present. P— Music 174. 

280. Orchestration. (4) A study of the orchestral and wind band instruments, how 
composers have used them throughout history, and the development of practical 
scoring and manuscript skills. Offered in alternate years. Also offered by the Depart- 
ment of Education as Education 280. P— Music 174, 182. 

Music History 

181. Music History I. (3) History of music from the Greeks to 1750. Satisfies the 
Division I requirement. P— Permission of instructor. 

182. Music History II. (3) History of music from 1750 to the present. Satisfies the 
Division I requirement. P— Music 181. 

203. History of Jazz. (4) A survey of American jazz from its origin to the present. 
Open to majors and non-majors. P— Music 101 or 102 or permission of instructor. 

204. Survey of Choral Music. (4) A historical overview of important genera (i.e., 
anthem, cantata, motet, mass, oratorio) with an emphasis on church music and 
liturgical function. Open to majors and non-majors. P— Music 101 or 102 or permission 
of instructor. 

205. Survey of Orchestral Music. (4) A historical overview of important orchestral 
repertoire (i.e., symphony, concerto, overture, symphonic poem). Open to majors 
and non-majors. P— Music 101 or 102 or permission of instructor. 

206. Survey of Opera. (4) A study of the development of opera from 1600 to the 
present. Selected operas by European and American composers will be examined 
in class via record, score, and film. Class will attend opera performances when 
possible. Open to majors and non-majors. P— Music 101 or 102 or permission of 
instructor. 

207. Music in America. (4) A study of the music and musical trends in America from 
1650 to the present. The course will survey sacred and secular music from the Pilgrims 
to the current trends of American composers. P— Music 101 or 102 or permission 
of instructor. 

208. Women and Music. (4) A historical overview of women musicians in society. 
P— Music 101 or 102 or permission of instructor. 

212. Music in the Church. (4) Function of church musicians and the relationship 
of their work to the church program. P— Permission of instructor. 

215. Philosophy of Music. (2) A survey of philosophical writings about music. Musical 
aesthetics; social, religious, and political concerns. P— Music 174, 182. 

220. Seminar in Medieval and Renaissance Music. (3,4) A study of music before 



142 



1600, its theory, notation, and performance practices. P— Music 174, 182, or 
permission of instructor. 

221. Seminar in Baroque Music. (3,4) Musical activity from about 1600 to Bach and 
Handel. Special emphasis on the development of national styles and their resolu- 
tions toward the end of the era. P— Music 174, 182, or permission of instructor. 

222. Seminar in Eighteenth Century Music. (3,4) Musical developments from the 
sons of Bach through the Viennese Classicism of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven. 
P— Music 174, 182, or permission of instructor. 

223. Seminar in Nineteenth Century Music. (3,4) Music from the latter part of 
Beethoven's career through Wagner and Brahms. Special emphasis on the post- 
Beethoven schism and its ramifications. P— Music 174, 182, or permission of instructor. 

224. Seminar in Twentieth Century Music. (3,4) A study of the major musical styles, 
techniques, and media of contemporary music from Debussy to the present. P— 
Music 174, 182, or permission of instructor. 

284. Music Literature Seminar. (3,4) A survey of repertoire, including an examina- 
tion of teaching materials in the student's special area of interest. Also offered by 
the Department of Education as Education 284. P— Permission of instructor. 

Music Education 

Music 280, 282, 284, 289, and 291 also appear as Education 280, 282, 284, 289, and 
291. These courses may be taken as Music or Education but not both. 

186. String Instruments. (2) Fundamentals of playing and teaching all instruments 
of the string family. Offered in alternate years. 

187. Woodwind Instruments. (2) Fundamentals of playing and teaching all principal 
instruments of the woodwind family. Offered in alternate years. 

188. Brass and Percussion Instruments. (2) Fundamentals of playing and teaching 
brass and percussion. Offered in alternate years. 

280. Orchestration. (4) See page 141 for a course description. 

282. Conducting. (4) See page 145 for a course description. 

284. Music Literature Seminar. (3,4) See this page for a course description. 

289. Ensemble Methods. (2) A practical study of choral and instrumental training 
techniques. Discussion of tonal development, administration, bibliography, and 
choral and instrumental problems. Also offered by the Department of Education as 
Education 289. P— Music 101 or 102 or permission of instructor. 

291. Teaching of Music. (4) The teaching and supervision of choral and instrumental 
music in the public schools, all grades. Spring. Also offered by the Department of 
Education as Education 291. P— Music 174, 182. 



143 



Honors and Individual Study 

297. Senior Project. (1,2,3, or 4) A major project varying in format according to the 
student's area of concentration. By pre-arrangement. 

298. Individual Study. (1,2,3, or 4) A project in an area of study not otherwise 
available in the department. By pre-arrangement. 

299. Honors in Music. (4) Individual study for honors candidates who have fulfilled 
the specific requirements. 

Ensemble 

Departmental ensembles are open to all students. Credit is earned on the basis 
of one credit per semester of participation in each ensemble. 

111. Opera Workshop. Study, staging, and performance of standard and contem- 
porary operatic works. P— Permission of instructor. 

112. Collegium Musicum. An ensemble stressing the performance practices and the 
performance of music of the medieval, Renaissance, and Baroque eras. 

113. Orchestra. Study and performance of orchestral works from the classical and 
contemporary repertoire. P— Audition. 

114. Madrigal Singers. A vocal chamber ensemble which specializes in the 
performance of secular repertoire. P— Audition. 

115. Concert Choir. A select touring choir of forty-five voices which performs a variety 
of choral literature from all periods. Regular performances on and off campus, 
including an annual tour. P— Audition. 

116. Choral Union. A large oratorio chorus which concentrates on the performance 
of major choral works. P— Audition. 

117. Marching Deacons Band. Performs for most football games. Meets twice weekly. 
Regular performances on and off campus. Fall. No audition required. 

119. Symphonic Wind Ensemble. Study and performance of music for wind ensem- 
ble. Regular performances on and off campus. Spring. No audition required. 

120. Chamber Ensemble. (1) Study and performance of music composed specifically 
for small ensemble. Performers are strongly urged to participate in a larger ensem- 
ble as well. P— Permission of instructor. 

a. percussion c. string 

b. wind/brass d. mixed 

121. Jazz Ensemble. Study and performance of written and improvised jazz for a 
twenty-member ensemble. P— Audition. 



144 



Applied Music 

Applied music courses are open to all students with the permission of the instruc- 
tor. Credit is earned on the basis of lesson duration and weekly preparation. One 
credit per semester implies a half -hour of instruction weekly and a minimum of one 
hour of daily practice. Two credits per semester imply an hour of instruction weekly 
and a minimum of two hours daily practice. With the permission of the music faculty 
and with a proportional increase in practice, a student may earn three or four credits 
per semester. Students in applied music who do not have basic knowledge of nota- 
tion and rhythm are advised to enroll in Music 101 or 104 either prior to or in 
conjunction with applied study. An applied music fee is charged for all individual 
instruction. (See page 36 of this bulletin for specific information regarding the fee.) 

161, 261. Individual Instruction. (1,2,3, or 4) May be repeated for credit. Technical 
studies and repertoire of progressive difficulty selected to meet the needs and abilities 
of the student. 



a. violin 


g. clarinet 


m 


baritone 


v. 


voice 


b. viola 


h. bassoon 


n. 


tuba 


w. 


recorder 


c. cello 


i. saxophone 


0. 


organ 


X. 


viola da gamba 


d. bass 


j. trumpet 


V- 


piano 


y- 


harpsichord 


e. flute 


k. French horn 


8- 


percussion 






f. oboe 


I. trombone 


r. 


guitar 







165p. Class Piano. (1) Scales, chords, inversions, and appropriate repertoire, with 
emphasis on sight-reading, harmonization, and simple transposition. Designed for 
the beginning piano student. 

165r. Class Guitar I. (1) Introduction to guitar techniques: strumming, plucking, 
arpeggios, and damping. Reading and playing from musical notation and guitar 
tablature. For beginning students. 

166r. Class Guitar II. (1) Continuation of guitar techniques. Emphasis on chordal 
progressions, scales, accompanying patterns, and sight-reading. P— Music 165r. 

165v. Class Voice I. (1) Introduction to the fundamental principles of singing, concepts 
of breath control, tone, and resonance. 

166v. Class Voice II. (1) Continuation of fundamental vocal techniques. P— Music 
165v or permission of instructor. 

165w. Class Recorder. (1) Introduction to recorder techniques: breath control, 
articulation, F and C fingering systems. Emphasis on ensemble playing. Designed 
for beginning and intermediate recorder players. This course is intended to prepare 
students for Music 112, but is not a prerequisite. 

167v. Theatrical Singing I: Class Voice. (1) Basic techniques of singing, breath control, 
phonation, and resonance, with emphasis on theatrical projection. Study and per- 
formance of musical theatre repertoire. (One hour per week.) 



145 



168v. Theatrical Singing II: Class Voice. (1) Continuation of theatrical singing techni- 
ques with increased study and performance of musical theatre repertoire. P— Music 
167v or permission of instructor. (One hour per week.) 

190. Diction for Singers. (2) Study of articulation in singing, with emphasis on 
modification of English; pronunciation of Italian, German, and French. Develop- 
ment of articulatory and aural skills with use of the international phonetic alphabet. 
Individual performance and coaching in class. (Two hours per week.) 

282. Conducting. (4) A study of conducting techniques; practical experience with 
ensembles. Offered in alternate years. Also offered by the Department of Education 
as Education 282. P— Music 174 or permission of instructor. 



Natural Sciences 

Dudley Shapere, Reynolds Professor of Philosophy 
and History of Science 

201. The Universe of Modern Science. (4) A survey of the contemporary scientific 
picture of the universe and its evolution, and of the major evidence for that picture. 

301. Seminar: The Beginnings of the Modern World-View. (4) A study of the tran- 
sition from ancient views of the world to the perspective of early modern science 
and philosophy, with focus on the works of Plato, Aristotle, Kepler, and Galileo. 

302. The Mechanistic View of Nature. (4) A study of the controversies, both scien- 
tific and philosophical, arising in the seventeenth century between Cartesians, Newto- 
nians, and Leibnizians about the nature and limits of human knowledge. 

303. Revolutions in Modern Science. (4) An analysis of the ways in which radically 
new ideas are introduced and accepted in science. Cases studied are space and time 
in relativity theory, the nature of reality in quantum mechanics, evolution of species, 
and continental drift. P— At least one course in one of the relevant areas of science 
or permission of instructor. 

351. The Scientific Outlook. (4) An exploration of the origins and development of 
the scientific method and some of its contemporary applications in the natural and 
social sciences and the humanities. 

352. Modern Science and Human Values. (4) Four revolutionary developments in 
science and technology are studied with a focus on their potential to affect human 
values: biotechnology, cognitive science, recent primate research, and the search 
for extraterrestrial life. 

396. Individual Study. (1-4) Individual projects in the philosophy and history of 

sripnrp Rv invitat-inn nnlv 



science. By invitation only 



146 



Philosophy 

Gregory D. Pritchard, Chairman 

Worrell Professor Robert M. Helm 

Professors Thomas K. Hearn Jr., Marcus B. Hester, 

Charles M. Lewis, Gregory D. Pritchard 

Associate Professor Ralph C. Kennedy III 

Assistant Professor Win-chiat Lee 

Instructors Charles M. Gass, Charles J. Kinlaw 

Lecturer Hanna M. Hardgrave 

A major in philosophy requires thirty-six credits. The courses must include 261 
and either 161 or 271, two courses from the history sequence (201, 211, 222), and 
one course from each of the following: 230, 231, 241, 242, or 258; 262, 275, 279, 282, 
285, or 287. In addition to these courses, a major in philosophy requires a "major 
paper," consisting of twenty or more type-written pages, to be submitted for a course, 
chosen by the student, from among courses in philosophy taken during his or her 
last three semesters. This paper may also satisfy the term paper requirement for the 
course. 

A minor in philosophy requires five courses, one of which will be either Philosophy 
111, 171, or 172. These courses are to be chosen in accordance with one of the follow- 
ing plans. Although plans A, B, and C are designed to complement majors in the 
specified areas, any one of the plans may be chosen by someone who wants to pur- 
sue other interests. 

(A) Art, Literature, and Religion (B) Natural Science 

Philosophy of Art and/or Philoso- Philosophy of Science; Logic and/ 

phy of Religion; one or more con- or Symbolic Logic; one or more of 

centration courses (230, 231, 241, the following: 201, 211, 222, 225, 

242, 258); one or more of the 230, 231, 241, 258, 275, 279, 280. 
following: 201, 211, 222, 225, 261, 
275. 

(C) Social Science, Politics, and Law (D) Open Plan 

Ethics and/or Philosophy of Law; With departmental approval, a 

Logic and/or Symbolic Logic; one fourth option will be available to 

or more of the following: 201, 211, students for whom none of the 

225, 230, 231, 241, 242, 258, 262, specified plans would be appropri- 

275, 279, 287. ate. 

The Spilman Philosophy Seminar, open to advanced students in philosophy, was 
established in 1934 through an endowment provided by Bernard W. Spilman. The 
income from the endowment is used for the seminar library, which now contains 
about 4,000 volumes. Additional support for the library and other departmental 
activities is provided by the A. C. Reid Philosophy Fund, which was established 
in 1960 by friends of the department. The furniture in the library and seminar room 



147 



was donated in honor of Claude V. Roebuck and Mr. and Mrs. W. A. Hough by 
their families. 

Two distinguished alumni of the College have made possible the establishment 
of a lectureship and a seminar. The late Guy T. Carswell endowed the Guy T. and 
Clara Carswell Philosophy Lectureship, and a gift from James Montgomery Hester 
established the Hester Philosophy Seminar. In addition, a lectureship bearing his 
name has been instituted in honor of Claude V. Roebuck. 

Superior majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to the honors 
program in philosophy. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in 
Philosophy," a qualified student must submit an acceptable prospectus for an honors 
thesis by November for graduation in the spring semester or by May for graduation 
in the fall semester, present a satisfactory paper based on the prospectus (as judged 
by the student's honors adviser and at least one other member of the department), 
and show an acceptable level of performance in a discussion of the paper with the 
honors adviser and at least one other member of the department. In lieu of a pro- 
spectus, the student's "major paper" may be submitted, provided that this occurs 
in the semester before the semester in which he or she is to graduate and provided 
that the paper is re-written in view of criticism and additional research materials 
as appropriate for an honors paper. 

111. Basic Problems of Philosophy. (4) An examination of the basic concepts of several 
representative philosophers, including their accounts of the nature of knowledge, 
man, God, mind, and matter. 

161. Logic. (4) An elementary study of the laws of valid inference, recognition of 
fallacies, and logical analysis. 

171, 172. Meaning and Value in Western Thought. (4,4) A critical survey of religious 
and philosophical ideas in the Western world from antiquity to modern times. Either 
Philosophy 171 or 172 satisfies the philosophy or religion requirement; both 171 and 
172 satisfy both the philosophy and religion requirements; choice made at registration. 

175. Space and Time in Fact and Fiction. (4) Are space and time fundamentally 
different? Are they properties of the physical world or of minds only? Are they finite 
or infinite in extension and duration? Other questions cover problems and paradoxes 
in the concept of space and in the concept of time travel. P— Philosophy 111, 171, 
or 172. 

182. Medical Ethics. (4) A study of moral problems in medicine including informed 
consent, experimentation on human subjects, truth-telling, confidentiality, abortion, 
and the allocation of scarce medical resources. P— Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

184. Applied Ethics. (4) A critical analysis of contemporary moral issues, including 
capital punishment, minority rights and their protection, civil disobedience, 
euthanasia, family relationships, and sexual conduct. 

201. Ancient and Medieval Philosophy. (4) A study of philosophical problems such 
as the nature of faith, reason, universals, and God in the thought of Plato, Aristotle, 



148 



Augustine, Abelard, Anselm, Aquinas, and Ockham. P— Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

211. Modern Philosophy. (4) A survey of major philosophers from Descartes to 
Nietzsche. P— Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

222. Contemporary Philosophy. (4) A survey of major twentieth-century 
philosophers, including Russell and Sartre. P— Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

225. American Philosophy. (4) A study exploring the philosophies of Jonathan 
Edwards, Ralph Waldo Emerson, C. S. Peirce, William James, John Dewey, and 
others, examining their views on logic, experience, science, reality, nature, art, educa- 
tion, and God. P— Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

230. Plato. (4) A detailed analysis of selected dialogues, covering Plato's most 
important contributions to moral and political philosophy, theory of knowledge, 
metaphysics, and theology. P— Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

231. Aristotle. (4) A study of the major texts, with emphasis on metaphysics, ethics, 
and theory of knowledge. P— Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

241. Kant. (4) A detailed study of selected works covering Kant's most important 
contributions to theory of knowledge, metaphysics, ethics, religion, and aesthetics. 
P-Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

242. Hegel, Kierkegaard, and Nietzsche. (4) An examination of selected sources 
embodying the basic concepts of Hegel, Kierkegaard, and Nietzsche, especially as 
they relate to each other in terms of influence, development, and opposition. P— 
Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

258. Wittgenstein. (4) The work of Ludwig Wittgenstein on several central 
philosophical problems studied and compared with that of Frege, James, and Russell. 
Topics include the picture theory of meaning, truth, scepticism, private languages, 
thinking, feeling, the mystical, and the ethical. P— Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

261. Ethics. (4) A critical study of selected problems and representative works in 
ethical theory. P— Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

262. Social and Political Philosophy. (4) A systematic examination of selected social 
and political philosophers of different traditions, with concentration on Plato, Marx, 
Rawls, and Nozick. Topics include rights, justice, equality, private property, the state, 
the common good, and the relation of individuals to society. P— Philosophy 111, 
171, or 172. 

271. Symbolic Logic. (4) Basic concepts and techniques of modern deductive logic, 
beginning with the logic of truth-functions and quantifiers, and including some 
discussion of topics such as Church's thesis and theorem, the completeness of first- 
order logic, and Godel's incompleteness theorems. 

275. Philosophy of Mind. (4) A selection from the following topics: the mind-body 
problem; personal identity; the unity of consciousness; minds and machines; the 



149 



nature of experience; action, intention, and the will. Readings from classical and 
contemporary sources. P— Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

279. Philosophy of Science. (4) A systematic exploration of the conceptual founda- 
tions of scientific thought and procedure. P— Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

282. Philosophy of Law. (4) A philosophical inquiry into the nature of law and its 
relation to morality. Classroom discussions of readings from the works of classical 
and modern authors focus on issues of contemporary concern involving questions 
of legal principle, personal liberty, human rights, responsibility, justice, and punish- 
ment. P— Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

285. Philosophy of Art. (4) A critical examination of several philosophies of art, with 
emphasis upon the application of these theories to particular works of art. P— 
Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

287. Philosophy of Religion. (4) A systematic analysis of the logic of religious 
language and belief, including an examination of religious experience, mysticism, 
revelation, and arguments for the nature and existence of God. P— Philosophy 111, 
171, or 172. 

294. Seminar in Epistemological Problems. (4) P— Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

295. Seminar in Metaphysical Problems. (4) P— Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

296. Independent Study. (2-4) 



Physics 

George P. Williams Jr., Chairman 

Reynolds Professor Richard T. Williams 

Professors Robert W. Brehme, William C. Kerr, 

Howard W. Shields, George P. Williams Jr. 

Associate Professor George Eric Matthews 

Assistant Professor Natalie A. W. Holzwarth 

Lecturer George M. Holzwarth 

The program for each student majoring in physics is developed through consulta- 
tion with the student's major adviser and may lead to either a bachelor of arts or 
a bachelor of science degree. The BA degree requires a minimum of basic physics 
courses and allows a wide selection of electives related to the student's interests 
in other disciplines. The BS degree is designed to prepare students for careers in 
physics, perhaps beginning with graduate study. 

The bachelor of arts degree in physics requires thirty-seven credits in physics and 
must include courses 141, 161, 164, 341, 343, and 345, and two from 230, 342, 351, 
352, and 354. The bachelor of science degree in physics requires forty-six credits in 
physics and must include courses 311, 341, 342, 343, 344, 345, and 346. In special 



150 



cases, the department may allow substitutions. For either degree, two courses in 
chemistry or the equivalent and Mathematics 251 are required; Mathematics 301, 
302, 303, and 352 are recommended. 
A typical schedule for the first two years: 

Freshman Sophomore 

Basic and divisional requirements Basic and divisional requirements 

Physics 113, 114 (or 111, 112) Physics 141, 161 

Mathematics 111, 112 Mathematics 251, 301, 302 
Foreign Language 

If this sequence is followed, the physics major may be completed with considerable 
flexibility in exercising various options, such as the five year BA/MS program. This 
saves time, and the outstanding student may qualify for a tuition scholarship in the 
senior year of the five-year program. A candidate for the 3-2 engineering program 
would also complete three years of the physics major BS program prior to transfer. 
(Consult the chairman for additional information on these five-year programs.) 

A student may minor in physics via one of the following options: 

Option A: Twenty-four credits including Physics 113, 114, 161, 341, and 230. 
Option B: "Scientific Computer Systems Design"— Twenty-three credits con- 
sisting of Physics 113, 114, 130, 164, 230, and 330. 

Students interested in the minor should so advise the instructor of the second- 
year course. 

If physics is not taken in the freshman year, the degree requirements in physics 
may still be completed by the end of the senior year if a beginning course is taken 
in the sophomore year. No student may be a candidate for a degree with a major 
in physics with a grade less than C in general physics without special permission 
of the department. 

Physics courses satisfying Division II requirements must be taken at Wake Forest. 

Satisfactory completion of the laboratory work is required for a passing grade in 
all courses with a laboratory. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to 
the honors program in physics through the major adviser. To be graduated with 
the designation "Honors in Physics," students must complete satisfactorily Physics 
381 and pass a comprehensive written examination. 

101. Conceptual Physics. (5) A non-mathematical introduction to the essential prin- 
ciples of classical and modern physics based on a conceptual treatment of the more 
exciting contemporary aspects of the subject. Credit not allowed for both 101 and 
111. Lab— two hours. 

104. Introductory Physics for Teachers. (3 or 4) No lab. Does not satisfy Division 
II requirements. 

105. Descriptive Astronomy. (4) An introductory study of the universe, from the 
solar system to the galaxies. No lab. Does not satisfy Division II requirements. 



151 



106. Physics and the Sounds of Music. (3 or 4) A study of the production, propaga- 
tion, and perception of musical sounds. Satisfies no divisional requirements. No 
prerequisites; no lab. 

Ill, 112. Introductory Physics. (5,5) Essentials of mechanics, wave motion, heat, 
sound, electricity, magnetism, optics, and modern physics. Not recommended for 
pre-medical, mathematics, and science students. Lab— two hours. P— 111 is prere- 
quisite for 112. 

113, 114. General Physics. (5,5) Same topics as 111, 112 treated with some use of 
calculus. Recommended for pre-medical, mathematics, and science students. One 
section of this course is reserved for freshmen who are prospective majors in a 
physical science. Lab— two hours. C— Mathematics 111 or equivalent. P— 113 is prere- 
quisite for 114. 

130. Introduction to Microcomputers. (4) Microcomputer architecture and interfac- 
ing with an introduction to programming in BASIC, assembler, and machine 
language. 

141. Elementary Modern Physics. (4) The development of twentieth century physics 
and an introduction to quantum ideas. P— Physics 113 and Mathematics 111. 

161. Applied Mechanics. (5) The fundamental principles of mechanics. Lab— three 
hours. P— Physics 113 and Mathematics 111 or equivalent. 

164. Introductory Electricity. (1) Introduction to electronics instrumentation, DC and 
AC circuits, operational amplifiers, and transistors. A two-hour laboratory. 

230. Electronics. (4) Introduction to the theory and application of transistors and 
electronic circuits. Lab— three hours. P— Physics 164 or equivalent. 

301, 302. Physics Seminar. (0,0) Discussion of contemporary research, usually with 
visiting scientists. Attendance required of junior and senior physics majors. 

311. Mechanics. (4) A junior/senior level treatment of analytic classical mechanics. 
P— Physics 161 and Mathematics 251. 

320. The Physics of Macromolecules. (4) The physics of polymers, especially pro- 
teins and nucleic acids, including the molecular basis for their secondary and ter- 
tiary structure. P— Physics 351 or Chemistry 341 or Biology 371. 

330. Data Acquisition and Analysis. (4) Advanced treatment of computer interfac- 
ing, signal processing methods, non-ideal integrated circuit behavior, and data reduc- 
tion and fitting procedures. P— Physics 130, 230. 

341, 342. Electricity and Magnetism. (4,4) First semester: electrostatics, 
magnetostatics, dielectric and magnetic materials, Maxwell's equations. Second 
semester: applications of Maxwell's equations to radiation, reflection, refraction, 
dispersion, polarization, transmission lines, plasmas, relativistic 4-vector formalism. 
P— Physics 114, Mathematics 251; 341 is prerequisite to 342. 



152 



343, 344. Quantum Physics. (4,4) Application of the elementary principles of quan- 
tum mechanics to atomic, molecular, solid state, and nuclear physics. P— Physics 114. 

345, 346. Advanced Physics Laboratory. (1,1) The laboratory associated with Physics 
343, 344. Lab— three hours. 

351. Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics. (4) Introduction to classical and 
statistical thermodynamics and distribution functions. 

352. Physical Optics and Optical Design. (5) Interaction of light with materials; dif- 
fraction and coherent optics; ray trace methods of optical design. Lab— three hours. 

354. Introduction to Solid State Physics. (4) A survey of the structure, composition, 
physical properties, and technological applications of condensed matter. P— Physics 

343. 

381, 382. Research. (2-4, 2-4) Library, conference, and laboratory work performed 
on an individual basis. 



Politics 

Jack D. Fleer, Chairman 

Professors Jack D. Fleer, Carl C. Moses, 

Donald O. Schoonmaker, Richard D. Sears 

Professor of History and Asian Studies Balkrishna Govind Gokhale 

Associate Professors David B. Broyles, Kathleen B. Smith 

Assistant Professors Katy J. Harriger, Charles H. Kennedy, Wei-chin Lee 

In its broadest conception, the aim of the study of politics is to understand the 
way in which policy for a society is formulated and executed and to understand the 
moral standards by which policy is or ought to be set. This center of interest is often 
described alternatively as the study of power, of government, of the state, or of human 
relations in their political context. For teaching purposes, the study of politics has 
been divided by the department into the following fields: (1) American politics, (2) 
comparative politics, (3) political philosophy, and (4) international politics. Introduc- 
tory courses in these fields provide broad and flexible approaches to studying political 
life. 

The major in politics consists of thirty-six credits. The courses must include the 
following: (a) a first course selected from Politics 113, 114, 115, or 116; (b) any non- 
seminar course in each of the four fields of the discipline except Politics 217, 219, 229, 
242, 244, 252, 256, 257, 258, 259, 260, 270, 284, 285, 287, 288, and 289; (c) one seminar 
in politics (usually a student takes no more than one seminar in each field and no 
more than three seminars overall). A minimum grade average of C on all courses 
attempted in politics is required for graduation. Alternatively, a minimum grade of 
C in each course of the courses taken to satisfy departmental requirements- 
introductory courses, field distribution courses, and seminars— and in as many other 



153 



courses in the major as needed for a total of thirty-six credits is required for gradua- 
tion. Majors should consult with their advisers concerning additional regulations. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to 
the honors program in politics. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in 
Politics," one must successfully complete Politics 284 and 285. Politics 284 and 285 
must be taken as additional courses beyond the thirty-six credits ordinarily required. 
For additional information, members of the departmental faculty should be consulted. 

The minor in politics consists of twenty credits, ordinarily including Politics 113 
but excluding individual study and seminar courses. Sixteen of the credits must be 
taken at Wake Forest and any transfer courses must be approved by the chairman. 
None of the courses may be taken pass/fail. 

A student who selects politics to fulfill the Division IV requirement must take one 
of the following courses: Politics 113, 114, 115, or 116. No introductory level course 
is required for students taking a politics course as an elective unless such a pre- 
requisite is specified in the course description. 

Introductory Courses 

A student may take any one of the following as a first course in the department; 
more than one may be taken. Ordinarily, a student is expected to take Politics 113 
as the first course. 

113. American Government and Politics. (4) The nature of politics, political principles, 
and political institutions, with emphasis on their application to the United States. 

114. Comparative Government and Politics. (4) Political processes and principles as 
applied to traditional, developing, and mature states. 

115. Political Philosophy. (4) Major systematic statements of the rules and principles 
of political life. Representative writers are Tocqueville, Dahl, and Aristotle. 

116. International Politics. (4) An analysis of the forces which shape relations among 
states and some of the major problems of contemporary international politics. 

American Politics 

210. Major Topics in Public Policy. (2,3, or 4) A study of major policies on the current 
public agenda in the United States, including consideration of alternative policy 
responses and the politics which surround them. Possible topics include the politics 
of poverty and welfare, medical care, education, crime, and energy. Credit varies with 
the number of topics studied. 

211. Political Parties and Voting Behavior. (4) An examination of party competition, 
party organizations, the electorate and electoral activities of parties, and the respon- 
sibilities of parties for governing. 

213. Public Administration. (4) Introduction to the study of public administration 
emphasizing policymaking in government agencies. 



154 



215. Democracy and Public Policymaking. (4) An examination of the role and 
responsibilities of citizens in democratic policymaking. Includes discussion of 
democratic theory, emphasis on a policy issue of national importance (i.e. poverty, 
crime, environment), and involvement of students in projects that examine the dimen- 
sion of the issue in their community. 

217. Politics and the Mass Media. (4) Exploration of the relationship between the 
political system and the mass media. Two broad concerns will be the regulation of 
the mass media and the impact of media on political processes and events. 

218. Congress and Policymaking. (4) An examination of the composition, authority 
structures, external influences, and procedures of Congress with emphasis on their 
implications for policymaking in the United States. 

219. Fundamentals of Public Policy Analysis. (4) Fundamentals of public policy 
analysis with emphasis on techniques of decision-making such as cost benefit analysis 
and utility analysis. Each student will participate in a major collective research project 
centered on a local issue. 

220. The American Presidency. (4) Emphasis on the office and the role; contribu- 
tions by contemporary presidents considered in perspective. 

222. Urban Problems and Politics. (4) Political structures and processes in American 
cities and suburbs as they relate to the social, economic, and political problems of 
the metropolis. 

225. American Constitutional Law: Separation of Powers and the Federal System. 

(4) An analysis of Supreme Court decisions affecting the three branches of the national 
government and federal/state relations. 

226. American Constitutional Law: Civil Liberties. (4) Judicial interpretations of First 
Amendment freedoms, racial equality, and the rights of the criminally accused. 

227. Politics, Law, and Courts. (4) Analysis of the nature and role of law in American 
society and the structure and procedure of American courts. Questions of judicial 
organization, personnel, and decision-making, as well as the impact of law and court 
decisions on the social order, are explored at local, state, and national levels. 

229. Women and Politics. (4) The course will examine classical and contemporary 
arguments regarding the participation of women in politics as well as current policy 
issues and changes in women's political participation. 

Comparative Politics 

231. Western European Politics. (4) Analysis of the political systems of Great Britain, 
France, and Italy, focusing primarily on the problems of stable democracy. 

232. Government and Politics in the Soviet Union. (4) Analysis of the institutions 
and processes of politics in the USSR and examination of political developments in 
other states of Eastern Europe. 



155 



233. The Politics of West and East Germany. (4) A study of the political behavior 
and governmental institutions of the capitalist democratic regime of West Germany 
and the authoritarian socialist regime of East Germany. 

235. The Politics of Revolution. (4) A study of revolution as an alternative means 
of socio-political change. Analysis of the nature and types of revolution as well as 
causes, processes, and consequences. Attention is given to some historical cases and 
to some current revolutionary situations and movements. 

236. Government and Politics in Latin America. (4) Comparative analysis of the 
institutions and processes of politics in the Latin American region. 

237. Comparative Public Policy in Selected Industrialized Democracies. (4) An 

investigation of the public policy choices involving such matters as health, educa- 
tion, and income maintenance plans in selected Western European countries. The 
origins, development, trends of the "welfare state" will be examined in Great Britain, 
West Germany, and Sweden. 

242. Problems in Comparative Politics. (4) An intensive study of one or more major 
problems in contemporary comparative politics. 

244. Politics and Literature. (2,3, or 4) An examination of how literature can extend 
our knowledge of politics and political systems. The course considers the insights 
of selected novelists, such as Alexander Solzhenitsyn, Heinrich Boll, Robert Penn 
Warren, George Orwell, and Gabriel Garcia Marquez. 

245. Government and Politics of South Asia. (4) A study of the governments of India, 
Pakistan, Nepal, and Ceylon. Emphasis on political organizations, party structures, 
and subnational governmental systems. 

246. Politics and Policies in South Asia. (4) A survey of major issues relevant to politics 
and policy in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka. 

247. Islam and Politics. (4) The course explores the interrelationship of Islam and 
politics in the contemporary world. The course has two main foci. The first deals 
with Islam as a political ideology which shapes the structure of political institutions 
and behavior. The second looks at Islam in practice by examining the interaction 
between Islam and the political systems of Iran, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and others. 

248. Government and Politics of China. (4) A survey of the political institutions and 
processes in China (People's Republic of China and Republic of China). Emphasis 
on group conflict, elites, ideology, as well as current policy changes in the process 
of modernization. 

249. Government and Politics of Japan. (4) A survey of the political institutions and 
processes in Japan. Attention is also given to the relationship between politics and 
economics. 



156 



International Politics 

250. Global Crises. (4) An introductory survey of the major current issues in inter- 
national affairs. Students learn how to effectively read and criticize materials and 
present critiques in oral and written fashion. 

252. Problems in International Politics. (4) An intensive study of one or more major 
problems of contemporary international politics. 

253. The Politics of International Economic Relations. (4) A study of the emergence 
of international economic transactions, including trade, monetary affairs, investment, 
and multinational corporations, as a central aspect of world politics. 

254. American Foreign Policy: Contemporary Problems. (4) A critical examination 
of different methods of studying American foreign policy and of selected policies 
followed by the United States since the early 1960s. 

255. American Foreign Policy: The Cold War Period. (4) A critical examination of 
the forces which shape American foreign policy and of selected policies followed from 
World War II to the Cuban Missile Crisis. 

256. Nuclear Weapons and National Security. (2 or 4) An analysis of the strategic, 
political, and moral implications of nuclear weapons as instruments of national policy. 
Both American and Soviet perspectives will be considered and special attention will 
be given to contemporary debates over the possession and control of nuclear weapons. 

257. United States-Latin American Political and Economic Relations. (4) A descrip- 
tive and analytical study of the bilateral and multilateral political relations of the Latin 
American states and the United States, with particular reference to the economic 
interactions which influence them. 

258. U.S. National Security Policymaking. (4) A critical analysis of how US. national 
security policy is made with particular emphasis on the period 1960 to present. 

259. The Arab-Israeli Confrontation. (4) An analysis of factors influencing the rela- 
tionship between Israel and its neighbors relative to fundamental aspects of United 
States, Israeli, Palestinian, and Arab states' policies. 

260. East Asian International Relations. (4) An analytical survey of the bilateral and 
multilateral political relations of the East Asian states, with particular emphasis on 
the security relations and economic interactions. 

Political Philosophy 

270. Topics in Political Theory. (4) An intensive study of one or more major topics 
in contemporary political theory. 

271. Plato, Aristotle, and Classical Political Philosophy. (4) An examination of the 
nature and goals of the classical position, with attention to its origins in ancient Athens 
and its diffusion through Rome. Representative writers are Plato, Aristotle, and Cicero. 



157 



272. Equality and Liberty. (4) The arguments for and against democracy and 
republicanism, majority rule, and the rights of man. Representative writers are 
Rousseau and Mill. 

273. Radical Critiques of Political Society. (4) Anarchist, socialist, and communist 
criticisms of and alternatives to existing political societies, with special attention to 
such problems as utopianism and alienation. Representative writers are Marx and 
Nietzsche. 

274. Noble Greeks and Romans. (4) A study of statesmanship in the speeches and 
actions of selected major figures. Theory manifested in practice. Representative writers 
are Shakespeare and Plutarch. 

275. American Political Philosophy. (4) Critical examination of the nature of the 
American polity as expressed by its founders and leading statesmen. Representative 
writers are the Federalists, Lincoln, and Wilson. Does not meet theory distribution 
requirement for majors. 

276. Medieval Political Philosophy. (4) Philosophy and religion in cooperation and 
conflict. Emphasis on Christian writers with some attention to Muslim and Jewish. 
Representative writers are Aquinas, Dante, and Maimonides. 

278. Foundations of Modern Political Philosophy. (4) An examination of the essen- 
tial writings of thinkers who broke with the past in an attempt to establish a more 
"realistic" approach to the study of politics. Representative writers are Machiavelli, 
Hobbes, and Locke. 

279. Contemporary Political Theory. (4) An examination of representative twentieth 
century political thinkers such as Arendt, Dewey, Foucault, Rawls, and Weber. 

Honors and Individual Study 

284. Honors Study. (3) Directed study and research in preparation for a major paper 
on a subject of special interest to the student. Taken in the fall semester of the senior 
year by all candidates for departmental honors. 

285. Honors Study. (2) Directed study toward completion of the project begun in 
Politics 284 and to the writing and defense of an honors paper. Taken in the spring 
semester of the senior year by all candidates for departmental honors. P— Politics 284. 

287. Individual Study. (2,3, or 4) Special research and writing projects conducted 
under the direction of a faculty member. Permission of instructor required. 

288. Directed Reading. (1-4) Concentrated reading in an area of study not otherwise 
available. Permission of instructor required. 

289. Internship in Politics. (2,3, or 4) Field work in a public or private setting with 
related readings and an analytical paper under the direction of a faculty member. 
Permission of instructor required. 



158 



Seminars 

291. Seminar in American Politics. (4) Readings, research, and independent study 
on selected topics. P— Permission of instructor. 

292. Seminar in Comparative Politics. (4) Readings, research, and independent study 
on selected topics. P— Permission of instructor. 

293. Seminar in International Politics. (4) Readings, research, and independent study 
on selected topics. P— Permission of instructor. 

294. Seminar in Political Philosophy. (4) Readings, research, and independent study 
on selected topics. P— Permission of instructor. 



Psychology 

John E. Williams, Chairman 

Professors Robert C. Beck, Robert H. Dufort, 

Charles L. Richman, John E. Williams 

Associate Professors Deborah L. Best, David W. Catron, Maxine L. Clark, 

Philippe R. Falkenberg, David Allen Hills, Cecilia H. Solano 

Assistant Professors Terry D. Blumenthal, Mark R. Leary 

Visiting Assistant Professors Janet S. Moore, Catherine E. Seta, Susan B. Wallace 

Instructor Timothy P. Foley 

Adjunct Associate Professor Frank B. Wood 

Adjunct Assistant Professors C. Drew Edwards, 

Susan R. Leonard, Marianne A. Schubert 

Psychology 151 is prerequisite to all courses of a higher number. Courses numbered 
below 151 do not count toward Division IV requirements or toward the major in 
psychology. Psychology 211, or special permission of the instructor, is prerequisite 
for all 300-level courses except 313, 335, 344, 358, and 367. 

It is recommended that students who are considering psychology as a major take 
Psychology 151 in their freshman year and Psychology 211 in the fall of their sophomore 
year. An average of C or higher in psychology courses is required at the time the 
major is elected. The major in psychology requires the completion of a minimum 
of forty credits in psychology, including 151, 211, 212, and 313. In addition, the major 
student must complete at least one course from each of the following groups: 320, 
326, 329, 331, and 333; 341, 351, 355, and 362. No more than 48 psychology credits 
may be counted toward the graduation requirements of 144 credits. 

The minor in psychology requires twenty credits in psychology, distributed as 
follows: 151 (4 credits); 211 (5 credits); at least one of the following courses: 320, 326, 
329, 331, 333 (4 credits each); and seven additional credits in courses numbered 200 
or above. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to participate in the honors 



159 



program in psychology. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in Psychology," 
the student must complete satisfactorily a special sequence of courses (381, 383) and 
pass an oral or written examination. In addition, the honors student normally has 
a non-credit research apprenticeship with a faculty member. For more detailed 
information, members of the departmental faculty should be consulted. 

100. Learning to Learn. (2,3, or 4) A workshop to help people improve their learning 
skills through the application of basic principles of learning, remembering, and so 
forth. Students at all levels welcomed. No prerequisite. Pass/Fail only. 

102. Exploration of Career Planning. (2,3, or 4) Examination of educational/ vocational 
planning as a personal process, based on knowledge of self and the work world. 
No prerequisite. 

151. Introductory Psychology. (4) A systematic survey of psychology as the scientific 
study of behavior. Prerequisite to all courses of a higher number. 

211, 212. Research Methods in Psychology. (5, 5) Introduction to the design and 
statistical analysis of psychological research. Lab— twice weekly. P— Psychology 151 
and permission of instructor. 

239. Altered States of Consciousness. (4) Examination of altered states of consciousness 
with special reference to sleep and dreams, meditation, hypnosis, and drugs. P— 
Psychology 151. 

241. Developmental Psychology. (4) Survey of physical, emotional, cognitive, and 
social development in humans from conception to death. P— Psychology 151. 

245. Survey of Abnormal Behavior. (4) Study of problem behaviors such as depression, 
alcoholism, antisocial personality, the schizophrenias, and pathogenic personality 
patterns, with emphasis on causes, prevention, and the relationships of these disorders 
to normal lifestyles. P— Psychology 151. 

250. Psychology Abroad. (4) The study of psychology in foreign countries. Content 
and travel plans vary from year to year depending upon interests of faculty and 
students. Usually offered in summer. P— Psychology 151. 

255. Personality. (4) Survey of theory and research on the structure and function of 
human personality, with attention to the relationship to cognition, emotion, motiva- 
tion, and behavior. P— Psychology 151. 

260. Social Psychology. (4) A survey of the field, including theories of social behavior, 
interpersonal attraction, attitudes and attitude change, and group behavior. P— 
Psychology 151. 

265. Human Sexuality. (4) An exploration of the psychological and physiological 
aspects of human sexuality, with attention to sexual mores, sexual deviances, sexual 
dysfunction, and sex-related roles. P— Psychology 151. 

268. Psychology of Business and Industry. (4) Psychological principles and methods 



270 A 


Aggression 


27 OK 


270D 


Brain/Behavior Relations 


27 Oh 


270E 


Emotion 


27 OM 


27 OH 


Intelligence 


27 ON 


2701 


Race and Young Children 


27 OP 


270 J 


Memory 


270Q 



160 



applied to problems commonly encountered in business and industry. P— Psychology 
151. 

270. Topics in Psychology. (1,2, or 3) The student selects from among a group of short 
one-credit courses dealing with topics of special interest. The courses meet sequen- 
tially, not concurrently, and options are offered in each portion of the semester. P— 
Psychology 151. 

Psychology and Politics 
Sex Stereotypes and Roles 
The Gifted and Creative Person 
Liking and Loving Relationships 
Animal Flying Behavior 
Pyschopharmacology 

280. Directed Study. (1-4) Student research performed under faculty supervision. 
P— Psychology 151 and approval of faculty member prior to registration. 

313. History and Systems of Psychology. (4) The development of psychological 
thought and research from ancient Greece to present trends, with emphasis on 
intensive examination of original sources. P— Two psychology courses beyond 151 
or permission of instructor. 

320. Physiological Psychology. (4) Neurophysiological and neuroanatomical explana- 
tions of behavior. P— Psychology 211 or permission of instructor. 

323. Animal Behavior. (4) A survey of laboratory and field research on animal 
behavior. This course may count as biology or psychology but not both; choice to 
be made at registration. P— Permission of instructor. 

326. Learning Theory and Research. (4) Survey of concepts and research in learn- 
ing, with particular emphasis on recent developments. P— Psychology 211. 

329. Perception. (4) Survey of theory and research findings on various sensory 
systems (vision, hearing, touch, taste). P— Psychology 211. 

331. Cognition. (4) Current theory and research in cognitive processes. Emphasis 
on memory, attention, visual and auditory information processing, concept iden- 
tification/formation, and language. P— Psychology 211. 

333. Motivation of Behavior. (4) Survey of basic motivational concepts and related 
evidence. P— Psychology 211. 

335. Fundamentals of Human Motivation. (4) Description and analysis of some 
fundamental motivational phenomena, with special reference to human problems; 
includes reward and punishment, conflict anxiety, affection, needs for achievement 
and power, aggression, creativity, and curiosity. P— Psychology 151. 

341. Research in Child Development. (4) Methodological issues and selected research 
in child development. Research projects required. P— Psychology 211. 



161 



342. Current Issues in Developmental Psychology. (4) Intensive examination of 
selected theoretical or research issues in this area. P— Psychology 211 and 341. 

344. Abnormal Psychology. (4) Descriptive analysis of the major types of abnormal 
behavior with attention to organic, psychological, and cultural causes and major 
modes of therapy. Offered in the summer. P— Psychology 151. 

346. Psychological Disorders of Childhood. (4) Survey of problems including conduct 
disorders, attention deficits disorders, depression, and autism. Emphasis on causes, 
prevention, treatment, and the relationships of disorders to normal child develop- 
ment and family life. P— Psychology 245 or 344 or permission of instructor. 

351. Personality Research. (4) The application of a variety of research procedures 
to the study of human personality. Research projects required. P— Psychology 211. 

355. Research in Social Psychology. (4) Methodological issues and selected research 
in the study of the human as a social animal. Research projects required. P— 
Psychology 211. 

357. Cross-Cultural Psychology. (4) An examination of differences in psychological 
processes (e.g., attitudes, perception, mental health, organizational behavior) 
associated with cultural variation. P— Psychology 151. 

358. Psychology of Woman. (4) Intensive study of the behavior of women and its 
personal application, including consideration of biological, social, and motivational 
factors. P— Psychology 151. 

361. Operant Conditioning and Behavior Modification. (4) Principles, theory, and 
experimental research in operant learning, with applications to the modification of 
behavior in various populations and situations. P— Psychology 211. 

362. Psychological Tests and Measurements. (4) Theory and application of 
psychological assessment procedures in the areas of intelligence, aptitude, vocational 
interest, and personality. P— Psychology 211. 

363. Survey of Clinical Psychology. (4) An overview of the field of clinical psychology. 
P— Psychology 245 and senior standing or permission of instructor. 

367. Effectiveness in Parent/Child Relations. (4) A survey of popular approaches 
to child-rearing, with examination of the research literature on parent/child interac- 
tion and actual training in parental skills. P— Psychology 151. 

369. Contemporary Applications of Psychology. (4) Supervised field experience in 
applied psychology. P— Psychology 151 and permission of instructor. 

378. Instrumentation for Psychological Research. (2-4) Lecture/demonstration 
presentation of electrical and mechanical equipment, followed by practical applica- 
tion in small group project work. Assumes no prior knowledge of electricity or 
construction. P— Permission of instructor. 

381. Honors Seminar. (3) Seminar on selected problems in psychology. Intended 



162 



primarily for students in the departmental honors program. P— Psychology 211 and 
permission of instructor. 

383. Honors Research. (3) Seminar in selected issues in research design, followed 
by independent empirical research under the supervision of a member of the depart- 
mental faculty. P— Psychology 211 and permission of instructor. 

392. Contemporary Problems in Psychology. (4) Seminar treatment of current theory 
and research in several "frontier" areas of psychology. Principally for senior majors 
planning to attend graduate school. P— Psychology 211 and senior standing. 




163 



Religion 

Carlton T. Mitchell, Chairman 

Easley Professor John William Angell 

Albritton Professor Emmett Willard Hamrick 

University Professor James A. Martin 

Professors Fred L. Horton Jr., Carlton T. Mitchell, 

Charles H. Talbert, Ralph C. Wood Jr. 

Associate Professor John E. Collins 

Adjunct Associate Professor Thomas E. Dougherty Jr. 

Assistant Professors Stephen B. Boyd, Louke Van Wensveen 

Instructor Charles Jeffrey Kinlaw 
Visiting Lecturers Francis T. Cancro, Thomas P. Liebschutz 

The department offers courses designed to give every student an opportunity to 
acquire at least an introduction to the life, literature, and most important movements 
in the field of religion. It also seeks to provide the foundational courses needed for 
professional religious service in ministry, counseling, chaplaincy, and the like. 

A course in religion is required for all degrees. Any 100 level course offered by 
the department is accepted to meet the Division III requirement. 

A major in religion requires a minimum of thirty-two credits, at least half of which 
must be in courses above the 100 level. 

A minor in religion requires twenty credits, eight of which must be above the 100 
level. The required courses may include one pass/fail course if the course is offered 
on the pass/fail basis only. The department will provide advisers for students electing 
the minor in religion. 

Pre-ministerial students are advised to include in their program of study, in addition 
to courses in religion, courses in psychology, history, public speaking, and two 
languages (Greek or Latin and German or French). 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to 
the honors program in religion. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in 
Religion," they must apply to the chairman of the department for admission to the 
honors program, normally by February of the junior year. Upon completion of all 
the requirements, the candidate is graduated with "Honors in Religion." For addi- 
tional information, members of the departmental faculty should be consulted. 

111. Introduction to the Old Testament. (4) A survey of the Old Testament designed 
to introduce the student to the history, literature, and religion of the ancient Hebrews. 

112. Introduction to the New Testament. (4) A survey of the literature of the New 
Testament in the context of early Christian history. 

120. Introduction to the Bible. (4) A consideration of prominent themes found in 
the Old and New Testaments. 

131. Basic Christian Ethics. (4) The Biblical and theological foundation of the Christian 
ethic and its expression in selected contemporary problems. 



164 



161. World Religions. (4) The place of religion in life and the origin, nature, and 
accomplishments of the living religions of the world, studied from the historical point 
of view. 

164. The Formation of the Christian Tradition. (4) A survey of the histoiy of the 
Christian Church from its origins to the Reformation. 

165. History of Christianity in Modern Times. (4) A survey of the history of the 
Christian Church from the Reformation to the present. 

166. American Religious Life. (4) A study of the histoiy, organization, worship and 
beliefs of American religious bodies, with particular attention to cultural factors. 

171, 172. Meaning and Value in Western Thought. (4,4) A critical survey of religion 
and philosophy in the Western world from antiquity to modern times. Either Religion 
171 or 172 satisfies the philosophy or religion requirement; both 171 and 172 satisfy 
both the philosophy and religion requirements; choice made at registration. 

173. An Introduction to Christian Theology. (4) A study of the ground, structure, 
and content of Christian belief. 

177. Faith and Imagination. (4) A study of modern writers, including C. S. Lewis 
and J. R. R. Tolkien, who seek to retell the Christian story in imaginative terms. 

209. The Pre-exilic Prophets. (2) A study of the background, personal characteristics, 
function, message, and permanent contribution of the prophets from Samuel through 
Jeremiah. 

210. The Post-exilic Prophets. (2) A study of the background, personal characteristics, 
function, message, and permanent contribution of the prophets from Ezekiel to the 
end of the Old Testament era. 

212. The Wisdom Literature. (2) An introduction to the Wisdom Literature of the 
Old Testament, with special attention to Proverbs. 

213. Introduction to Palestinian Archaeology, (2) A survey of twentieth century 
archaeology in Palestine with attention to its importance for Biblical studies. 

215. Visions of the End: Jewish and Christian Apocalyptic. (2,4) Reading and study 
of Biblical and non-Biblical apocalyptic texts. This course may be divided into halves 
for two credits each. 

215. (a) Daniel and Jewish Apocalyptic 

215. (b) Revelation and Christian Apocalyptic 

217. Old Testament Apocrypha. (2) Reading of the books of the Apocrypha, with 
special attention to their origin and significance, and with a consideration of the 
ambivalence of Judaism and Christianity toward this literature. 

218. Seminar in the Mediterranean World. (4) Travel and study in such countries 
as Greece, Italy, Turkey, Egypt, Lebanon, Syria, and Israel. 



165 



236. Church and Community. (4) An examination of the basic needs and trends of 
the contemporary community, especially the rural and suburban, in the light of the 
Christian norms for "the good community." 

237. Black Religion and Black Churches in America. (4) Survey of literature on these 
themes with an examination of the historical background and special attention to 
the contemporary era. 

240. Principles of Religious Education. (4) A study of the theory and practice of 
religious education, with emphasis on the basic foundations in religion and education. 

261. Judaism in the First Three Centuries of the Common Era. (4) A study of the 
development of Rabbinic Judaism out of the sects and movements of first century 
Judaism. 

262. Contemporary Judaism. (2) A survey of Judaism today, including a study of some 
major religious, political, and literary figures. 

263. Contemporary Catholicism. (2) An introduction to recent thought and practice 
in the Roman Catholic Church. 

266. Religious Sects and Cults. (4) An examination of certain religious sects in America, 
including such groups as Jehovah's Witnesses, communal groups, and contemporary 
movements. 

267. The Baptists. (2) A survey of Baptist history, thought, and polity, including an 
examination of various Baptist groups and a study of important controversies. 

270. Theology and Modern Literature. (4) An introduction to such modern theologians 
as Karl Barth and Reinhold Niebuhr, and to literary figures who share their concerns, 
including Flannery O'Connor and Walker Percy. 

273. Studies in Ecumenical Theology. (4) A study of various images and models of 
the church, their interrelationships and implication for ecumenism. 

276. The Problem of Evil from Job to Shakespeare. (4) A comparative analysis of 
the source and remedy of evil in Job, Aeschylus, Sophocles, Plato, Dante, and 
Shakespeare. 

277. Christian Literary Classics. (4) A study of Christian texts which are masterpieces 
of literature as well as faith, including works by Augustine, Dante, Pascal, Bunyan, 
Milton, and Newman. 

282. Honors in Religion. (4) A conference course including directed reading and the 
writing of a research project. 

286, 287. Directed Reading. (1-4, 1-4) A project in an area of study not otherwise 
available in the department, permitted upon departmental approval of a petition 
presented by a qualified student. 

292. Teaching Religion. (4) A study of the teaching of religion in church, school, 
and community. 



166 



300. Meaning of Religion. (4) A phenomenological study of different ways of defining 
religion, including the views of representative philosophers, psychologists, sociologists, 
anthropologists, theologians, and historians of religion. 

301. Myth. (4) A study of the approaches to the interpretation of myth, with a focus 
on the meaning and values implicit in the myths of contemporary culture. 

302. Studies in Mysticism. (2,4) A student may choose to study mysticism as an 
independent phenomenon or to study mysticism in dialogue with the theories of 
contemporary science. 

302 (a) Phenomenology of Mysticism 
302 (b) Mysticism and Psychology 

303. Religion and Science. (4) An examination of the ways in which religion and 
science have conflicted with, criticized, and complemented one another in the history 
of Western thought from Galileo to the present. 

311. Poetic Literature of the Hebrew Bible. (2,4) A study of Hebrew poetry in English 
translation with special attention to its types, its literary and rhetorical characteristics, 
and its importance for our understanding of the religion and culture of ancient Israel. 
(The first half of the course may be taken for two credits and is a prerequisite for 
the second half.) 

314. Ancient Israel and her Neighbors. (2) A study of ancient Near Eastern archeology 
with special emphasis on Israel's relationships with surrounding peoples. 

315, 316. Field Research in Biblical Archeology. (4,4) A study of the religion and culture 
of the ancient Near East through the excavation and interpretation of an ancient site. 

320. Jesus and the Synoptic Gospels. (4) A study of Jesus' proclamation and activity 
in light of modern critical research on the Gospels. 

321. The Quest for the Historical Jesus. (4) An investigation of the possibility and 
relevance of historical knowledge about Jesus through a consideration of the seminal 
"Lives of Jesus" since the eighteenth century. 

322. The General Epistles. (4) An exegetical study of two or more of the general 
Epistles, with emphasis on the setting of the epistles in the life of the Early Church. 

326. Early Christian Theologians: Paul. (4) An introduction to the Pauline interpreta- 
tion of Christianity and its place in the life of the Early Church. 

327. Early Christian Theologians: The Fourth Evangelist. (4) An examination of the 
Johannine interpretation of Jesus and the Christian faith. 

328. The New Testament and Ethics. (4) A study of selected ethical issues in the New 
Testament within the context of Mediterranean culture. 

332. Religion and the Social Crisis. (4) An interdisciplinary approach to the study 
of society today, with particular attention to views of human nature and social 



167 



institutions as reflected in religion, the social sciences, and related disciplines. 

334. Christian Ethics and Contemporary Culture. (4) A study of the encounter between 
the Christian ethic and the value systems implicit in the social areas such as economics, 
politics, race, and sex. 

(a) Bio-medical Decisions (b) Feminist Theology 

346. Theological Foundations of Religious Education. (4) A study of theological 
methodology, theories of learning, and philosophies of education in terms of their 
implications for religious education. 

350. Psychology of Religion. (4) An examination of the psychological elements in 
the origin, development, and expression of religious experience. 

354. Religious Development of the Individual. (4) A study of growth and develop- 
ment through childhood and adolescence to adulthood, with emphasis on the role 
of the home and the church in religious education. 

355. Theology of Pastoral Care and Counseling. (4) A study of the relationship bet- 
ween theology and the purpose, theories, and methods of pastoral care. P— Permission 
of instructor. 

360. Hinduism. (4) A study of the fundamental features of the Hindu tradition. 

361. Buddhism. (4) A study of the Buddhist tradition, its fundamental features, and 
its impact on the culture of Asia. 

362. Zen Buddhism. (4) The history and teaching of Zen. 

363. Hellenistic Religions. (4) Consideration of available source materials, questions 
of method, and bibliography related to such Hellenistic religions as the mysteries, 
Hellenistic Judaism, and Gnosticism. 

364. Islam. (4) A study of the fundamental concepts of Islamic thought and the 
historical context of its development. Both ancient and contemporary impact of the 
teachings of Islam considered. 

365. History of Religions in America. (4) A study of American religions from col- 
onial times until the present. 

366. Gender and Religion. (4) An examination of the historical and contemporary 
interaction between religion and sex roles, sexism, and sexuality. 

367. The Mystics of the Church. (4) A historical study of the lives and thought of 
selected Christian mystics with special attention to their religious experience. 

368. The Protestant and Catholic Reformations. (4) A study of the origin and develop- 
ment of Reformation theology and ecclesiology. 

369. Radical Christian Movements. (4) A study of selected radical movements in the 
Christian tradition and their relation to contemporary issues. 



168 



372. History of Christian Thought. (2,4) A study of the history of Christian thought, 
beginning with its Hebraic and Greek backgrounds and tracing its rise and develop- 
ment to modern times. The course may be divided into halves for two credits each. 

372 (a) Patristic Thought 

372 (b) Medieval and Reformation Thought 

374. Contemporary Christian Thought. (4) An examination of the major issues and 
personalities in modern theology. 

375. Major Themes in Catholic Theology. (4) A detailed examination of the central 
themes of Christian theology through the study of major Roman Catholic theologians. 

376. The Origins of Existentialism. (4) A study of the principal nineteenth century 
figures who form the background for twentieth century existentialism: Goethe, 
Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Dostoevsky, and Tolstoy. 

378. Aesthetics and Religion. (2-3) An examination of aesthetic and religious theories 
of selected thinkers, noting what the arts and religion have in common as modes 
of perception and expression. 

Hebrew 

111, 112. Elementary Hebrew. (4,4) A course for beginners in the classical Hebrew 
of the Bible, with emphasis on the principles of Hebrew grammar and the reading 
of Biblical texts. Both semesters must be completed. 

153. Intermediate Hebrew. (4) Intensive work in Hebrew grammar and syntax based 
upon the readings of selected texts. Readings emphasize post-Biblical Hebrew. 
P— Hebrew 111, 112, or the equivalent. 

211. Hebrew Literature. (4) The reading and discussion of significant Biblical Hebrew 
texts. P— Hebrew 153. 

212. Hebrew Literature II. (4) The reading and discussion of significant Biblical and 
post-Biblical texts. Offered on demand. P— Hebrew 153. 

301. Introduction to Semitic Languages. (4) A study of the history and structure of 
four languages from the Hamito-Semitic family. 



169 



Romance Languages 

Shasta M. Bryant, Chairman 

Professors Shasta M. Bryant, Kathleen M. Glenn, 

Milorad Margitic, Mary Frances Robinson 

Associate Professors Candelas M. Newton, Byron R. Wells 

Assistant Professors Jane W. Albrecht, Victoria Bridges, Ramiro Fernandez, 

Mary L. Friedman, Judy K. Kem, Linda Maier, Stephen Murphy, 

Juan Orbe, Margaret Snook, Antonio Vitti, Kari Weil 

Visiting Assistant Professors Whangbai Bahk, Sarah Barbour, 

Kenneth E. Hall, Susan M. Linker 

Lecturers Bianca Artom, C. Lee Dubs, Kikuko T. Imamura, Eva Marie Rodtwitt 

Instructors Mary C. Frye, Anna Krauth, Jennifer Sault, Walter W. Shaw, 

Anna-Vera Sullam (Venice) 

The major in French requires a minimum of thirty-six credits above French 153. 
French 216, 217, 219, 221, or their equivalents are required, as are four additional 
literature courses. History 321 and 322 are recommended. An average of at least C 
must be earned in all courses taken in the major. 

The minor in French language and culture requires twenty credits in French above 
French 153. It includes French 219, 221, 224, or their equivalents. The minor in French 
literature requires twenty credits in French literature above French 153. 

The major in Spanish requires a minimum of thirty-six credits above Spanish 153. 
Spanish 217, 218, 219, 221, 223, 224, 230, and 232, or their equivalents, are required. 
Spanish 181, 1829, and 187 may not count toward the major. An average of at least 
C must be earned in all courses taken in the major. 

The minor in Spanish language and culture requires twenty credits in Spanish above 
Spanish 153. It includes 217 or 218, plus 219, 221, 223, and 224. The minor in Hispanic 
literature requires twenty credits in Spanish above Spanish 153. It includes 217 or 
218, plus 230, 232, and two additional advanced courses in literature. For both Spanish 
minors, with departmental approval, equivalent courses may be selected from the 
programs in Salamanca or Bogota, and certain other substitutions may be made. 

A joint major is offered in French and Spanish, consisting of fifty-six credits in the 
two languages and literatures, excluding elementary language. Required courses for 
this major are French 153x, 216, 217, 219, 221, and 224; Spanish 153x, either 217 or 
218, 219, 221, either 223 or 224, 230, and 232. Equivalents may be substituted. An 
average of at least C must be earned in all courses taken in the major. 

The minor in Italian language and culture requires twenty credits in Italian above 
Italian 153. It includes Italian 215, 216, 219, 221, and 224 or their equivalents. An average 
of at least C must be earned in all courses taken in the minor. 

All majors are strongly urged to take advantage of the department's study abroad 
programs and to live for at least a semester at the French House or the Spanish House, 
foreign language residence centers for students of French and Spanish. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to 
the honors program in French or Spanish. To be graduated with the designation 



170 



"Honors in Romance Languages," a candidate must complete French or Spanish 280 
and 281 and pass a comprehensive written and oral examination. The oral examina- 
tion may be conducted, at least in part, in the major language. For additional infor- 
mation, members of the departmental faculty should be consulted. 

French 

111, 112. Elementary French. (4,4) A course for beginners, covering the principles of 
French grammar and emphasizing speaking, writing, and the reading of elementary 
texts. Lab required. 

113. Intensive Elementary French. (5) A one-semester course covering the elements 
of grammar and skills presented in French 111, 112. Intended for students whose 
preparation for French 153 is inadequate. Not open to students who have received 
credit for French 112. Lab required. 

153. Intermediate French. (5) A review of grammar and composition with practice 
in conversation. Reading of selected texts. Lab required. P— French 112, 113, or two 
years of high school French and placement. 

153x. Intermediate French. (4) Open to students by placement or permission. Lab 
required. 

164. A Classic in Comedy. (2 or 4) Participants plan and present a production of a 
French comedy. The play is rehearsed and performed in French; students are involved 
in all aspects of production. For four credits, students also read and discuss other 
dramatic works. Course may be repeated for credit, but only four credits may be 
counted toward the major. P— Permission of instructor. 

181. Swiss French Civilization. (4) The course is designed to acquaint the student 
with the Swiss people and their civilization by living for a few weeks with families. 
Visits are made to points of cultural, historical, literary, and artistic interest. A journal 
and a paper describing in detail some aspect of Swiss French civilization, both in 
French, are required. Usually offered in the summer. 

185. Paris, Cultural Center of France. (4) A study of Paris monuments on location 
to explore the development of the city as capital and cultural center of France. No 
prerequisites. Usually offered in the summer. 

199. French Individual Study. (2-4) P— Permission of the department. 

213. Masterpieces of French Literature I. (4) Reading of selected texts in French. 
Particular periods, genres, and authors may vary from section to section. Parallel 
reading and reports. Only one course in masterpieces may count toward the major 
or minor, but either may satisfy the basic or divisional requirement. P— French 153 
or equivalent. 

214. Masterpieces of French Literature II. (4) Reading of selected texts in French. 
Particular periods, genres, and authors may vary from section to section. Parallel 



171 



reading and reports. Only one course in masterpieces may count toward the major 
or minor, but either may satisfy the basic or divisional requirement. P— French 153 
or equivalent. 

216. Survey of French Literature from the Middle Ages through the Eighteenth 
Century. (4) Study of selected texts, parallel reading, and study of trends and 
movements. P— French 153 or permission of instructor. 

217. Survey of French Literature of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. (4) Study 
of selected texts, parallel reading, and study of trends and movements. P— French 
153 or permission of instructor. 

219. Composition and Review of Grammar. (4) A systematic review of the fundamental 
principles of comparative grammar, with practical training in writing idiomatic French. 
Required for major. P— French 153 or equivalent. 

221. Conversation and Composition. (4) Practice in speaking and writing French, 
stressing correctness of sentence structure, phonetics, pronunciation, fluency, and 
vocabulary for everyday situations. Required for major. Lab required. P— French 153 
or equivalent. 

224. French Civilization. (4) An introduction to French culture and its historical 
development. Emphasis on intellectual, artistic, political, social, and economic life 
of France. P— French 221 or permission of instructor. 

229. Business French. (4) A study of French used in business procedures, emphasiz- 
ing specialized vocabulary pertaining to business correspondence, corporate organiza- 
tion, banking, and governmental relations, with practice in translation and interpreta- 
tions, oral and written. P— French 219 and 221 or permission of instructor. 

231. Medieval French Literature. (2-4) A survey of French literature of the Middle 
Ages with cultural and political backgrounds. Selected masterpieces in original form 
and modern transcription. P— French 216 or 217 or permission of instructor. 

233. Sixteenth Century French Literature. (4) The literature and thought of the 
Renaissance in France, with particular emphasis on the works of Rabelais, Montaigne, 
and the major poets of the age. P— French 216 or 217 or permission of instructor. 

241. Seventeenth Century French Literature. (4) A study of the outstanding writers 
of the Classical Age. P— French 216 or 217 or permission of instructor. 

242. Seminar in Seventeenth Century French Literature. (4) A study of selected topics 
of the period. Topics may vary from year to year. P— French 216 or 217 or permission 
of instructor. 

251. Eighteenth Century French Literature. (2-4) A survey of French literature of the 
eighteenth century with cultural and political backgrounds. P— French 216 or 217 or 
permission of instructor. 

252. Seminar in Eighteenth Century French Literature. (2-4) Study of selected topics 



172 



of the period. Topics vary from year to year. P— French 216 or 217 or permission of 
instructor. 

261. Nineteenth Century French Literature. (4) A study of French literature of the 
nineteenth century with cultural and political backgrounds. P— French 216 or 217 or 
permission of instructor. 

262. Seminar in Nineteenth Century French Literature. (4) Study of selected topics 
of the period. Topics vary from year to year. P— French 216 or 217 or permission of 
instructor. 

263. Trends in French Poetry. (4) A study of the development of the poetic genre with 
analysis and interpretation of works from each period. P— French 216 or 217 or per- 
mission of instructor. 

264. French Novel. (4) A broad survey of French prose fiction, with critical study of 
several masterpieces in the field. P— French 216 or 217 or permission of instructor. 

265. French Drama. (4) A study of the chief trends in French dramatic art, with reading 
and discussion of representative plays. P— French 216 or 217 or permission of instructor. 

271. Twentieth Century French Literature. (4) A study of general trends and represen- 
tative works of the foremost prose writers, dramatists, and poets. P— French 216 or 
217 or permission of instructor. 

272. Seminar in Twentieth Century French Literature. (4) Study of selected topics 
of the period. Topics vary from year to year. P— French 216 or 217 or permission of 
instructor. 

280. Directed Research. (2) Required for honors in French. 

281. Directed Study. (3,4) Extensive reading and/or research to meet individual needs. 
Required for departmental honors. P— Permission of the department. 

Semester in France 

The department sponsors a semester in France in Dijon, the site of a well-established 
French university. Students go as a group in the fall semester, accompanied by a 
departmental faculty member. 

No particular major is required for eligibility. However, a student (1) should be of 
junior standing and (2) should have taken as prerequisite French 221 or its equivalent 
or at least one French course beyond the intermediate level. At least one semester's 
residence in the French House is strongly recommended. 

Students are placed in language courses according to their level of ability in French, 
as ascertained by a test given at Dijon. Courses are taught by native French professors. 
The resident director supervises academic, residential, and extracurricular affairs and 
has general oversight of independent study projects. 

2232. Advanced Oral and Written French. (4) Study of grammar, composition, pro- 



173 



nunciation, and phonetics, with extensive practice in oral and written French. 

2282. Contemporary France. (4) A study of present-day France, including aspects of 
geography and consideration of social, political, and educational factors in French 
life today. 

2292. French Civilization. (4) An introduction to French culture and its historical 
development. Field trips to museums and to points of historical and cultural 
significance in Paris and the French provinces. 

2402. Independent Study. (2-4) One of several fields; scholar's journal and research 
paper. Supervision by the director of the semester in France. Work may be sup- 
plemented by lectures on the subject given at the Universite de Bourgogne Faculte 
des Lettres et Sciences Humaines. 

2752. French Literature. (2) Topics in the novel, theatre, and poetry of France, largely 
of the period since 1850. 

2762. Literary Pilgrimage. (2-4) Reading of selected French texts, with visits to sites 
having literary associations. A study of the relationship between milieux and works. 

Art 2712. Studies in French Art. (2) Lectures and field trips in French painting, 
sculpture, and architecture, concentrating on the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. 

History 2262. The Golden Age of Burgundy. (2) Burgundian society, culture, and 
government in the reigns of Philip the Bold, John the Fearless, Philip the Good, and 
Charles the Rash, 1384-1477. 




174 



Spanish 

111, 112. Elementary Spanish. (4,4) A course for beginners, covering grammar essen- 
tials and emphasizing speaking, writing, and the reading of elementary texts. Lab 
required. 

113. Intensive Elementary Spanish. (5) A one-semester course covering the elements 
of grammar and skills presented in Spanish 111, 112. Intended for students whose 
preparation for Spanish 153 is inadequate or who have demonstrated proficiency in 
another language. Not open to students who have received credit for Spanish 112. 
Lab required. 

153. Intermediate Spanish. (5) A review of grammar and composition with practice 
in conversation. Reading of selected texts. P— Spanish 112 or 113 or two years of high 
school Spanish and placement. Lab required. 

153x. Intermediate Spanish. (4) Open by placement or permission. Lab required. 

162. A Panorama of Drama. (2-4) A brief sampling of Spanish drama from its early 
period to the contemporary theatre, studying in Spanish representative works from 
each major period. Approximately six plays. The class selects one play to present 
in Spanish, with students having directing and acting responsibilities. 

181. Colombia: Study Tour of Bucaramanga, Cali, and Medellin. (4) Travel in 
Colombia and residence in one of its major cities in homes of private families for 
a period of three weeks. Students receive instruction in spoken Spanish and in 
Colombian literature and anthropology and political, social, or economic history. Does 
not count toward the major. Usually offered in the summer. 

187. Culture and Language. (4) A study of Spanish culture and language, tailored 
to various levels of student ability. Taught only in the Spanish-speaking world. Does 
not count toward the major. Usually offered in the summer. 

199. Individual Study. (2-4) P— Permission of the department. 

214. Introduction to Hispanic Literature. (4) Selected readings in Spanish and Spanish 
American literature. Designed as a substitute for either Spanish 215 or 216. P— Spanish 
153 or equivalent. 

215. Major Spanish Writers. (4) Reading of selected texts. No student allowed credit 
for both 215 and 217. P— Spanish 153 or equivalent. 

216. Major Spanish American Writers. (4) Reading of selected texts. No student allow- 
ed credit for both 216 and 218. P— Spanish 153 or equivalent. 

217. Masterpieces of Spanish Literature. (4) Study of selected texts, trends, and 
movements. Intended for students interested in continuing Spanish beyond the basic 
requirement. No student allowed credit for both 215 and 217. P— Spanish 153 or 
permission of instructor. 



175 



218. Masterpieces of Spanish American Literature. (4) Study of selected texts, trends, 
and movements. Intended for students interested in continuing Spanish beyond the 
basic requirement. No student allowed credit for both 216 and 218. P— Spanish 153 
or permission of instructor. 

219. Advanced Grammar and Composition. (4) A systematic review of the fundamental 
principles of comparative grammar, with practical training in writing idiomatic 
Spanish. Lab required. P— Spanish 153 or equivalent. 

221. Conversation and Composition. (4) Practice in speaking and writing Spanish, 
stressing correctness of sentence structure, phonetics, pronunciation, fluency, and 
vocabulary of everyday situations. Lab required. P— Spanish 153 or equivalent. 

222. Spanish Phonology. (4) An introduction to Spanish linguistics through a 
systematic analysis of the phonemes and allophones of spoken Spanish. Standard 
pronunciation as well as dialectal variations will be stressed. P— Spanish 219 and 221 
or permission of instructor. 

223. Latin American Civilization. (4) The culture and its historical development; em- 
phasis on intellectual, artistic, political, social, and economic life. P— Spanish 215 or 

216 or 217 or 218. 

224. Spanish Civilization. (4) The culture and its historical development; emphasis 
on intellectual, artistic, political, social, and economic life. P— Spanish 215 or 216 or 

217 or 218. 

229. Commercial, Official, and Social Correspondence. (4) Instruction in the special 
vocabularies, formats, and styles required in written and telegraphic communications. 
Students write in Spanish communications appropriate to each type of cor- 
respondence. P— Spanish 219 and 221 or permission of instructor. 

230. Spanish American Literature. (4) Extensive reading and study of works from 
the colonial through the contemporary periods, with emphasis on the late nineteenth 
and twentieth centuries. P— Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of instructor. 

231. Medieval and Pre-Renaissance Spanish Literature. (4) Study of the major literary 
works of the Middle Ages and pre-Renaissance. P— Spanish 217 or 218 or permission 
of instructor. 

232. Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century Spanish Literature. (4) Study of the major 
literary works of the Golden Age. P— Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of instructor. 

233. Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Century Spanish Literature. (4) Study 
of the major literary works of the last three centuries. P— Spanish 217 or 218 or per- 
mission of instructor. 

234. Spanish Prose Fiction before Cervantes. (4) A study of several types of prose 
fiction, such as the sentimental, chivalric, pastoral, Moorish, and picaresque novels, 
prior to 1605. P— Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of instructor. 



176 



241. Golden Age Drama. (4) A study of the major dramatic works of Lope de Vega, 
Calderon de la Barca, Tirso de Molina, Ruiz de Alarcon, and others. P— Spanish 217 
or 218 or permission of instructor. 

243. Cervantes. (4) Intensive study of the life and works of Cervantes, with special 
attention on the Quixote and the novelas ejemplares. P— Spanish 217 or 218 or permis- 
sion of instructor. 

244. Seminar in Cervantes. (2-4) A study of special aspects of Cervantes' works, such 
as the novelas ejemplares and his dramatic works. P— Spanish 217 or 218 or permission 
of instructor. 

252. Seminar in Hispanic Poetry. (2-4) A study of selected topics, such as gongorismo, 
the Romancero, and the Generation of 1927. P— Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of 
instructor. 

261. Nineteenth Century Spanish Novel. (4) A study of the novels of Valera, Pereda, 
Galdos, Pardo Bazan, Blasco Ibariez, and their contemporaries. P— Spanish 217 or 
218 or permission of instructor. 

264. Spanish American Short Story. (4) Intensive study of the twentieth century 
Spanish American short story with emphasis on major trends and representative 
authors, such as Quiroga, Rulfo, Borges, Corta'zar, Donoso, Garcia Marque'z. P— 
Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of instructor. 

265. Spanish American Novel. (4) A study of the novel in Spanish America from 
its beginning through the contemporary period. P— Spanish 217 or 218 or permission 
of instructor. 

266. Seminar in Spanish American Novel. (2-4) A study of one or more categories 
of Spanish American novels, such as romantic, indianista, realistic, gauchesca, and social 
protest. P— Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of instructor. 

269. Nineteenth Century Spanish Drama. (4) A study of the principal dramatic works 
from neoclassicism to the end of the century. P— Spanish 217 or 218 or permission 
of instructor. 

271. Modern Spanish Drama. (4) A study of the principal dramatic works from the 
end of the nineteenth century through the contemporary period. P— Spanish 217 or 
218 or permission of instructor. 

273. Modern Spanish Novel. (4) A study of representative Spanish novels from the 
Generation of 1898 through the contemporary period. P— Spanish 217 or 218 or per- 
mission of instructor. 

274. Seminar in Modern Spanish Literature. (2 or 4) An analysis of selected contem- 
porary works representative of the novel, poetry, theatre, and essay. P— Spanish 217 
or 218 or permission of instructor. 

275. Special Topics. (2-4) Selected special topics in Spanish or Spanish American 



177 



literature, such as the Spanish Romancero or the contemporary Spanish American 
novel. Offered at irregular intervals. 

280. Directed Research. (2) Required for honors in Spanish. 

281. Directed Study. (3-4) Extensive reading and/or research, to meet individual needs. 
Required for departmental honors. P— Permission of the department. 

Semester in Spain 

The department offers a semester in Spain at Salamanca, the site of a well- 
established Spanish university. Students go as a group in the spring semester, 
accompanied by a professor from the College. 

No particular major is required for eligibility. However, students (1) should be of 
junior standing, (2) should have completed Spanish 221, and (3) should be approv- 
ed by both their major department and the Department of Romance Languages. At 
least one semester's residence in the Spanish House is strongly recommended. 

1829. Introduction to Spain. (2-4) Familiarization with the Spanish people, Spanish 
culture, and daily life in Spain. Classes in conversational and idiomatic Spanish, ex- 
cursions to points of historical and artistic interest, and lectures on selected topics. 

2019. Intensive Spanish. (2) Intensive study and practice of the oral and written 
language. P— Permission of instructor. 

2029. Advanced Spanish. (2) Study of grammar, composition, and pronunciation, 
with extensive practice of the written and oral language. P— Permission of instructor. 

2049. Spanish Phonetics and Phonology. (4) Theory and practical application of the 
elements involved in speaking correct Spanish. 

2059. History of the Spanish Language. (4) Evolution and historical development of 
the Spanish language, including regional dialects and present-day variations in the 
spoken and written form. 

2259. Survey of Spanish Literature from the Middle Ages through the Seventeenth 
Century. (4) Extensive reading and study of trends and influences. 

2279. Spanish American Literature. (4) Extensive reading and study of works from 
the colonial through the contemporary periods, with emphasis on the late nineteenth 
and twentieth centuries. 

2419. Spanish Literature of the Golden Age. (4) A survey of the most important authors 
and genres of the Golden Age, with particular emphasis on the novel and the drama. 

2759. Contemporary Spanish Literature. (4) A study of general trends and represen- 
tative works of selected prose writers, dramatists, and poets from the modern period. 

Sociology 2029. Social-Political Structures of Present-Day Spain. (4) A study of the 
various social and political elements which affect the modern Spanish state. 



178 



History 2019. General History of Spain. (4) History of Spain from the pre-Roman 
period to the present day. 

Art 2029. Spanish Art and Architecture. (4) A study of the development and 
uniqueness of Spanish art and architecture within the framework of Mediterranean 
and Western art in general. 

Chinese* 

111, 112. Elementary Chinese. (4,4) Study in grammar, conversation, reading, and 
elementary composition. Lab required. 

151, 152. Intermediate Chinese. (4,4) Further study in grammar, reading, conversa- 
tion and composition. Lab required. P— Chinese 111, 112 or equivalent. 

199. Individual Study. (2-4) P— Permission of the department. 

Italian 

111, 112. Elementary Italian. (4,4) A course for beginners, covering grammar essen- 
tials and emphasizing speaking, writing, and the reading of elementary texts. Lab 
required. 

113. Intensive Elementary Italian. (5) Intensive course for beginners, emphasizing 
the structure of the language and oral practice. Recommended for students in the 
Venice program and for language majors. Lab required. Lecture— five hours. Offered 
every semester. 

153. Intermediate Italian. (5) Continuation of 113, with emphasis on reading and speak- 
ing. Lab required. Lecture— five hours. P— Italian 113 or two years of high school Italian. 

153x. Intermediate Italian. (4) Open by placement or permission. Lab required. 

199. Individual Study. (2-4) P— Permission of instructor. 

215. Introduction to Italian Literature I. (4) Reading of selected texts in Italian. Satisfies 
basic requirement in foreign language. Offered in the spring. P— Italian 153 or equivalent. 

216. Introduction to Italian Literature II. (4) May alternate with 215. Satisfies basic 
requirement in foreign language. P— Italian 153 or equivalent. 

219. Advanced Grammar and Composition. (4) A study of advanced grammar and 
composition. Translation of Italian texts into English and free composition in Italian. 
P— Italian 221. 

221. Conversation and Composition. (4) Practice in speaking and writing Italian, stress- 
ing correctness of sentence structure, phonetics, pronunciation, fluency, and 
vocabulary for everyday situations. P— Italian 153 or equivalent. 



These courses are attached to the Department of Romance Languages for administrative purposes only. 



179 



224. Italian Civilization. (4) The culture and its historical development; emphasis 
on intellectual, artistic, political, social, and economic life. P— Italian 215 or 216. 

Semester in Venice 

2213. Spoken Italian. (4) Course in oral Italian, offered only in Venice. Students are 
placed in small groups according to their levels of fluency. Elective credit. 

Japanese* 

111, 112. Elementary Japanese. (4,4) Emphasis on the development of listening and 
speaking skills. Brief introduction to the writing systems. Basic sentence patterns 
covered. Lab required. 

151, 152. Intermediate Japanese. (5,5) Further study in grammar, reading, conversa- 
tion and composition. Lab required. P— Japanese 112 or equivalent. 

Portuguese* 

111, 112. Elementary Portuguese. (4,4) A course for beginners, covering grammar essen- 
tials and emphasizing speaking, writing, and the reading of elementary texts. Lab 
required. 

Other Languages 

101. Self-Instructional Language. (4) A self-instructional language course covering 
the principles of grammar and pronunciation in one of the less commonly taught 
languages, such as Swedish, Arabic, or Thai. Individual self-instruction in the 
language of the student's choice through the use of recorded material and textbooks. 
Admission by petition to the Foreign Language Placement Review Committee. Elec- 
tive credit only; does not satisfy basic or divisional course requirements. 



Sociology 

Philip J. Perricone, Chairman 

Professors John R. Earle, Philip J. Perricone 

Associate Professors Catherine T. Harris, Willie Pearson Jr. 

Assistant Professors H. Kenneth Bechtel, Ian M. Taplin 

Visiting Assistant Professor Nancy Elizabeth Rushing 

A major in sociology requires thirty-seven credits and must include Sociology 371 
and 372. A minimum average of 2.0 in sociology courses is required at the time the 
major is declared. A minimum grade-point average of 2.0 in all sociology courses 
is required for graduation. 



*These courses are attached to the Department of Romance Languages for administrative purposes only. 



180 



A minor in sociology requires twenty credits and must include Sociology 371. A 
minimum grade-point average of 2.0 in sociology courses is required at the time the 
minor is declared. A minimum grade-point average of 2.0 in sociology courses is re- 
quired for certification as a minor. Students who intend to pursue a sociology minor 
are encouraged to notify the department early in their junior year, and they are invited 
to participate in all departmental functions. 

The program in sociology provides majors with several options. In addition to 
pursuing a regular major in sociology, students may choose to specialize in any of 
four concentrations: 1) family studies, 2) crime, law, and social control, 3) health and 
society, and 4) business and society. These concentrations are described in detail in 
the Handbook for Sociology Students, a copy of which may be obtained from the sociology 
office or any member of the departmental faculty. 

To be graduated with the designation "Honors in Sociology," highly qualified ma- 
jors are invited to apply to the department for admission to the honors program. 
They must complete a senior research project, document their research, and satisfac- 
torily defend their work in an oral examination. For additional information, members 
of the departmental faculty should be consulted. 

A student who selects sociology to fulfill the Division IV requirement must take 
one of the following courses: Sociology 151, 152, 153, or 154. No introductory level 
course is required for students taking a sociology course as an elective unless such 
a prerequisite is specified in the course description. 

151. Principles of Sociology. (4) General introduction to the field; social organiza- 
tion and disorganization, socialization, culture, social change, and other aspects. 

152. Social Problems. (4) Survey of contemporary American social problems. 

153. Marriage and the Family. (4) The social basis of the family, emphasizing the pro- 
blems growing out of modern conditions and social change. 

154. The Sociology of Deviant Behavior. (4) A sociological analysis of the nature and 
causes of and societal reaction to deviant behavior patterns such as mental illness, 
suicide, drug and alcohol addiction, sexual deviation, and criminal behavior. 

205. Photography in the Social Sciences. (4) Explores the use of photography as a 
research technique for the social sciences; camera and darkroom instruction included. 
Not open to students who have had Art 119. 

301. Religion as a Social Institution. (4) A study of the various forms of religion, 
such as denomination, cult, sect. The relationship between religious factors and other 
social factors. Civil religion and religiosity in the US. 

302. Bureaucracy and Society. (4) The sociological analysis of complex organizations 
focusing on bureaucracy, power, authority, decision making, and change. Attention 
will be given to business as well as government and other non-profit organizations. 

305. Male and Female Roles in Society. (4) Changing male and female roles in the 
context of societal institutions and sociological theories that explain such changes. 



181 



Consideration of feminism as a social movement and of consequences of changing 
roles for human interaction. 

308. Sociology of Art. (2) Art as an institution, its functions, organization, relation- 
ship to social change and to the communication of meanings. 

309. Sex and Human Relationships. (4) Study of the societal forces that impinge on 
human sexual behavior, emphasizing the effects of social change, the implications 
of changing gender roles, cross-cultural and subcultural variations, and the influence 
of the mass media. 

310. Death and Dying. (2) Study of some of the basic issues and problems of modern 
man in accepting and facing death. 

311. Women in Professions. (4) Emphasis on the status of women in professional oc- 
cupations (e.g., law, medicine, science, business, etc.) in socio-historical perspective. 

321. Criminal Justice— The Police. (2,4) Introduction to the structure, organization, 
and operation of the American police system. 

322. Criminal Justice— The Courts. (2) The operation and social organization of 
American criminal courts. Issues of plea bargaining, court overload, and the court's 
role in crime prevention will be discussed. 

323. Criminal Justice — Punishment and Corrections. (2) The purpose, structure, and 
practice of correctional institutions. Includes a review of the philosophical principles 
of punishment and deterrence, the historical development of prisons, and an evalua- 
tion of current alternatives to incarceration. 

325. Self and Society: An Interactionist Perspective. (4) An analysis of the effects 
of social relationships upon self-development, self-preservation, and the learning of 
social roles and norms, with special emphasis on language and symbolic interaction. 

333. The Urban Community. (4) A survey of materials relating to the community as 
a unit of sociological investigation, with emphasis on the urban setting. Of particular 
value for social work or community planning. 

334. Society and Higher Education. (4) An analysis of the social forces that shape 
educational policies in the US. Assessment of significant contemporary writings on 
the manifest and latent functions of education. 

335. Sociology of Health and Illness. (4) Analysis of the social variables associated 
with health and illness. 

336. Sociology of Health Care. (4) An analysis of health care systems, including the 
social organization of medical practice, health care payment, the education of medical 
practitioners, and the division of the labor in health care. 

337. Aging in Modern Society. (4) Basic social problems and processes of aging. Social 
and psychological issues discussed. Course requirements will include field place- 
ment in a nursing home or similar institution. 



182 



339. Sociology of Violence. (4) A survey of the societal factors associated with 
individual and collective violence. Discussion will focus on the contemporary and 
historical conditions which have contributed to various patterns of violence in 
American society. 

340. Sociological Issues in Human Development. (4) Socialization through the life 
span in the light of contemporary behavioral science, emphasizing the significance 
of changes in contemporary society. 

341. Criminology. (4) Crime, its nature, causes, consequences, methods of treatment, 
and prevention. 

342. Juvenile Delinquency. (4) The nature and extent of juvenile delinquency; an 
examination of prevention, control, and treatment problems. 

343. Sociology of Law. (4) Consideration will be given to a variety of special issues: 
conditions under which laws develop and change, relationships between the legal 
and political system, the impact of social class and stratification upon the legal order. 

346. Seminar on Social Utopias. (4) Survey of major Utopian literature; emphasis 
is placed upon both the social organization in Utopian proposals and their implicit 
critique of current society and social ideologies. 

347. Society, Culture, and Sport. (4) An examination of the interrelationship of sport 
and other social institutions. Emphasis on the study of both the structure of sport 
and the functions of sport for society. 

348. Sociology of the Family. (4) The family as a field of sociological study. Assess- 
ment of significant historical and contemporary writings. An analysis of the struc- 
ture, organization, and function of the family in America. 

349. Sociology of Science. (4) Emphasis on the origins and growth of science in socio- 
historical perspective, reciprocal relations between science and society in the twen- 
tieth century, science as a social system. 

350. Mass Communications and Public Opinion. (4) The study of the increasing im- 
portance of collective behavior, emphasizing the relationship between the media and 
a changing society. 

358. Population and Society. (4) Techniques used in the study of population data. 
Reciprocal relationship of social and demographic variables. 

359. Race and Ethnic Relations. (4) Racial and ethnic group prejudice and discrimina- 
tion and their effect on social relationships. Emphasis on psychological and sociological 
theories of prejudice. 

360. Social Stratification. (4) The study of structured social inequality with particular 
emphasis on economic class, social status, and political power. 

361. Sociology of the Black Experience. (4) A survey and an analysis of contemporary 



183 



writings on the status of Black Americans in various American social institutions (e.g., 
education, sport, entertainment, science, politics, etc.). 

362. Sociology of Work. (4) Changing trends in the US labor force. The individual's 
view of work and the effect of large organizations on white and blue collar workers. 
Use of some cross-cultural data. 

363. Markets and Industry. (4) An analysis of industrial organization, including discus- 
sion of market relations and the behavior of firms, the structure of industrial develop- 
ment, and labor relations and the growth of trade unions. 

364. Political Sociology. (4) Examination of the structure and organization of power 
in society with emphasis on political socialization, political ideology, and the growth 
of the welfare state. 

365. Dependency Needs and Social Services. (4) Examination of various forms of 
dependency, such as social, economic, emotional, and physical, and community social 
agencies designed to meet these needs. Use of relevant literature, field experience, 
and resource persons. 

371, 372. The Sociological Perspective. (4,5) A two-semester course dealing with the 
development and application of major theories and research methods in sociology. 
A continuing effort is made to enable the student to deal with current theoretically 
oriented research. Regularly scheduled computer labs will be arranged during the 
Sociology 372 portion of the course. P— Sociology 151, 152, 153, or 154. 

380. Social Statistics. (4) Basic statistics, emphasizing application in survey research. 
(A student who receives credit for this course may not also receive credit for Biology 
380, Business 201, Mathematics 109, or Anthropology 380. A sociology major may 
take Anthropology 380 in lieu of Sociology 380 to meet major requirements.) 

385, 386. Special Problems Seminar. (4) Intensive investigation of current scientific 
research within the discipline which concentrates on problems of contemporary 
interest. P— Permission of instructor. 

398, 399. Individual Study. (1-4, 1-4) Reading, research, or internship courses designed 
to meet the needs and interests of selected students, to be carried out under the super- 
vision of a departmental faculty member. 



184 



Speech Communication and Theatre Arts 

Donald H. Wolfe, Chairman 

Professors Julian C. Burroughs Jr., Harold C. Tedford, Donald H. Wolfe 

Adjunct Professor Darwin R. Payne 

Associate Professor Michael David Hazen 

Assistant Professors Jill Jordan McMillan, Susan Schultz Huxman 

Visiting Assistant Professors Nancy A. Burrell, Jo Whitten May 

Instructor Allan D. Louden 

Lecturers Jonathan H. Christman, Caroline S. Fullerton, Mary R. Wayne 

Adjunct Instructors Mike Allen, Mary Lucy Bivins, Mary M. Dalton, 

Karen L. Oxendine, Linda Ellen Sloan 

Visiting Lecturer James H. Dodding 

Visiting Instructor Karen Robinson 

Debate Coach Ross K. Smith 

For convenience in advising majors, the department divides the study of speech 
communication and theatre arts into the following fields: (1) communication/public 
address, (2) radio/television/film, (3) theatre arts, and (4) speech pathology /correction. 
It is possible for a student either to concentrate in one of the first three fields or to 
take courses across the breadth of the discipline. Specific courses of study for both 
majors and minors are worked out in consultation with departmental faculty members. 

A major in speech communication and theatre arts consists of a minimum of forty 
credits, at least eight of which must be at the 300 level. In order for a course to count 
toward a student's major, the student must earn a grade of C or higher in the course. 

A minor in the first three fields listed in the first paragraph above requires six courses 
for a minimum of twenty -four credits, at least eight of which must be at the 300 level. 

Those students majoring in speech education and theatre arts education are expected 
to take specific courses which meet the requirements for teacher certification. Infor- 
mation concerning the courses may be obtained from departmental faculty members. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to 
the honors program in speech communication and theatre arts. To be graduated with 
the designation "Honors in Speech Communication and Theatre Arts," they must 
successfully complete 281. For additional information, members of the departmental 
faculty should be consulted. 

280. Special Seminar. (2-4) The intensive study of selected topics in communication. 
Topics may be drawn from any theory or concept area of communication, such as 
persuasion, organizational communication, film, or theatre. 

281. Honors in Speech Communication and Theatre Arts. (4) A conference course 
involving intensive work in the area of special interest for selected seniors who wish 
to graduate with departmental honors. P— Permission of instructor. 

282. Individual Study. (1-4) Special research and readings in a choice of interest to 
be approved and supervised by a faculty adviser. P— Permission of instructor. 



185 



283, 284. Debate, Radio/Television/Film, Communication, or Theatre Arts Practicum. 

(2,2) Individual projects in the student's choice of debate, radio/television/film, com- 
munication, or theatre arts; includes organizational meetings, faculty supervision, 
and faculty evaluation. No student may register for more than two credits of prac- 
ticum in any semester. No student is allowed to take more than a total of eight credit 
units in practicum, only four credits of which may be counted toward a major in speech 
communication and theatre arts. Pass/Fail only. P— Permission of instructor. 

Communication/Public Address 

151. Public Speaking I. (4) A study of the nature and fundamentals of speech 
communication. Practice in the preparation and delivery of short speeches. 

152. Public Speaking II. (4) The preparation and presentation of short speeches to 
inform, convince, actuate, and entertain. P— Speech Communication 151. 

153. Interpersonal Communication. (4) The course is divided into three parts: 
communication theory, person-to-person communication, and small group interaction. 

155. Group Communication. (4) An introduction to the principles of discussion and 
deliberation in small groups, with practice in group problem-solving and discussion 
leadership. 

156. Oral Interpretation of Literature. (4) Fundamentals of reading aloud, with 
emphasis on selection, analysis, and performance. 

158. Debate and Advocacy. (4) The use of argumentative techniques in oral advocacy: 
research, speeches, and debate. 

161. Voice Production and Development. (4) A study of the principles of voice 
production with emphasis on breath control, tone production, vocal variety, and 
articulation. 

250. Introduction to Communication and Rhetoric. (4) An introduction to the theories, 
research, and analysis of verbal and nonverbal processes by which human beings 
share meanings and influence one another. 

251. Persuasion. (4) A study of the variables and contexts of persuasion in contem- 
porary society. 

255. Introduction to Rhetorical Criticism. (4) An introduction to the theory and prac- 
tice of rhetorical criticism with emphasis on contemporary rhetorical acts. 

261. Clinical Management of Speech and Language Disorders. (4) Methods used 
to correct speech disorders of voice, rhythm, language, and articulation; observation 
of methods used with selected cases in clinical or public school settings. Offered in 
alternate fall semesters. 

262. Communication Disorders of the Hearing Impaired. (4) The etiology and effect 
of hearing impairment on communication. The fundamentals of auditory training, 



186 



speech reading, and other resources for the rehabilitation of the hearing-impaired 
individual. 

263. Speech and Language Disorders I. (4) Study of the disorders of language, 
articulation, and rhythm, with special emphasis on functional disorders; focus is on 
the role the therapist plays in assisting the speech-handicapped child. Offered in alter- 
nate fall semesters. 

264. Speech and Language Disorders II. (4) Consideration of etiology and symptoms 
of speech and language problems due to organic disorders of voice, articulation, 
language, and hearing. Offered in alternate spring semesters. 

280. Special Seminar. (2-4) (See previous description.) 

281. Honors Course. (4) (See previous description.) 

282. Individual Study. (1-4) (See previous description.) 

283. 284. Debate Practicum. (2,2) (See previous description.) 

353. British Public Address. (4) A historical and critical survey of leading British 
speakers and their speeches from the sixteenth century to the present. 

354. American Rhetorical Movements. (4) Critical analysis of major rhetorical 
movements in American history; examines the relationship between rhetoric, ideology, 
and the development of American culture. 

S355. Directing the Forensic Program. (2,4) A pragmatic study of the methods of direc- 
ting high school and college forensics with work in the High School Debate Workshop. 
Offered in the summer. 

356. The Rhetoric of Race Relations. (4) A study of race relations in America as 
reflected in the rhetoric of selected black and white speakers. Students apply the 
historical/critical method in exploring the effects of discourse on attempts at inter- 
racial communication. 

357. The Rhetoric of the Women's Rights Movement. (4) A rhetorical study of the 
documents, speeches, and protests of American feminists. The course traces the evolu- 
tion of women's rights movements in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and 
draws contrasts and parallels between them. 

358. Argumentation Theory. (4) An examination of argumentation theory and criticism; 
examines both theoretical issues and social practices. 

371. Research in Communication. (4) An introduction to design and statistical pro- 
cedures for research in communication. 

372. A Survey of Organizational Communication. (4) An introduction to the role of 
communication in organizations, with emphasis on field applications. 

373. Intercultural Communication. (4) An introduction to the study of communica- 



187 



tion phenomena between individuals and groups with different cultural backgrounds. 

374. Mass Communication Theory. (4) Theoretical approaches to the role of com- 
munication in reaching mass audiences and its relationship to other levels of com- 
munication. Offered in alternate years. 

375. Communication and Conflict. (4) A study of communication in conflict situa- 
tions on the interpersonal and societal levels. Offered in alternate years. P— Speech Com- 
munication 153 or permission of instructor. 

378. Semantics and Language Behavior. (4) A study of the syntactic and semantic 
aspects of communicative messages. 

Radio/Television/Film 

141. Radio-TV Speech. (4) An introduction to announcing and performing on radio 
and television. 

142. Writing for Radio-TV-Film. (4) An introduction to writing for radio, television, 
and film. Emphasis will be on informational and persuasive writing (news, features, 
public service announcements, commercials, political announcements, news analyses, 
commentaries, and editorials). 

241. Introduction to Broadcasting. (4) A study of the historical, legal, economic, and 
social aspects of broadcasting. 

242. Radio Production. (4) A study of the basic elements of radio production. 

243. TV Production. (4) A study of the basic elements of television production. 

245. Introduction to Film. (4) Historical introduction to motion pictures through the 
study of various kinds of films and their relationship to society. 

246. Film Production. (4) A study of the basic elements of motion picture production. 

280. Special Seminar. (2-4) (See previous description.) 

281. Honors Course. (4) (See previous description.) 

282. Individual Study. (1-4) (See previous description.) 

283. 284. Radio/Television/Film Practicum. (2,2) (See previous description.) 

342. Seminar in Radio/Television. (4) Extensive readings in and discussion of fun- 
damental theory and current issues in radio and television. P— Speech Communica- 
tion 241 or permission of instructor. 

344. Advanced Radio Production. (4) Study of advanced radio forms: documentary 
and drama. P— Speech Communication 242 or permission of instructor. 

345. Advanced TV Production. (4) Individual production of complex forms of televi- 



188 



sion such as documentary and drama. P— Speech Communication 243 or permis- 
sion of instructor. 

346. Film Criticism. (3 or 4) A study of film aesthetics through an analysis of the 
work of selected film makers and film critics. P— Speech Communication 245 or per- 
mission of instructor. 

348. Advanced Film Production. (4) Individual production of complex films such 
as drama, animation, and documentary. P— Speech Communication 246 or permission 
of instructor. 

Theatre Arts 

121. Introduction to the Theatre. (4) A survey of all areas of theatre art. Experience 
in laboratory and University Theatre productions. May be used to satisfy a require- 
ment in Division I. Lab— three hours. 

122. Introduction to Theatre Technology I. (4) An introductory course in theatre 
technology focusing on the basic techniques of stagecraft, lighting, drafting, and 
sound. This course is of special interest to potential majors. Lab— three hours. Offered 
in the fall. P— Theatre Arts 121. 

123. Introduction to Theatre Technology II. (4) An introductory course in theatre 
technology focusing on the basic techniques of costume construction, makeup, scene 
painting, and stage management. This course is of special interest to potential majors. 
Lab— three hours. Offered in the spring. P— Theatre Arts 121. 

218. Technical Graphics and Lighting. (4) The theory and practice of stage lighting 
including the techniques and terminology used in making both working and con- 
struction drawings for theatrical use. P— Theatre Arts 122. 

219. Advanced Stage Makeup. (4) The theories, materials, and techniques of theatrical 
makeup. P— Theatre Arts 123. 

220. Advanced Costume Construction. (4) Pattern drafting, cutting, and construc- 
tion techniques of period theatrical costumes. P— Theatre Arts 123. 

221. Mime. (4) An introductory study of basic mime forms. The student will gain 
skills and understanding of this theatrical form through practical exercises, readings, 
rehearsals, and performances. 

223. Stagecraft. (4) A study of the basic elements of theatre technology. Practical 
experience gained in laboratory and University Theatre productions. Open to 
freshmen and sophomores by permission of instructor. Lab— five hours. 

226. Theories of Acting. (4) A study of acting theories and fundamental acting techni- 
ques. Open to freshmen and sophomores by permission of instructor. Lab— two 
hours. 



189 



227. Theatre Speech. (4) An intensive course in the analysis and correlation of the 
physiological, physical, and interpretative aspects of voice and diction on the stage. 

228. The Contemporary English Theatre. (2,3, or 4) An examination of the English 
theatre through reading, lectures, seminars, and attendance at numerous live theatre 
performances. The participants are expected to submit written reactions to the plays 
which are seen. Ample time to allow visits to museums, libraries, and historic places. 
Taught in London. P— Permission of instructor. 

280. Special Seminar. (4) (See previous description.) 

281. Honors Course. (4) (See previous description.) 

282. Individual Study. (1-4) (See previous description.) 

283. 284. Theatre Arts Practicum. (2,2) (See previous description.) 

3110. The English Theatre, 1660-1940. (4) A study of the major developments in 
the English theatre from the Restoration to World War II, including the plays, 
playwrights, actors, audiences, theatre architecture, theatre management, costumes, 
and sets. Field trips include visits to theatres, museums, and performances. Offered 
in London. 

316. Acting Shakespeare. (4) A practical study of varying styles in interpreting and 
acting Shakespeare's plays from the time of the Elizabethans to the present day. 
P-Theatre Arts 226. 

317. Theatrical Lighting Design. (4) The intensive study of the tools and aesthetics 
of the designer's craft with practical experience in designing for proscenium, thrust, 
and arena staging. P— Theatre Arts 125. 

318. Theatrical Special Effects. (4) A survey of the various special scenographic and 
lighting effects used in modern theatre. Special emphasis will be placed on effects 
used in productions done during the term. P— Theatre Arts 223 and 125. 

319. Costume: History and Design. (4) A study of the evolution of costume through 
the ages and the design of historic costume for the stage. P— Theatre Arts 121. 

320. Theatrical Scene Design. (4) A study of the theories and styles of stage design 
and their application to the complete play. P— Theatre Arts 121 and 223 or permis- 
sion of instructor. 

321. Play Directing. (4) An introduction to the theory and practice of play directing. 
A grade is not granted for this course until the student has completed Theatre Arts 

322. Lab— two hours. P— Theatre Arts 121 and 226 or permission of instructor. 

322. Play Production Laboratory. (2) A laboratory in the organization, the techni- 
ques, and the problems encountered in a dramatic production. The production of 
a play for public performance is required. P— Theatre Arts 321. 



190 



323. Period and Style in Acting. (4) A study of social customs, movement, dances, 
and theatrical styles relating to the performance of drama in historical settings as 
well as in period plays. The course includes performances in class. P— Theatre Arts 
226. 

324. Advanced Mime. (4) This course enlarges upon skills and techniques acquired 
in Theatre Arts 221 (Mime), with the addition of other mime forms. The course 
includes exercises, rehearsals, and performances. P— Theatre Arts 221. 

325. Advanced Acting. (4) A concentrated study of the actor's art through theory 
and practice. P— Theatre Arts 226 or permission of instructor. 

326. Performance Techniques. (4) A course in advanced acting techniques, focus- 
ing on acting styles appropriate to various modes of theatrical production. Specialized 
techniques such as dance, singing, stage combat, etc., may also be included. 
P— Theatre Arts 226. 

327. Theatre History I. (4) A survey of the development of the theatre from its origins 
to 1870; includes lectures, readings, and reports. 

328. Theatre History II. (4) A survey of the development of the modern theatre from 
1870 to the present day; includes lectures, readings, and reports. 

329. Advanced Theatre Speech. (4) Specific study in the theory and personal develop- 
ment of vocal melody, rhythm, color, and harmony according to the form, style, 
and mood of a theatrical production. P— Theatre Arts 227 or permission of instructor. 

3300. Modern English and Continental Drama and the London Stage. (4) Studies 
in the works of major playwrights of England and Europe from 1875 to the present. 
Particular emphasis will be placed on plays which are currently being presented in 
London theatres. Lectures, readings, reports and attendance at theatre performances. 
Taught in London. 

3310. A Survey of English Theatre History. (4) Beginning with the Elizabethan period 
and continuing into the twentieth century, this course will focus on the major periods 
of the English theatre. Students will study playwrights, actors, theatre architecture, 
production styles and audiences of each period. Lectures, student papers and reports. 
Field trips to theatres, museums, and performances. Taught in London. 



191 

School of Business and Accountancy 

Thomas C. Taylor, Dean 

University Professor K. Wayne Smith 

Professors Eddie V. Easley, Delmer P. Hylton, 

Jeanne Owen, Thomas C. Taylor 

Associate Professors Umit Akinc, Leon P. Cook Jr., A. Sayeste Daser, 

Arun P. Dewasthali, John S. Dunkelberg, Stephen Ewing, 

Thomas S. Goho, Dale R. Martin, Ralph B. Tower 

Assistant Professor S. Douglas Beets 

Lecturers DeLeon E. Stokes, Olive S. Thomas 

Adjunct Lecturer Horace O. Kelly, Jr. 

Adjunct Instructor Helen Akinc 

Objectives 

The School of Business and Accountancy has four objectives: 

1. to offer sound academic programs in business and accountancy leading to the 
bachelor of science degree; 

2. to undertake on a continuous basis the professional development of its faculty; 

3. to serve the University community; and 

4. to maintain a productive association with the public, especially the business 
community. 

Two programs of study leading to the bachelor of science degree are offered. 
Students may choose a major in either business or accountancy. 

The primary goal of the business program is to provide a general study of business 
which will enable graduates to enter the business world with a breadth of understan- 
ding of relevant business problems and concepts. The general, as opposed to specializ- 
ed, orientation of the major in business is appropriate for Wake Forest University 
in light of both its strong liberal arts tradition and its small size. 

The major goal of the accountancy program is to give students a thorough 
understanding of accounting theory and methodology. Study of the basic functions 
in business operations is included in the curriculum. The role of the accountant in 
analyzing and controlling operations is considered. Contemporary issues in accoun- 
ting practice are discussed. 

Both the business and accountancy programs are accredited by the American 
Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business. 

Admission 

Admission to the School is by formal application, and applicants will be screened 
by the Committee on Admission and Continuation of the School of Business and 
Accountancy. Before being considered for admission to the School, the applicant 



192 



first must have been admitted to Wake Forest College. Minimum requirements for 
admission to the School of Business and Accountancy are completion of sixty-five 
credits and a grade-point average of 2.2 on all courses attempted. 

Students are encouraged to have completed two semesters of Principles of 
Accounting, one semester of Principles of Economics, and Mathematics 108 or 111 before 
admission to the School. 

The number of students who can be accommodated is limited. Therefore, the School 
reserves the right to grant or to deny admission or readmission to any student who 
meets the minimum requirements. Readmission to the School of Business and 
Accountancy first requires readmission to Wake Forest College, requirements for 
which are discussed on page 44. 

Transfer of Credit from Other Schools 

It is expected that most work toward degrees offered by the School of Business 
and Accountancy will be taken in the School. For students wishing to transfer credit 
from other schools, the following general guidelines apply: 

(a) Courses at another school passed with the minimum passing grade at that 
school may not be transferred. 

(b) Courses transferred in business and accountancy may be subject to validating 
examinations. 

(c) No work in courses numbered 200 and above will be accepted from two-year 
schools. 

(d) Courses taken elsewhere in subjects not offered at the School of Business and 
Accountancy may not be counted toward the credits required in the School 
of Business and Accountancy. 

For the BS in business, a minimum of forty credits must be earned in the School 
of Business and Accountancy at Wake Forest University; for the BS in accountancy, 
the minimum credits earned in this school must total fifty-two. 

Requirements for Continuation 

In addition to the requirements stated on pages 43-44, a student must be 
academically responsible and must show satisfactory progress towards completing 
the requirements for the degree. The administration of the School of Business and 
Accountancy will notify the student if satisfactory progress is not being made and, 
after consultation with the Committee on Admission and Continuation, will decide 
if the student may continue as a major in this school. 

Requirements for Graduation 

The School of Business and Accountancy confers the bachelor of science degree 
with majors in accountancy and business. For the major in business, a student must 



193 



complete the following course work: Accounting 111 and 112; Business 201, 203, 
211, 221, 231, 241, 251, 261, and 271; Economics 150; Mathematics 108 or 111; Speech 
151 or 153 or 155; and a minimum of three courses from Business 212, 214, 215, 222, 
223, 224, 225, 232, 233, 234, 237, or Accounting courses numbered 200 or above. One 
elective may be taken from economics courses numbered 200 or above. 

For the major in accountancy, the following course work must be completed: 
Accounting 111, 112, 211, 212, 252, 253, 254, 261, 271, 272, and 273; Business 201, 
211, 221, 231, 241, 251, 261, and 271; Economics 150; Mathematics 108 or 111; and 
Speech 151 or 153 or 155. Requirements for the degree can be met in the normal 
four years with proper planning. Since this will require a heavy course load in the 
junior and senior years, students may find it advisable to attend a summer session 
to meet these requirements. 

In addition to the courses stipulated above, the student in business and accoun- 
tancy must also meet the following requirements for graduation: 

(a) a minimum of 144 credits, including the basic and divisional requirements 
established by Wake Forest College; 

(b) a minimum grade-point average of 2.0 on all work attempted at Wake Forest; 

(c) a minimum grade-point average of 2.0 on all work attempted at other institu- 
tions; and 

(d) an overall 2.0 grade-point average on all business and accountancy courses, 
exclusive of courses repeated with a C grade or better. 

Senior Honors Program 

Students with a grade-point average of at least 3.0 on all college work and 3.3 on 
all work in business and accountancy are mvited to apply for admission to the honors 
program in business and accountancy. A project, paper, or readings, and an oral 
examination are required. Those who successfully complete the requirements 
specified by the School are graduated with the designation "Honors in Business" 
or "Honors in Accountancy." For additional information, interested students should 
consult a member of the faculty of the School of Business and Accountancy. 



Courses of Instruction 

Business 

201. Business Statistics. (4) Techniques of analysis of numerical data, including 
descriptive statistics, probability theory, sampling theory, statistical inference, chi- 
square analysis, analysis of variance, and regression and correlation analysis. 

203. Quantitative Analysis. (4) Development and understanding of quantitative deci- 
sion tools and models to be applied to the managerial decision process. Models 
include linear programming (graphic, algebraic, and simplex algorithm; sensitivity 



194 



analysis; duality; transportation and assignment algorithm); decision theory; Markov 
analysis; and queuing. P— Business 201. 

211. Organizational Theory and Behavior. (4) The study of macro and micro organiza- 
tional design— structure, processes, development, climate, behavior, and performance 
evaluations. 

212. Human Resource Management. (4) The application of concepts from Business 
211 to human resource problems faced by general managers and their organizations. 
Activities include class discussions, case analyses, and projects. P— Business 211. 

214. Labor Policy. (4) A study of selected topics in labor-management relations in 
both the business and the public sector from the view of labor, management, and 
the public. P— Business 211. 

215. Comparative Management. (4) A seminar course which will broaden the 
student's knowledge of different management styles used in various countries such 
as Japan, China, the United States, the United Kingdom, and West Germany. The 
course will focus on (1) the complexities involved in operating in different cultures 
and (2) the implications which these cultural differences have on managing organiza- 
tions and their employees' behavior. P— Bus. 211. 

221. Principles of Marketing. (4) A study of the role of marketing in business and 
the economy. Emphasis is on the examination of marketing concepts, functions, 
institutions, and methods. P— Economics 150. 

222. Marketing Strategy. (4) Managerial techniques in planning and executing 
marketing programs in business and nonbusiness organizations. Emphasis is on the 
group experience in decision-making related to market segmentation, product 
innovation and positioning, channels of distribution, pricing, and promotion. 
Extensive use of cases, readings, and team presentations. P— Business 201 and 221. 

223. International Marketing. (4) Study of problems and opportunities in marketing 
overseas, analysis of cultural, economic, and political environment of foreign 
marketing operations, organization, and control of the multinational company. P— 
Business 221 and senior standing. 

224. Marketing Research. (4) Introduction to fundamentals of research methodology 
and use of research information in marketing decision-making. Topics include 
research design, data collection methods, scaling, sampling, and alternate methods 
of statistical data analysis. Students design and execute their own research projects. 
P-Business 201 and 221. 

225. Buyer Behavior. (4) Study of basic behavioral science applications in buyer 
motivation and behavior and in buying decisions. Emphasis on current research and 
theory relating to consumer behavior. P— Business 221. 

231. Principles of Finance. (4) An introduction to the field of finance including finan- 
cial management, investment analysis, and financial institutions and markets. 



195 



Emphasis is placed on financial management at the level of the business entity or 
non-profit organization. P— Accounting 112 and Economics 150. 

232. Advanced Financial Management. (4) Management decision-making applied 
to the financial function, including investment, financing, dividend, and working 
capital decisions and their impact on the value of the firm. P— Business 231. 

233. Investment Analysis. (4) Study of investment alternatives, expected returns, 
and corresponding risks; valuation of stocks and bonds applying both fundamental 
and technical analysis; survey of past and current methods of stock selection tech- 
niques, including portfolio considerations. P— Business 231. 

234. Multinational Financial Management. (4) Analysis of the international aspects 
of managerial finance. Emphasis upon institutional and environmental factors 
influencing capital acquisition and allocation. P— Business 231. 

237. Taxes and Their Role in Business and Personal Decisions. (4) A review of the 
basic principles of income, property, sales, and payroll-related taxes and an examina- 
tion of their impact on business and personal decisions. Introduction to tax return 
preparation and tax planning techniques. Not open to accounting majors; credit not 
granted for both Business 237 and Accounting 271. P— Accounting 112. 

241. Production and Operations Management. (4) A study of the problems of the 
operations function in organizations, their interfaces with other functional areas, 
and the methods of their solutions. Topics include process selection, forecasting, 
aggregate planning, job shop scheduling, project management, MRP inventory 
management, facilities location and design, quality planning and control. P— Business 
201. 

251. Management Information Systems. (4) Study of the development, design, and 
implementation of management information systems with introduction to the ter- 
minology, concepts, and trends in computer hardware and software. 

261. Legal Environment of Business. (4) A study of the legal environment in which 
business decisions are made in profit and nonprofit organizations. Emphasis is put 
upon how the law develops and how economic, political, social, and ethical con- 
siderations influence this development. 

270. Business Law. (4) A study of the law applicable to business transactions with 
accounting and auditing implications. Open only to senior accounting majors. 
P— Business 261. 

271. Business Policy. (4) Application of the case method to problems of business 
policy formulation and strategic planning. P— Business 211, 221, 231, and 241. 

281. Reading and Research. (2,3, or 4) Directed study in specialized areas of business. 
P— Permission of instructor. 



196 



Accountancy 

111. Accounting Principles I. (4) The basic accounting process and underlying prin- 
ciples pertaining to the preparation and interpretation of published financial 
statements. Sophomore standing. 

112. Accounting Principles II. (4) A continuation of Accounting 111 and an introduc- 
tion to management accounting. P— Accounting 111. 

211. Intermediate Accounting I. (4) A detailed analysis of theoiy and related problems 
for typical accounts in published financial statements. P— Accounting 112. 

212. Intermediate Accounting II. (4) A continuation of Accounting 211. P— Accounting 
211. 

252. Cost Accounting. (4) Advanced study of management accounting, including 
budgeting, product-costing, cost allocation, standard costs, transfer-pricing, differen- 
tial analysis, and cost-behavior analysis. P— Accounting 112. 

253. Accounting Information Systems. (2) A study of the design and operation of 
accounting systems relating to the functions of purchasing, production, sales, and 
cash management. Emphasis is placed upon the necessary controls for reliable data. 
P— Accounting 252 and Business 251. 

254. Accounting in the Not-for-Profit Sector. (2,4) An examination of accounting 
theory and practice in governmental operations. P— Accounting 211. 

261. Advanced Accounting Problems. (4) A study of the more complex problems 
found in business operations, business combinations, reorganizations, and dissolu- 
tion. P— Accounting 212. 

271. Income Tax Accounting I. (4) A survey of basic income tax concepts associated 
with individuals, partnerships, corporations, estates, and trusts. Introduction to tax 
research and planning. P— Accounting 212. 

272. Income Tax Accounting II. (2) A survey of basic income tax concepts associated 
with corporations; review of current changes in the federal income tax law. 
P— Accounting 271. 

273. Auditing. (4) Examination of basic auditing concepts and relationships, and the 
auditor's reporting and professional responsibilities. Study of auditing procedures 
commonly used in public accounting and internal auditing. P— Accounting 212 and 
Business 252. 

275. CPA Re view- Accounting Practice and Theory. (4) An intensive study of CPA- 
type problems found on the accounting practice and accounting theory sections of 
the CPA exam. P— Accounting 252 and 261. 

278. Reading and Research. (2,3, or 4) Directed study in specialized areas of 
accountancy. P— Permission of instructor. 



197 



Degrees Conferred 



May 18, 1987 
Bachelor of Arts 



Christopher Allen Albertson 

Abbott William Allen III 

Wendy Jean Allen, magna cum laude 

Karen Amidon, magna cum laude 

Nicholas Longworth Anderson 

William Thomas Andrade 

Craig John Andren 

Scott Michael Arnold 

Parrish Francis Arturi 

Richard Joseph Ashe 

Elizabeth Alison Ashley 

William Thomas Atkins 

Carla Elizabeth Atkinson 

Renate P. Austin, cum laude 

Brian David Bachman, cum laude, 

with honors in politics 
Kenneth Woltz Badgett, magna cum 

laude, with honors in history 
Kent Brian Bakke 
Michael D. Balise 
Kimberly Elizabeth Barrett 
Francis N. Bassett 
Latta Michel Baucom, cum laude 
Pauline Larkins Bearden 
Sharon Elizabeth Beck 
Katherine T Beddingfield, cum laude 
Lisa Renee Belcher 
Cristina Anna Berg, cum laude 
David John Bergen 
Michele Bernard 
James Hampton Black III, cum laude, 

with honors in classical studies 
David Gregory Blick 
Michelle Louise Bodley, cum laude 
Bennett Gibson Boggs, cum laude 
William Beals Boggs, 

summa cum laude 
Celeste Anne Bona 



Edward Thomas Bonahue Jr., 

cum laude 
Jacquelyn Joan Borri, cum laude 
Brian Mart Bouchelle 
James Adams Bowden 
Jennifer Ann Brandenburgh 
Henry Wray Brawley 
Thomas Edward Breese 
Joan Elizabeth Brodish, cum laude, 

with honors in psychology 
Bradford Conrad Bromstead 
Rita Bowen Brooks 
Thomas Scott Browder 
Virginia Elizabeth Brown, 

magna cum laude 
Helen Claire Bullock 
Cynthia Marlene Bunch 
Kenneth Franklin Burgess Jr. 
Margaret Mary Burke 
David Kent Burnap Jr. 
Stephen Matthew Byers, cum laude, 

with honors in politics 
Bradford B. Byrnes, cum laude, 

with honors in economics 
Brett Frederick Carlson 
Franklin Lewis Carmines Jr. 
Edith Breyer Castor 
Mark Christian Cave, cum laude 
Edward Jinki Chang, cum laude 
Catherine Cross Chapman 
Robert Reginald Chapman Jr. 
Brian Wolcott Chase, cum laude, 

with honors in economics 
Freddie Ann Chilton, 

magna cum laude 
David Joseph Cintron 
George Montgomery Cleland IV, 

cum laude 



198 



Steven Joseph Clevenger 

John Seymour Cochrane 

Jeffrey Graf Cole 

David Dysert Collins 

John T. Collins Jr. 

Kelley Lynn Collis, cum laude, 

with honors in anthropology 
Melissa Lee Conn 
Susan Jennifer Connell, cum laude 
Kerry Anne Conner 
Jeffrey Keith Cook 
Susan Elizabeth Cook 
Shelia Ree Gotten 
Kimberly Ann Cramer, 

magna cum laude 
Katherine Ellen Culp 
Mark Jeffery Cundiff 
Ernest Christopher Curry 
Milena Anna Cvijanovich, magna 

cum laude, with honors in politics 
Tricia Lynne Daisley cum laude 
T. Christopher Daniel, cum laude 
Stephen Edward Dauer 
Jill Daugherty 
Daniel Martin Davis 
Michael S. Davis, cum laude 
Alice Elaine Dawkins 
LeAnne Faulkner Day 
Mary Martha Dean 
Michael Anthony DeMayo, cum laude 
Caren Winifred DeMent, cum laude 
Thomas Aquinas DiBiase, cum laude 
Mahlon Alan Dickens, 

summa cum laude 
Ellen Patricia Donohue 
Hilary E. Drozdowski 
James Robert Duckwall, 

magna cum laude 
George Hubert Dunham, cum laude 
Jane Elizabeth Dunlap, magna cum 

laude, with honors in English 
Gregory Coleman Dyer 
Jonathan Charles Edwards, cum laude 
Karen Suzanne Edwards, 

magna cum laude 



Andrea Leigh Engleson 

Kathryn Clark Fain, magna cum laude 

Mary Elizabeth Farmer 

Janette Santina Feely 

Karen Elizabeth Ferguson 

Richard Vincent Filaski, cum laude 

William Rochester Finley III 

Jan Alisa Fischer, summa cum laude 

John Edward Fitzgerald, 

magna cum laude 
Catherine Marie Fletcher, cum laude 
Peter Samuel Flint 

John Michael Flynn, magna cum laude 
Ellen Bailey Freeman, 

magna cum laude 
Michael Andrew Frenzel 
Frank David Friedersdorf Jr., 

magna cum laude 
Jeffrey Alan Friedlander 
Robert Allen Frommelt 
Lauren Louise Furr, cum laude 
Marion Annette Gagan 
Jamie Scott Gage, cum laude 
Christine Temple Gaines 
Robert C. Geeslin 
Lynley Ann Geisler, cum laude 
Nils Edward Gerber, cum laude 
Timothy Pearce Gerber 
Deborah Lynn Gerhardt, 

magna cum laude 
Granice Louise Geyer 
Tiffany Lee Ann Glass, cum laude 
Robert Michael Glover 
Cynthia Marie Goethals, cum laude 
Renee Stevens Goin 
Berrin C. Goodman 
Sara Elizabeth Goslen 
Robert Craig Gourlay 
Patricia Ann Grady, cum laude, 

with honors in psychology 
Derek Randall Greene, 

summa cum laude 
Martha Denise Greene, 

magna cum laude 
Samuel Wilson Greenwood 



199 



Michael R. Gregg, cum laude 

Todd Robert Gribble 

David A. Griffin 

Ingrid Gunther 

Christopher Richard Guy 

Elizabeth Anne Hall 

Kathryn Ann Hamrick, cum laude 

Jennifer Grae Hancock 

Susan Elizabeth Hardgrave, 

magna cum laude 
Sue Barker Hardie, magna cum laude 
Penny Louise Hare 
William Collette Harpe 
Michael Anthony Harrington 
George Mitchell Harris III 
Stacy Lynne Harris, cum laude 
Mary Peyton Hatcher 
Mark H. Hathaway, cum laude 
Douglas Martin Haupt, cum laude, 

with honors in speech communication 

and theatre arts 
Jerold Craig Hawn 
Kimberly Denise Haynes 
Mira Denise Henry 
Andrea McPhail Herring 
William Francis Hickey 
Steven Scott Hickman 
Wayne Alan Hill 
Jane Barrett Hines 
Robert Kevin Hinkle, 

magna cum laude, 

with honors in romance languages 
Kathryn Anne Hinton 
Christopher Hiscavich, cum laude 
Sharon Lynn Hoefer, cum laude 
Kimberly Suzanne Hoey, cum laude 
Shawn Ann Holcombe, 

magna cum laude 
Kristina Marie Holland 
Samuel Kenneth Holtzapple, 

cum laude 
Deborah Jean Hope, cum laude 
Lynda Louise Horn, magna cum laude 
Leigh Hunt Houghland, cum laude 
Paul Gerard Houston 



Robert Corby Hovis, summa cum 

laude, with honors in English 
Kathryn Sue Howard, cum laude 
Matthew Edward Howard 
Scott Alexander Hudson 
Thomas Walker Hudspeth 
Elizabeth Anne Hueber, cum laude, 

with honors in economics 
Jeremy James Huggins 
Charles Crews Hull Jr. 
Kenneth Robert Hunt Jr. 
Thomas John Hunter 
Richard Herbert Jackson Jr. 
Blair Martin Jacobs 
Karen Lynn Jarvis 
Paul Jeanes III, cum laude 
Joseph A. Jeziorski Jr., cum laude 
Elizabeth Mary Johanon, cum laude 
Frank N. Johnson 
Jane Miller Johnson 
Peter Alfred Johnson 
Stewart Lewis Johnson, cum laude 
Terrill Leigh Johnson, 

magna cum laude 

with honors in politics 
Lana Darlene Jolley, cum laude 
Linda Esther Jones, summa 

cum laude, with honors in English 
Kenneth Aboud Jowdy 
Karen Louise Juhasz, cum laude 
David Edward Kalet 
Elizabeth Page Kane 
Tonu Thomas Kangur Jr. 
Michael John Kavanagh 
Tiffany Lynn Keck 
Christine Milan Keener, 

magna cum laude 
Alice Marie Keith 
Michael Stanley Kennedy 
Mary Elizabeth Ketner, cum laude 
Paul David Kiser 
Jenny Augusta Kletzin, cum laude 
David Wayne La Bua 
Stephen Matthew LaMastra, 

cum laude 



200 



Robert Earl Lamb, cum laude 
Steven Wayne Lambert 
Laura Celine Lawson 
Mark Alan LeCroy, cum laude 
Meredith Davis Lee 
William E. Leffingwell Jr. 
Elizabeth Page Leggett 
Kimberly Leigh Lewis 
D. Andrew List, cum laude 
Mona Kaye Long, cum laude 
John Herron Lummus 
Donald Frazier Mabe Jr. 
Kristina Natale Madsen, 

magna cum laude 
Susan Lynne Marler, cum laude 
Catherine Christine Marshall, 

cum laude 
George Lee Martin, cum laude 
Robert Hutcheson Mauck Jr. 
Stephen Allen Mayo, cum laude 
John David Mays, cum laude 
Kennie Leigh McCarn, cum laude 
Sandra Lynn McCormick 
Diette Thomasina McEntire 
Jeanne Marie McGill 
Elizabeth Geneva Mcllvaine, 

cum laude 
J. Stephen McLoughlin 
Sarah Ann McMillan 
Rosemary Suzanne McNiel, 

cum laude 
Emily Anne Messer 
M. Kendall Messick Jr., cum laude 
John Jacob Miller III, cum laude, 

with honors in psychology 
John Robinson Miller IV 
Laura Ingrid Miller 
Mark Eric Miller 
David Wingate Mitchell 
Melissa Diane Mitchell, cum laude 
Patricia Lynn Moeller, cum laude 
Lauren Paige Mohler 
Ronald Stanley Montesano 
Joseph Paul Montford 



Terri Lynn Moorefield, 

magna cum laude 
David Stephens Morris 
Eugene Jeffrey Mosley, cum laude 
Michael Dale Moyer 
Sara Janet Murphree, cum laude 
Robert Daniel Murrell 
John Franklin Nash III 
Judson Joseph Newhall 
Mary Catherine Nolan, cum laude 
Walter Frederick Norris, cum laude, 

with honors in anthropology 
William Andrew Odell 
Steven D. Ogden 
David Walter Orlowski, cum laude 
John Deifell Ormand, cum laude, 

with honors in economics 
Elizabeth Matthews Outland, 

cum laude 
Kimberly Jean Owen 
William Douglas Parr 
Cynthia Whitney Patrick, cum laude 
David Jerry Pearce II 
Gerri Lynne Penley 
Edith Catherine Penry 
David James Peterson, cum laude 
Rebecca Hughes Peterson 
Timothy Carlin Philpot, 

magna cum laude 
Loraine Marie Piccolo 
Brian Hugh Ponder 
David Todd Poovey 
Anne Royall Pope, magna cum laude 
Tellis Marie Porter 
Douglas Alvin Pritchard Jr. 
Amy Lynne Privette, 

summa cum laude 
Stephanie Ann Rader, cum laude 
Melanie Ann Raynor 
James Theodore Reeves 
Deborah Lynn Reichle, 

magna cum laude 
Lisa Julie Renner, cum laude 
Jeffrey Doyle Richardson, cum laude, 

with honors in history 



201 



Charlotte Corbett Riddle 

Jeff Todd Riddle, magna cum laude 

Keith Wiley Rigsbee 

John Charles Rives 

Erik Emerson Roberts, cum laude 

Jeffri Inez Roberts 

Cynthia K. Robertson, cum laude 

Carla Donata Robinson 

Elizabeth Robinson 

Melissa Leigh Robinson, cum laude 

William G. Robinson Jr. 

Thomas Evatt Roper Jr., cum laude 

Kenneth E. Ross 

Kenneth Rae Ross 

Jon Joseph Roth 

Robert W. Rudas Jr. 

Wallace James Rumbough Jr. 

Terence Patrick Ryan 

Audrey Lynn Sage 

David Ernest Saintsing, cum laude 

David Anthony Saitta 

James Thomas Sands 

Karen Lu Sanford, cum laude 

Michael Homaun Sartipzadeh 

Linda Kay Sauer 

Richard W. Sawyer III 

Dawn Marie Schlinke, cum laude 

Vicki Lynn Schmidt 

H. Douglas Scriba Jr. 

Susan Cecily Scull, cum laude 

Edna Karen Seale 

Alvin Jackson Secrest III, cum laude, 

with honors in economics 
Kathryn Lynn Sellers 
Keric Kennedy Shanahan 
Mark David Shattuck, 

magna cum laude 
Melodie Woodward Sheets 
Douglas Bert Shellhorn, cum laude 
Lori Ann Sheppard, cum laude, 

with honors in psychology 
Scott Shiebler 
Robert Blake Shillinger Jr. 
Devin Garret Silloway 



Lesley Diane Slusher 

Jack Monroe Smith 

James Carlton Smith Jr. 

John Harold Smith Jr. 

Stuart Strickland Smith 

Jennifer Lynne Sparnicht 

Alexander Russ Squires 

Sharon Gayle Stanziano, cum laude 

Westley Arthur Stauffer 

James Alvin Steinrrager, 

magna cum laude, 

with honors in politics 
David James Stevens 
Eric Phillip Stevens, cum laude 
Mary Elizabeth Stewart 
Cherry Davis Stribling Jr. 
Heidi Anne Stumbaugh 
Melanie Kay Suggs 
Michael John Summers 
Jennifer Leigh Sundberg, 

magna cum laude 
Randall S. Talley 
Kenneth B. Tankersley 
Stephen John Toney, cum laude 
Harry Gregory Tornatore 
Norma Trevor Turnage 
Darcy Elizabeth Tyrrell 
Angela Lynn Tysinger 
Michael Joseph Valchar 
Jean VanDuzer, cum laude 
Cristine Mari Varholy, 

magna cum laude, 

with honors in English 
Helen Elizabeth Wadsworth 
J. Gregory Warren 
John Christopher Waters 
Roger Taylor Weaver 
Barbara Knoop Weeks 
Bart Clayton Weems 
James Greer Welsh Jr. 
Matthew John Weresh, 

magna cum laude 
Todd Dale Werstler 
Alan Joseph White, magna cum laude, 

with honors in economics 



202 



Sarah Ellen White, cum laude 

Sherry Lynn White, magna cum laude 

Anthony Neil Whitley 

David Joseph Widmar 

Lisa Lynne Wiggs 

Alicia Renee Williams, 
magna cum laude, with honors in 
speech communication and theatre arts 

Douglas Webster Williams 

Lisa Karen Williams 

Patrick Todd Williams, cum laude 

Marianne Wilson, magna cum laude 



Robert Hugh Wilson 
Robert Norman Wilson Jr. 
Stephen Anthony Windell 
Sarah Elizabeth Wolff 
Douglas Cabot Wong, 

magna cum laude 
Peter Marshall Wood 
Patrick Noel Woodie 
Dana Elizabeth Wright 
Lisa Maria Wright 
Steven Charles Wright, cum laude 
Arthur Gerard Wyatt, cum laude 



May 18, 1987 
Bachelor of Science 



Maher Salah Agha 

Susan Marie Akers, magna cum laude 

Ann Katherine Allen, cum laude 

John Henley Altizer 

Alacia Lee Anderson, cum laude 

Andrew Yoshiyuki Ashikari, 

cum laude 
Mark Lee Aust 
Carroll Wayne Austin II 
Salman Azhar, summa cum laude, with 

honors in mathematics and physics 
Michael Scot Beatty 
Denise Renee Benfield 
Christina Berglund, magna cum laude 
Kristin Elaine Blevins 
Paul Andrew Borders 
Michael Scott Bradshaw 
Patricia Anne Breed, cum laude 
Caroline Brigitte Bridges 
Margaret Elizabeth Bristol, cum laude 
Jeffrey Covington Brooks, cum laude 
Danny Calvin Brown 
Mark Boone Brown, cum laude 
James McMaster Bryan, cum laude 
Katie Elizabeth Burley 
Edward Graham Clark 
Charlene Lynne Collins, cum laude 
Linda Carol Colwell 



Brian Scott Cope, cum laude 

Kevin Brian Coyne 

Peter Neal Crowther, magna cum laude 

John Steven Czarnecki 

Kirstin Ward Deaton, cum laude 

Andrew Paul Desjardins, cum laude 

David Glenn Dixon, magna cum laude 

Robert M. Donahue 

Carrie Gwyn Dowell, cum laude 

Jeffrey Lawrence Dupree 

Susan Leigh Erickson, cum laude 

Cheryl Jean Ewing 

William Matthew Figlesthaler, 

cum laude 
Susan Elizabeth Forbes, cum laude 
Janet Louise Fort, cum laude 
Bethany Lynn Foster 
Daphne Lynn Fulks, cum laude 
Amy Denise Gary 
Mark Ingram Gibson, 

magna cum laude 
Robert Ernest Grady Jr., cum laude 
Douglas Kim Graham, cum laude, 

with honors in biology 
Paul Christopher Harnice 
Jennepher Nancy Hart, 

magna cum laude 
Stephen Russell Hauk, cum laude 



203 



Jacqueline Marie Heder, cum laude 
Marshall Todd Helm, cum laude, with 

honors in mathematical economics 
Cynthia Lynn Helton 
Timothy Mark Hendrix, magna cum 

laude, with honors in mathematics 
Cynthia Elizabeth Henry cum laude 
Constance Elizabeth Herr 
Susan Lynn Hetherington 
Mona Lisa Hilbawi 
Karen Alicia Hinshaw 
Diane Ruth Hinson 
Lidia Stana Ileus, cum laude 
Cameron Meade Jackson 
Michael James Johnson 
Jennifer Lee Johnsrude 
Molly Anne Jones 
Jennifer Jean Joyce, cum laude 
Christopher Joseph Kern 
Deborah Keyes 

Edward H. Kivett III, cum laude 
Kevin Michael Krause 
Michael Patrick Kreis, cum laude 
Jill Dawn Lane, cum laude 
Susanna Fay Langley, cum laude 
Llewellyn Rogers Langston 
Christine Elizabeth Leidy, cum laude 
William Trowell Leslie 
Ronald Eric Lilly, summa cum laude 
John Wade Little 
Michael Paul Longhi, cum laude 
Thomas P. Loughlin 
Susan Marie Lovett, cum laude 
Eric Arthur Mansell, cum laude 
Sherri B. Martin, cum laude 
Joseph Anthony Marzano, 

magna cum laude 
Richard C. Mattucci 
Chad Bennett McKee, magna cum 

laude, with honors in physics 
Bradford Lawrence McRae 
Woodie Eugenia Meadows 
Maria Weston Merritt, 

summa cum laude 



Cynthia Annette Meyer, cum laude, 

with honors in mathematical economics 
Arlene Lynette Nichols Miller 
Robin Jo Miller 
Melinda Sue Montgomery, summa 

cum laude, with honors in chemistry 
Dean Scott Morrell, 

magna cum laude 
Michael Wineman Morro 
Nelle Galloway Moseley, cum laude 
James Wessinger Palumbo, 

magna cum laude 
Benjamin Banks Peeler, 

magna cum laude 
Woodrow Hufham Peterson Jr., 

cum laude 
Connie Colette Phillips 
Alison Elizabeth Philp, cum laude 
Jennifer Lynn Plaisance, cum laude 
Barbara Elaine Price 
Michele Marie Ramirez, magna cum 

laude, with honors in biology 
Marsha Anne Reavis 
Candace Apple Robertson, cum laude, 

with honors in biology 
Donna Lynn Robinson, cum laude 
Jennifer Marie Louise Ruff, cum laude 
Christa Beth Sackhoff 
Erin Lynn Shubert 
Lisa Jane Smith, cum laude 
Tina Marie Smith, cum laude 
Tonya Dee Smith 
Michelle Christine Snopkowski 
Christopher William Sparnicht 
Rachelle Miller Spell, magna cum 

laude, with honors in biology 
Patricia Ann Spitz 
Donald C. Stanley Jr. 
Sheryl Anne Stevens, cum laude 
Lory Marie Stimson 
Helen Rae Colopietra Tolley 
James Francis Toole III, cum laude 
Denise Theresa Tracey, cum laude 
Nan Travis Triplett 



204 



Andrew Ethan Tuttle, 

magna cum laude 
Julie Ellen Wallin, magna cum laude, 

with honors in biology 
Kimberly Michelle Ward 



Harrill Gene Washburn Jr. 

Windsor Rivers Westbrook, cum laude 

Helen M. Williams 

Elisabeth Dawn Willis, cum laude 

Blake William Young 

Khalique Abdul Zahir, cum laude 



May 18, 1987 
Bachelor of Science 



The School of Business and Accountancy 



Elizabeth Barnhardt Absher, 

cum laude 
Mark Edward Anderson 
Andrea Beth Andrews 
Betsy Dee Baker 
Christopher Layne Barber 
Garret Taylor Barnes 
Edward Bradford Bennett 
William Lovelace Bishop Jr. 
Thomas Scott Bray 
Marianne E. Brot 
Marjorie Linda Buff 
Anita Lyn Burton, cum laude 
Blaine Mitchell Byers 
Kimberly Sue Caldwell, cum laude 
Jeffrey Alan Campagna 
Peter Martin Carlson 
Celia Crawford Carpenter, cum laude 
Randy Scott Casstevens, cum laude 
Eugene Andrew Castagna 
David Lohr Cecil 
Christopher P. Clancy 
Christopher J. Colombo 
Melinda Jayne Cooper 
John Howard Cormia 
Samuel Jerome Crow Jr., 

magna cum laude 
Craig Norman Current 
John Henson Dailey, cum laude 
Jennifer Leigh Daniels, cum laude 
Jocelyn Redfield Draper 



Melinda Carol Edwards, a 1 1 
James Bawden Erwin 
Clare Anne Hanagan, cum w 
Barbara Anne Gehlert, cun'm 
Terri Leigh Gillis, cum laua 
Richard L. Goulding 
Kevin Douglas Gregg 
Ann Victoria Gromada 
Diana Dawn Hadley 
Vickie Lynn Hampton 
William Randall Harper 
Rondell Scott Hedrick 
William Turner Henderson 
Martha Evans Herndon 
Kathryn Elizabeth Hilbert 
Pamela Denise Hill 
Billy Gray Hinshaw Jr., cw k 
John H. Holt 
Robert Escum Hounshell 
David B. Houser, cum laud< 
Timothy Andrew Humphn 
Rebecca Jane Johnson 
Stephen Lee Johnson 
Todd Jeffrey Jones, cum law. 
William Byron Knight 
Christy Lynn Kokulis, cum w 
Lynn Marie Koncz 
Karen Louise Kostick 
Susan Catherine Lavender 
William Baker Leach, cum lid 
David Edward Lekan 






205 



Ellen Delphine Lenny 

Allison Jones Lewis, cum laude 

Connie Jayne Lewis, cum laude 

Gregory Locke Liacouras 

James Manly Lupton, cum laude 

Kevin Michael Madden 

John David Marton 

Guy Marvin IV 

David Richard Mattos, cum laude 

David Andrew McClelland 

John Jackson McGuirt Jr. 

Linda Rose Merchant 

William Joseph Mercurio Jr. 

Patricia Danielle Merman 

John Maurits Modin 

Andrew Timothy Moore 

Russell Daniel Morrison 

Caroline Murray 

Scott Kelly Nations, cum laude 

Robin Lynne Nelson, cum laude 

Steven Thomas Newell 

Chris A. Nichol 

Nancy Lystra Nifong 

Sherri Lynette Nix, cum laude 

Mark Lund Oldham 

Ernest Alfred Osborn 

Robb John Parlanti 

Andrew Paul Pennino 

Mitchell Wade Perry 

Kris Alan Persinger 

Nancy Hutton Pickel, cum laude 



Michael Joseph Pierce 

Robert Lee Raney 

Julia Hill Reddick 

Robin Lynn Roy 

Susan Elizabeth Schappert 

Jane Doyle Schatz, cum laude 

Kenneth John Schoonhagen Jr. 

Douglas Lloyd Schwartz 

Bettina Snow Schwenk 

Brian Matthew Seney 

Tad Harris Sims 

Amy Carden Snead 

Keith William Snyder 

Richard Curt Spanier 

Shannan Patricia Spence, 

magna cum laude 
Gregory Lank Steiner 
Scott John Stevenson 
Susan Elaine Swab 
Holly Lea Thompson 
W. Geoffrey Waldau 
Mari Leigh Walsh 
Seth David Walton 
Wendy Michelle Warren 
Elizabeth Jennifer Watt 
Thomas Daniel Welliver 
Donald Gregory Willis 
Thomas Wheelock Wirth 
William Keith Wiseman Jr. 
Alycia Lynn Wood 
Heather Leigh Wood, cum laude 
Robert J. Wood Jr. 



August 8, 1987 
Bachelor of Arts 



Lance Carlton Arbuckle 
Sarah Christine Brown 
Todd Edward Byrd 
David Lee Chambers 
Virginia Laura Daut, cum laude 
Lori A. Durden 



Michael Lee Featherstone 

Steven Bennett Rowers, cum laude 

Lyn Boyer Goodman 

Ernest Glenn Griffin 

Alexander Parker Hale 

John Patrick Hale 



206 



Kent Lee Hipp, cum laude 
Robert Christopher Johnson 
Ken Stephen Keesee 
Douglas Walworth McPheeters 
Suzanne Williams Morrah 
Gregg William Nuti 
Duval Hannon Powell Jr. 
James Guy Revelle III 
William Warren Sandman 
Calvin Burton Sawyer 



Tamika Deon Scales 
Gary Thomas Sedlazek 
Tenley Elizabeth Shewmake, 

magna cum laude 
Evan Lee Stapler 
Maria E. C. Steenmetz, 

magna cum laude 
Michael Elroy Stiles, cum laude 
Robert David Turner 
Robert Gregory Watson 
Deborah Ann Weissenburger 



August 8, 1987 
Bachelor of Science 



Mark Stephen Bridgers 
Mark Edward Crews 
Talmadge Lee Gerald Jr. 



Gary Robert Kern, cum laude 
Brett Justice Preston, cum laude 



August 8, 1987 

Bachelor of Science 
The School of Business and Accountancy 



Richard Daryl Asbury 
James Eric Brophy 
Robert Leland Cecil Jr. 
Jeffrey Theodore Davis 
Fitzpatrick Wesley Gilkes 



James Lewis Harris Jr. 
Ernest Franklin Marchetti III 
Samuel Scott Roberts 
Frederick Gilman Saint 
Robert Michael Wuhrman 



December 15, 1987 
Bachelor of Arts 



Anne Riley Calvert 

Molly Elizabeth Carbert 

Bruce Anthony Coates 

Robert Lee Davis Jr. 

Treva Ashland Davis, cum laude 

Beatrice Miriam Dombrowski 



David Charles Eagan 
Sheldon McKenzie Ecklund 
Carlos Ganoza 
William Brady Hamel 
Keith Douglas Haynes, 
magna cum laude 



207 



William Bradley Helms 
Eric Arthur Hunsley 
John Augustus Hutchins III 
Michael Pardo Iarocci, 

magna cum laude 
Terry Glenn Jarvis 
Mary Lisa Jones 
Jeffrey Yasushi Kuwabara 
Kyle David Lorentzen 
Melinda Lou Nations 



Stephen Gregory Poole 

Jamie Neil Redfern 

Catherine A. Redman 

Malcolm Scott Robbins, cum laude 

James Robert Rose Jr., cum laude, 

with honors in economics 
Martha Sue Shaw 
Matthew Hill Sherman 
Henry Jefferson Weaver 
Bobby Shelton Williams II 
Frank Joseph Williams 



December 15, 1987 
Bachelor of Science 



Maria Felicia Adams 
Gunter Scott Brewer 
David Lawrence Cerino 
Tammie Jeanne Frazier 



Edmund C. Kuhn 

Gerald Allen Montgomery, cum laude 

Leo Carl Wilkerson Jr., cum laude 



December 15, 1987 

Bachelor of Science 
The School of Business and Accountancy 



John Coakley 
Michael Gray Compton 
Kendal Boyd Ferner 
Susan Caroline Harrold 



James Donaldson Jennette 
Elizabeth Frances Baird Moser 
Keith Preston Phillips 



208 



Honor Societies 



Omicron Delta Kappa 

Members of the Class of 1987 



Wendy Jean Allen 
Andrew Youshiyuki Ashikari 
Salman Azhar 
William Beals Boggs 
Edward Thomas Bonahue Jr. 
Linda Carol Colwell 
Milena Anna Cvijanovich 
Tricia Lynne Daisley 
Mahlon Alan Dickens 
Jane Elizabeth Dunlap 
Karen Suzanne Edwards 
Jan Alisa Fischer 
Frank David Friedersdorf Jr. 
Douglas Kim Graham 
Douglas Martin Haupt 



Timothy Mark Hendrix 
Cynthia Elizabeth Henry 
Billy Gray Hinshaw Jr. 
Stewart Lewis Johnson 
Stephen Matthew LaMastra 
Mark Alan LeCroy 
Krishna Natale Madsen 
Maria Weston Merritt 
Amy Lynne Privette 
Jeffrey Doyle Richardson 
Jeff Todd Riddle 
Rachelle Miller Spell 
Cristine Mari Varholy 
Windsor Rivers Westbrook 



Phi Beta Kappa 

Members of the Class of 1987 



Wendy Jean Allen 
Karen Amidon 
Salman Azhar 
Christina Berglund 
William Beals Boggs 
Lance Michael Burma 
Toby Cecil Cole Jr. 
Jeffrey Scott Crews 
Samuel Jerome Crow Jr. 
Peter Neal Crowther 
Milena Anna Cvijanovich 
Natalie Zora Cvijanovich 
Mahlon Alan Dickens 
David Glenn Dixon 
James Robert Duckwall 
Jane Elizabeth Dunlap 
Karen Suzanne Edwards 
Jan Alisa Fischer 
John Edward Fitzgerald 



John Michael Flynn 
Deborah Lynn Gerhardt 
Mark Ingram Gibson 
Lisa Lynn Graham 
Derek Randall Greene 
Martha Denise Greene 
Susan Elizabeth Hardgrave 
Sue Barker Hardie 
Jennepher Nancy Hart 
Timothy Mark Hendrix 
Robert Kevin Hinkle 
Shawn Ann Holcombe 
Robert Corby Hovis 
Terrill Leigh Johnson 
Linda Esther Jones 
Ronald Eric Lilly 
Kristina Natale Madsen 
Chad Bennett McKee 
Maria Weston Merritt 



209 



Melinda Sue Montgomery 
Terri Lynn Moorefield 
Anne Christian Ogburn 
Benjamin Banks Peeler 
Amy Lynne Privette 
Rebecca Loeen Proctor 
Erika A. Queen 
Michele Marie Ramirez 



Deborah Lynn Reichle 
Rachelle Miller Spell 
Andrew Ethan Tuttle 
Cristine Mari Varholy 
Julie Ellen Wallin 
Matthew John Weresh 
Alicia Renee Williams 
Douglas Cabot Wong 




210 



Enrollment 



The Undergraduate Schools 

Seniors 

Juniors 

Sophomores 

Freshmen 

Unclassified 

Total Undergraduate 



Fall 1987 






Men 


Women 


Total 


487 


362 


849 


522 


331 


853 


516 


415 


931 


451 


344 


795 


14 


28 


42 


1,990 


1,480 


3,470 



The Graduate School 

(Reynolda Campus) 
Master's Program 
Doctoral Program 
Unclassified 

Total 



83 


143 


226 


8 


4 


12 


13 


19 


32 



104 



166 



270 



The Graduate School 

(Hawthorne Campus) 
Master's Program 
Doctoral Program 
Unclassified 

Total 

Total Graduate 



2 


4 


6 


37 


39 


76 


2 


4 
47 


6 


41 


88 


145 


213 


358 



The School of Law 



299 



177 



476 



The Babcock Graduate 
School of Management 

Master's Program 
Executive Program 
Evening Program 

Total 



138 


43 


181 


48 


16 


64 


89 


30 


119 



275 



89 



364 



The Bowman Gray 
School of Medicine 

Allied Health Programs 

Total 

Total Professional Schools 

University Total 



286 
32 



318 
892 

3,027 



140 
83 



223 
489 

2,182 



426 
115 

541 

1,381 

5,209 



211 



Geographic Distribution — Undergraduates 



Alabama 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

District of Columbia 

Florida 

Georgia 

Hawaii 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina 

North Dakota 

Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

South Dakota 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont 



Men 


Women 


Total 


23 


18 


41 


4 





4 


1 


1 


2 


8 


2 


10 


4 





4 


38 


14 


52 


16 


12 


28 


4 


2 


6 


144 


58 


202 


123 


87 


210 


1 





1 


15 


8 


23 


8 


6 


14 


3 


2 


5 


26 


20 


46 


7 


4 


11 


2 





2 


94 


68 


162 


28 


10 


38 


4 


5 


9 


2 


5 


7 


2 





2 


13 


2 


L5 


1 





1 


1 


1 


2 


5 





5 


88 


60 


148 





1 


1 


87 


41 


128 


713 


736 


1,449 


1 





1 


49 


19 


hS 


1 


2 


3 





2 


2 


94 


31 


125 


3 





3 


77 


60 


137 





1 


1 


41 


28 


69 


11 


5 


16 





1 


1 



212 



Virginia 
Washington 
West Virginia 
Wisconsin 


164 

1 

47 

4 


127 

3 

23 

3 


291 

4 

70 

7 


Wyoming 


1 
Other Countries 


1 


2 




Men 


Women 


Total 


Canada 


2 


2 


4 


Guyana 
Ireland 






1 
2 


1 
2 


Japan 

Jordan 

Mexico 


1 


2 


1 
1 




2 
1 

2 


New Zealand 





1 


1 


Qatar 
Saudi Arabia 






1 
1 


1 

1 


South Africa 


1 





1 


Sweden 


1 


1 


2 


United Kingdom 


6 


2 


8 


West German Federal 


Republic 1 


1 


2 




213 

The Board of Trustees 

Terms Expiring December 31, 1988 

Clifton L. Benson Jr., Raleigh James E. Johnson Jr., Charlotte 

Charles W. Cheek, Greensboro Russell W. Meyer Jr., Wichita, KS 

Thomas H. Davis, Winston-Salem Elwyn G. Murray III, Winston-Salem 

C. C. Hope Jr., Charlotte Zachary T. Smith, Winston-Salem 

Lonnie B. Williams, Wilmington 

Terms Expiring December 31, 1989 

Albert L. Butler Jr., Winston-Salem James W. Mason, Laurinburg 

Austine O. Evans, Ahoskie John G. Medlin Jr., Winston-Salem 

Lawrence D. Hopkins, Winston-Salem J. Guy Revelle Jr., Murfreesboro 

Petro Kulynych, Wilkesboro M. Mahan Siler Jr., Raleigh 

Barbara D. Whiteman, Raleigh 

Terms Expiring December 31, 1990 

Douglas D. Brendle, Elkin Joseph W. Luter III, Smithfield, VA 

Jean H. Gaskin, Charlotte Alton H. McEachern, Greensboro 

Weston R Hatfield, Winston-Salem W Boyd Owen, Waynesville 

Hubert B. Humphrey Jr., Greensboro Charles M. Shelton, Winston-Salem 

Albert R. Hunt Jr., Washington, DC J. Lanny Wadkins Jr., Dallas, TX 

Terms Expiring December 31, 1991 

Herbert Brenner, Winston-Salem George B. Mast, Smithfield 

C. C. Cameron, Charlotte Glenn L. Orr, Jr., Lumberton 

Richard C. Day, Raleigh Arnold D. Palmer, Youngstown, PA 

Ronald E. Deal, Hickory Bob D. Shepherd, Morganton 

Edward A. Horrigan Jr., Winston-Salem Frank B. Wyatt, High Point 

Life Trustees 

Bert Bennett, Pfafftown J. Samuel Holbrook, Statesville 

Joseph Branch, Raleigh Lex Marsh, Charlotte 

Henry L. Bridges, Raleigh George W. Paschal Jr., Raleigh 

Egbert L. Davis Jr., Winston-Salem J. Robert Philpott, Lexington 

Floyd Fletcher, Durham Samuel C. Tatum, Greensboro 

John C. Hamrick Sr., Shelby T. Eugene Worrell, 
Addison Hewlett Jr., Wilmington Charlottesville, VA 

J. Smith Young, Lexington 



214 



Officers 

(For one-year terms beginning January 1, 1988) 

Weston P. Hatfield, Winston-Salem, Chairman 

Albert L. Butler Jr., Winston-Salem, Vice-Chairman 

Leon H. Corbett Jr., Winston-Salem, Vice President for Legal Affairs; 

University Secretary; Secretary, Board of Trustees 
John G. Williard, Winston-Salem, Treasurer and Assistant Secretary 
Womble Carlyle Sandridge & Rice, Winston- Salem, General Counsel 




University President Thomas K. Hearn Jr. (left) and Life Trustee Bert Bennett (right) 



215 

The Board of Visitors 



Arnold Palmer, Youngstown, Pennsylvania 
Chairman, University Board of Visitors 

F. Hudnall Christopher Jr., Winston-Salem 
Chairman, College Board of Visitors 

Wake Forest College and Graduate School 
Terms Expiring December 31, 1988 

Thomas M. Belk, Charlotte Stanley Frank, Greensboro 

Connie W. Brothers, Nashville, TN Deborah Small Harris, Charlotte 

David R. Bryant, Charleston, WV Nancy C. Kester, New York, NY 

Jere A. Drummond, Atlanta, GA John F. McNair III, Winston-Salem 

H. Frank Forsyth, Winston-Salem Edwin S. Melvin, Greensboro 

Barbara Babcock Millhouse, New York, NY 

Terms Expiring December 31, 1989 

Elizabeth Bagley, Washington, DC Gillian Lindt, New York, NY 

Germaine Bree, Winston-Salem Robert Maloy, Dallas, TX 

F. Hudnall Christopher Jr., C. Edward Pleasants, Winston-Salem 

Winston-Salem Frances P. Pugh, Raleigh 

James B. Hunt Jr., Raleigh K. Wayne Smith, Newton 

Thomas W Lambeth, Winston-Salem Judy Woodruff, Washington, DC 

Terms Expiring December 31, 1990 

Samuel H. Adler, Rochester, NY L. Richardson Preyer, Greensboro 

Jerry B. Attkisson, Atlanta, GA Robert F Rink, Philadelphia, PA 

Paul P. Griffin, Baltimore, MD Adelaide A. Sink, Miami, FL 

Barbee C. Myers, Tempe, AZ Allene B. Stevens, Lenoir 

Eugene Owens, Charlotte J. Tylee Wilson, Jacksonville, FL 

Terms Expiring December 31, 1991 

Bruce M. Babcock, New York, NY Jeanette W Hyde, Raleigh 

John W Chandler, Washington, DC Suzanne L. Jowdy Winston- Salem 

Laura M. Elliott, Washington, DC John R. Knight, New York, NY 

Lockhart Follin-Mace, Raleigh Archie D. Logan, Raleigh 

William B. Greene, Jr., Jan McDonagh, Boston, MA 

Elizabethton, TN Jasper D. Memory, Chapel Hill 

Charles U. Harris, Delaplane, VA Patrick J. Rice, Augusta, GA 

Terry C. Hazen, Augusta, SC Marie Roseboro, Winston-Salem 



216 



E. Michael Howlette, Richmond, VA William Sansom, Knoxville, TN 

Roberto J. Hunter, New York, NY Norman B. Snead, Newport News, VA. 

Marc S. Tucker, Washington, DC 

Ex Officio Members 

James R. Gadd, President, Alumni Council, Charlotte 
Herbert Brenner, Trustee Liaison, Winston-Salem 
Zachary T. Smith, Trustee Liaison, Winston-Salem 




217 



School of Business and Accountancy 



Advisory Council 



Ren L. Babcock, Raleigh 

Paul J. Breitbach, Winston-Salem 

Douglas D. Brendle, Elkin 

B. Macon Brewer, New York, NY 

D. Hayes Clement, Greensboro 

Wallace J. Conner, Newport 

Loyd R. Daniel Jr., Winston-Salem 

Derrick L. Davis, Winston-Salem 

J. William Disher, Charlotte 

Marvin D. Gentry, King 

H. Wade Gresham, Durham 

W. Eugene Johnston III, Greensboro 



J. Leonard Martin, Winston-Salem 
Michael S. Michalec, Winston-Salem 
Robert E. Moore, Greensboro 
Craven B. Page, Winston-Salem 
David C. Rose, Henderson 
John D. Royster, Winston-Salem 
James N. Smith, Winston-Salem 
William H. Snow, Winston-Salem 
S. Gray Steifel Jr., Greensboro 
Robert Stanley Vaughan Sr., Charlotte 
Boyce R. Wilson Sr., Winston-Salem 
Phillip W. Wilson, Greensboro* 

*Died October 1, 1987 




218 



The Administration 



Date following name indicates year of appointment 



University 

Thomas K. Hearn Jr. (1983) 

BA, Birmingham-Southern; BD, Southern Baptist Seminary; 
PhD, Vanderbilt; LHD, Alabama-Birmingham 

Edwin Graves Wilson (1946, 1951) 

BA, Wake Forest; AM, PhD, Harvard 

Laura Christian Ford (1984) 

BA, Wake Forest; EdM, JD, Virginia; AM, PhD, Princeton 



President 



Provost 



Associate Provost 



Richard Janeway (1966) 
BA, Colgate; 
MD, Pennsylvania 

John G. Williard (1958) 



Vice President for Health Affairs and 

Executive Dean of the 

Bowman Gray School of Medicine 

Vice President and Treasurer 



BS, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); CPA, North Carolina 

John P. Anderson (1984) Vice President for Administration 

BS, MS, PhD, Georgia Institute of Technology; and Planning 

MBA, Alabama-Birmingham 



G. William Joyner Jr. (1969) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Leon H. Corbett Jr. (1968) 
BA, JD, Wake Forest 

Ernest Wade (1986) 

BS, Johnson C. Smith; MS, Wisconsin; PhD, Michigan State 

College 

Thomas E. Mullen (1957) 

BA, Rollins; MA, PhD, Emory 

Toby A. Hale (1970) 

BA, Wake Forest; MDiv, Duke; EdD, Indiana 

Patricia Adams Johansson (1969) 

BA, Winston-Salem State; MA, Wake Forest 

William S. Hamilton (1983) 
BA, MA, PhD, Yale 



Vice President for University Relations 

Vice President for Legal Affairs 
and Secretary of the University 

Director of Minority Affairs 



Dean of the College 
Associate Dean 
Associate Dean 
Associate Dean 



Graduate School 

Gerald W. Esch (1965) 

BS, Colorado College; MS, PhD, Oklahoma 



Dean of the Graduate School 



Nancy J. Cotton (1977) 

BA, Texas; MA, Wisconsin; 
PhD, Columbia 



Assistant Dean and Director of Master of Arts 
in Liberal Studies Program 



219 



School of Law 

John D. Scarlett (1955, 1979) Dean of the School of Law 

BA, Catawba; JD, Harvard 

Kenneth A. Zick II (1975) Associate Dean, Academic Affairs 

BA, Albion; JD, Wayne State; MLS, Michigan 

James Taylor Jr. (1983) Associate Dean, External Affairs and 

BA, JD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) Director of Clinical Programs 

Lloyd K. Rector (1984) Director of Continuing Legal Education 

BS, JD, Wake Forest 

Melanie E. Nutt (1969) Director of Admissions and Financial Aid 

Jean K. Hooks (1970) Director of Computer Services 

and Administration 

Linda J. Michalski (1983) Director of Professional and 

BS, North Carolina (Greensboro) Public Relations 

LeAnn P. Joyce (1977) Registrar 

BM, Salem College 

Carrie C. Bullock (1987) Director of Placement 

BA, Wake Forest 

Babcock Graduate School of Management 

Robert W. Shively (1970, 1982) Dean of Babcock Graduate School 

BA, Colgate; MEd, Harvard; PhD, Cornell of Management 

Jean B. Hopson (1970) Assistant Dean 

BA, Murray State; MS in LS, George Peabody; and Librarian 

MBA, Wake Forest; PhD, Vanderbilt 

James G. Ptaszynski (1984) Director of Admissions 

BA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); and Financial Aid 

MS, Shippensburg 

J. Timothy Heames (1983) Director of MBA Executive Program 

BS, Youngstown State; MS, Carnegie-Mellon 

Peter R. Peacock (1970) Director of Evening MBA Program 

BA, Northeastern; MS, Georgia Tech; MBA, PhD, Chicago 

Brooke A. Saladin (1983) Director of Resident MBA Program 

BS, PhD, Ohio State; MBA, Bowling Green 

James D. Hlavacek (1985) Director of Institute 

BS, Southern Illinois; for Executive Education 

MBA, Louisiana Tech; PhD, Illinois 

M. Willisia Holbrook (1982) Assistant Dean for External Relations 

BA, Mercer; and Director of Career Planning 

MEd, EdD, Georgia and Placement 



220 



Bowman Gray School of Medicine 



Richard Janeway (1966) 

BA, Colgate; MD, Pennsylvania 

Nat E. Smith (1976) 

BA, Erskine; MD, Georgia 

James N. Thompson (1979) 

BA, DePauw; MD, Ohio State 

Russell J. Armistead Jr. (1976) 
BS, Virginia Polytechnic; 
MBA, Wake Forest 

William C. Park Jr. (1973) 

BS, The Citadel; MBA, Wake Forest 

B. Hofler Milam (1981) 
BS, Wake Forest 

J. Kiffin Penry (1979) 

BS, MD, Wake Forest 

Lawrence D. Smith (1983) 
BS, MS, Illinois 

Paul Waugaman (1985) 

BA, MA, American; MPA, Indiana 

John D. Tolmie (1970) 

BA, Hobart; MD, McGill 

Patricia L. Adams (1979) 

BA, Duke; MD, Wake Forest 



Vice President for Health Affairs 
and Executive Dean 

Associate Dean 



Associate Dean 



Associate Dean for 
Administrative Services 



Assistant Dean for Clinical Services 

Assistant Dean for Planning and 
Resource Management 

Associate Dean for Research Development 

Assistant Dean for Research Development 

Assistant Dean for Research Administration 

Associate Dean for Student Affairs 

Associate Dean for Student Affairs 

Associate Dean for Admissions 



Lewis H. Nelson (1976) 

BS, North Carolina State; MD, Wake Forest 

Emery C. Miller Jr. (1955) Associate Dean for Continuing Education 

BA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); MD, Johns Hopkins 

James C. Leist (1974) Assistant Dean for Continuing Education 

BS, Southeastern Missouri State; MS, EdD, Indiana 



Richard A. Heysek (1987) 

BA, Ohio State; MHA, Indiana 

Paul M. LoRusso (1987) 

BS, Syracuse; MBA, Florida State 

J. Dennis Hoban (1978) 

BA, Villanova; MS, EdD, Indiana 

Velma G. Watts (1983) 

BS, MA, North Carolina A&T; 

MEd, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); PhD, Duke 



Associate Dean for Development 
ana Alumni Affairs 

Associate Dean for Information Services 

Director of the Office of Educational Research 

and Service 

Director of Minority Affairs 



221 



School of Business and Accountancy 

Thomas C. Taylor (1971) Dean of the School of Business 

BS, MA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); and Accountancy 

PhD, Louisiana State, CPA, North Carolina 

Ralph B. Tower (1980) Coordinator of Accountancy Program 

BA, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); MBA, Cornell 

Stephen Ewing (1971) Coordinator of Business Program 

BS, Howard Payne; MBA, Baylor; DBA, Texas Tech 

Summer Session 

Lula M. Leake (1964) Dean of the Summer Session 

BA, Louisiana State; MRE, Southern Baptist Seminary 

Planning and Administration 

John P. Anderson (1984) Vice President for Administration 

BS, MS, PhD, Georgia Institute of Technology; and Planning 

MBA, Alabama-Birmingham 

Lula M. Leake (1964) Assistant Vice President for 

BA, Louisiana State; Administration and Planning 

MRE, Southern Baptist Seminary 

Ross A. Griffith (1966) Planning Analyst and Director 

BS, Wake Forest; of Space Management 

MEd, North Carolina (Greensboro) 

Larry R. Henson (1981) Director of the Computer Center 

BA, Berea; MS, Missouri (Rolla) 

Ben M. Seelbinder (1959) Director of Records and 

BA, Mississippi Delta State; Institutional Research 

MA, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Margaret R. Perry (1947) Registrar 

BS, South Carolina 

Student Services 

John P. Anderson (1984) Vice President for Administration 

BS, MS, PhD, Georgia Institute of Technology; and Planning 

MBA, Alabama-Birmingham 

Brian M. Austin (1975) Assistant Vice President for Student Affairs 

BA, Monmouth; MSEd, PhD, Southern Illinois 

Mark H. Reece (1956) Dean of Students 

BS, Wake Forest 

Michael Ford (1981) Associate Dean of Stude7its for Student Development 

BA, Wake Forest; MDiv, Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary 

Dennis Gregory (1986) Director of Residence Life and Housing 

AA, Ferrum; BA, James Madison; MA, EdD, Virginia 



222 



Connie L. Carson (1986) 
BS, MEd, NC State 

Bruce Bunce (1986) 

BA, Western Michigan; MS, Radford 

Mary T. Beil (1985) 

BA, Hiram; MEd, Kent State 



Edgar D. Christman (1956, 1961) 

BA, JD, Wake Forest; BD, Southeastern Baptist Seminary; 
STM, Union Seminary 



Associate Director of Residence Life 
and Housing 

Housing Manager 
Director of the Student Union 
Chaplain 



Harold R. Holmes (1987) 

BS, Hampton; MBA, Fordham 

Carol A. Tenhagen (1985) 
BS, MS, Florida State 

Marianne Schubert (1977) 

BA, Dayton; MA, PhD, Southern Illinois 

Mary Ann H. Taylor (1961, 1978) 
BS, MD, Wake Forest 

Cashin Hunt (1987) 

BA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); 
MS, North Carolina (Greensboro) 



Director of Career Planning and Placement 



Assistant Director of 
Career Planning and Placement 

Director of the University 
Counseling Center 

Director of University Student 
Health Service 

Health Educator 



Campus Ministry 

Edgar D. Christman (1956, 1961) 

BA, JD, Wake Forest; BD, Southeastern Baptist Seminary; 
STM, Union Seminary 

David L. Fouche' (1982) 
BA, Furman; 
MDiv, Southeastern Baptist Seminary 



Chaplain 



Assistant Chaplain and 
Baptist Campus Minister 



Records and Institutional Research 



Ben M. Seelbinder (1959) 

BA, Mississippi Delta State; 

MA, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Margaret R. Perry (1947) 
BS, South Carolina 

Hallie S. Arrington (1977) 
BA, Wake Forest 



Director of Records and 
Institutional Research 



Registrar 
Assistant Registrar 



Computer Center 



Larry R. Henson (1981) 

BA, Berea; MS, Missouri (Rolla) 

Sarah M. Burton (1985) 

BA, North Carolina (Greensboro) 



Director of the Computer Center 
Microcomputer Center Coordinator 



223 



Personnel 



James L. Ferrell (1975) 

BA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); 
MS, Virginia Commonwealth 



Director of Personnel 



Admissions and Financial Aid 



William G. Starling (1958) 
BBA, Wake Forest 

Shirley P. Hamrick (1957) 

BA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); 
MAEd, Wake Forest 

W. Douglas Bland (1975) 

BA, MAEd, Wake Forest 

Thomas O. Phillips (1982) 
BA, MA, Wake Forest 

Martha Allman (1982) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Vonda F. Reece (1965) 
BA, Salem 

Wayne E. Johnson (1985) 

BA, Northwestern; JD, Wake Forest 

Georgia W. Brown (1986) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Martha D. Greene (1987) 
BA, Northwestern 



Director of Admissions and Financial Aid 
Executive Associate Director of Admissions 

Associate Director of Admissions and 
Financial Aid 

Associate Director of Admissions and 
Scholarship Officer 

Associate Director of Admissions 

Associate Director of Financial Aid 

Assistant Director of Admissions 

Admission Counselor 

Admission Counselor 



Career Planning and Placement 



Harold R. Holmes (1987) 

BS, Hampton; MBA, Fordham 

Carol A. Tenhagen (1985) 
BS, MS, Horida State 



Director of Career Planning 
and Placement 

Assistant Director of Career Planning 
and Placement 



Public Information 

Sandra C. Connor (1981) 

BA, North Carolina (Charlotte); MEd, Converse 

Andrea Marrotte Freeman (1988) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Teresa Brown Grogan (1976) 

Cherin Chewning Poovey (1987) 

BA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Jane Naylor Roberson (1961) 
BA, Wake Forest 



Director of Public Information 

Media Relations Officer 
Director, Presidential Debate 

Supervisor of Publications 

Assistant University Editor 

Media Relations Officer 



224 



Jim A. Steele (1987) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Jeanne P. Whitman (1983) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, Virginia; MBA, Wake Forest 



Media Relations Officer 
University Editor 



G. William Joyner Jr. (1969) 
BA, Wake Forest 



University Relations 

Vice President for University Relations 



Julius H. Corpening (1969) Assistant Vice President for Development 

BA, Wake Forest; BD, Southern Baptist Seminary 



Robert D. Mills (1972) 

BA, MBA, Wake Forest 

Minta Aycock McNally (1978) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Robert T. Baker (1978) 

BA, MS, George Peabody 

Elizabeth Bass (1985) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Jennie Bason Beasley (1987) 
BA, Wake Forest 

James R. Bullock (1985) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Molly Welles Lineberger (1983) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Kay Doenges Lord (1985) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Allen H. Patterson Jr. (1987) 
BS, Wake Forest 

Claudia A. Stitt (1978) 

BS, East Tennessee State 

Henry B. Stokes (1977) 



BA, Wake Forest; ThB, Southern Baptist Seminary 



Assistant Vice President and 
Director of Alumni Activities 

Assistant to the Vice President 
for University Relations 

Assistant Director of Development 
and Corporate Relations 

Director of Prospect Research 

Director of Foundation Relations and 
Faculty Research Development 

Director of Lawyer Alumni Activities 

College Fund Officer 

Alumni Activities Officer 

Director of Planned Giving 

Director of Records and Support Services 

Director of Denominational Relations 



Robert D. Thompson (1982) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Kimberly R. Waller (1985) 
BA, Wake Forest 

James G. Welsh Jr. (1987) 
BA, Wake Forest 



Director of the College Fund 

Director of Grants and Contracts 

Assistant Director of Alumni Activities 



225 



Graylyn Conference Center 



General Manager and Director of the 
Graylyn Conference Center 

Assistant Director of the 
Graylyn Conference Center 



Financial Affairs 



Thomas P. Gilsenan (1985) 
BS, California (Berkeley) 

Jane Rachlin (1979) 



John G. Williard (1958) 

BS, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); CPA, North Carolina 

Carlos O. Holder (1969) Controller and Assistant Treasurer 

BBA, MBA, Wake Forest 

W. Derald Hagen (1978) 

BS, Virginia Polytechnic 



Vice President and Treasurer 



Assistant Controller 



Libraries 

Merrill G. Berthrong (1964) 

BA, Tufts; MA, Fletcher; PhD, Pennsylvania 

Richard J. Murdoch (1966) 

BA, Pennsylvania Military; 
MS in LS, Villanova 

Thomas M. Steele (1985) 

BA, Oklahoma State; MLS, Oregon; JD, Texas 

Jean B. Hopson (1970) 

BS in Ed, Murray State; 



MS in LS, George Peabody; MBA, Wake Forest; PhD, Vanderbilt 



Director of Libraries 

Assistant to the Director and 
Curator of Rare Books 

Director of Law Library Services 

Librarian of the Babcock Graduate 
School of Management 



Michael D. Sprinkle (1972) 

BA, MS in LS, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Athletics 



Director, Coy C. Carpenter Library, 
Bowman Cray School of Medicine 



G. Eugene Hooks (1956) 

BS, Wake Forest; MEd, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); 
EdD, George Peabody (Vanderbilt) 

Dorothy Casey (1949) 

BS, North Carolina (Greensboro); 
MA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Public Service 

T. Cleve Callison (1982) 

BA, Duke; MA, PhD, Wisconsin (Madison) 



Director of Athletics 



Director of Women's Athletics 



WFDD Station Manager 



Mary Jane Berman (1986) 

BA, Harpur; MA, SUNY (Binghamton) 



Other Administrative Offices 

Curator, Museum of Anthropology 



226 



Nicholas B. Bragg (1970) Executive Director of Reynolda House 

BA, Wake Forest 

Dirk Faude (1986) Education Certification Officer/Media Coordinator 

BA, Wake Forest; MFA, Montana State 

Richard T. Clay (1956) Director of University Stores 

BBA, Wake Fbrest 

Thomas M. Elmore (1962) Director of Counselor Education 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, George Peabody; PhD, Ohio State 

Victor Faccinto (1978) Director of the Art Gallery 

BA, MA, California State (Sacramento) 

Brian Gorelick (1984) Director of Choral Ensembles 

BA, Yale; MM, Wisconsin (Madison); DMA, Illinois 

James P. Barefield (1963) Coordinator of the Honors Program 

BA, MA, Rice; PhD, Johns Hopkins 

David W. Hadley (1966) Coordinator of London Programs 

BA, Wake Forest; AM, PhD, Harvard 

Beth N. Hopkins (1985) Staff Attorney and Equal Opportunity Officer 

BA, Wake Forest; JD, William and Mary 

Harold S. Moore (1953) Director of the Physical Plant 

BME, Virginia 

James Reid Morgan (1980) Assistant University Counsel 

BA, JD, Wake Forest 

Martin Province (1982) Assistant Director of Instrumental Ensembles 

BA, Wake Forest; MM, Colorado and Director of Bands 

Irene M. Smith (1985) Curator of Slides and Prints 

BA, MS, Florida State 

Ross Smith (1984) Debate Coach 

BA, Wake Fbrest 

Harold C. Tedford (1965) Director of Theatre 

BA, Ouachita; MA, Arkansas; PhD, Louisiana State 

George William Trautwein (1983) Director of Instrumental Ensembles 

BMus, Oberlin; and Director of the Secrest Artists Series 

MMus, Cleveland Institute of Music; 
MusD, Indiana 

Robert L. Utley Jr. (1978) Director of the Tocqueville Forum 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Duke 

Marybeth Sutton (1987) Assistant to the Provost 

BA, Wake Fbrest; MA, Virginia 

Donald H. Wolfe (1968) Associate Director of Theatre 

BS, MS, Southern Illinois; PhD, Cornell 



227 

The Undergraduate Faculties 

Date following name indicates year of appointment. 

Lawrence E. Abbott (1988) Research Associate, Anthropology 

BS, High Point; BA, North Carolina (Greensboro); 
MA, Wake Forest 

Helen W. Akinc (1987) Adjunct Instructor in Business 

BA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 
MBA, SUNY (Binghamton) 

Umit Akinc (1982) Associate Professor of Business 

BS, Middle East Technical (Turkey); 
MBA, Florida State; PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Gary R. Albrecht (1987) Visiting Assistant Professor of Economics 

BA, Tulane; MA, PhD, Indiana 

Jane W. Albrecht (1987) Assistant Professor of Spanish 

BA, Wright State; MA, PhD, Indiana 

Brian Allen (1977) Lecturer in Art History (London) 

BA, East Anglia; MA, PhD, London (Part-time) 

Charles M. Allen (1941) Professor of Biology 

BS, MS, Wake Forest; PhD, Duke 

Mike Allen (1987) Adjunct Instructor in Speech 

BA, Lewis & Clark; MA, Wyoming Communication and Theatre Arts 

(Part-time) 

Nina Stromgren Allen (1984) Associate Professor of Biology 

BS, Wisconsin; MS, PhD, Maryland 

Ralph D. Amen (1962) Professor of Biology 

BA, MA, Northern Colorado; MBS, PhD, Colorado 

John L. Andronica (1969) Professor of Classical Languages 

BA, Holy Cross; MA, Boston; PhD, Johns Hopkins 

John William Angell (1955) Easley Professor of Religion 

BA, Wake Forest; STM, Andover Newton; 
ThM, PhD, Southern Baptist Seminary 

Maya Angelou (1982) Reynolds Professor of American Studies 

LittD, Smith, Lawrence, Columbia College (Chicago), 
Atlanta, Wheaton; LHD, Mills, Wake Forest, Occidental, 
Arkansas, Claremont, Kean 

Bianca Artom (1975) Lecturer in Romance Languages 

Brian M. Austin (1975) Lecturer in Psychology 

BA, Monmouth; PhD, Southern Illinois 

Whangbai Bahk (1986) Visiting Assistant Professor of 

BA, Hankuk (South Korea); MA, PhD, New Mexico Romance Languages 

E. Pendleton Banks (1954) Professor of Anthropology 

BA, Furman; AM, PhD, Harvard 



228 



Sarah E. Barbour (1985) 

BA, Maryville; MA, Paris; PhD, Cornell 

James P. Barefield (1963) 

BA, MA, Rice; PhD, Johns Hopkins 



Visiting Assistant Professor of 
Romance Languages 

Professor of History 
(On leave, Fall 1987) 



Richard C. Barnett (1961) 

BA, Wake Forest; MEd, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 



John V. Baxley (1968) 

BS, MS, Georgia Tech; PhD, Wisconsin 

H. Kenneth Bechtel (1981) 

BA, MA, North Dakota; PhD, Southern Illinois 

Robert C. Beck (1959) 
BA, PhD, Illinois 

S. Douglas Beets (1987) 

BS, Tennessee; MAcc, PhD, Virginia Polytechnic 

Timothy D. Bent (1987) 

AB, Cornell; MA, PhD, Harvard 



Professor of History 

Professor of Mathematics 

Assistant Professor of Sociology 

Professor of Psychology 

Assistant Professor of Accountancy 

Assistant Professor of English 



Donald B. Bergey (1978) 
BS, MA, Wake Forest 

Mary Jane Berman (1986) 
BA, Harpur; 
MA, SUNY, Binghamton 

Michael J. Berry (1985) 

BS, Jacksonville State; 

MA, Southeastern Louisiana; PhD, Texas A&M 

Merrill G. Berthrong (1964) 

BA, Tufts; MA, Fletcher; PhD, Pennsylvania 

Deborah L. Best (1972, 1978) 



BA, MA, Wake Forest; PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 



Instructor in Health and Sport Science 
(Part-time) 

Director/Curator of the Museum of Anthropology 
and Instructor in Anthropology 



Assistant Professor of Health and 
Sport Science 

Associate Professor of History 

Associate Professor of Psychology 



Zanna Beswick (1987) 

BA, Hons, Bristol (England) 

David Bindman (1977) 

BA, MA, Oxford; PhD, Courtauld (London) 

Mary Lucy Bivins (1985) 

BA, Salem; MA, Wake Forest 



Lecturer in English Dramatic Literature 

and Theatre (London) 

(Part-time) 

Lecturer in Art History (London) 
(Part-time) 

Adjunct Instructor in Speech 

Communication and Theatre Arts 

(Part-time) 



Terry D. Blumenthal (1987) 

BS, Alberta (Edmonton); MS, PhD, Florida 

Rebecca Blomgren (1988) 
AB, MEd, Indiana 

Susan Harden Borwick (1982) 

BM, BME, Baylor; PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 



Assistant Professor of Psychology 



Instructor in Education 
(Part-time, Spring 1988) 

Associate Professor of Music 



229 



Stephen B. Boyd (1985) 



Assistant Professor of Religion 



BA, Tennessee; MDiv, ThD, Harvard Divinity School 

Visiting Assistant Professor of English 



Anne Boyle (1986) 

BA, WQkes College; MA, PhD, Rochester 

Randy Brandes (1985) 

BA, Hanover; MA, PhD, Emory 

Robert W. Brehme (1959) 

BS, Roanoke; MS, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Victoria Bridges (1987) 

BA, MA, Washington; PhD, Yale 

Linda Carter Brinson (1986) 

BA, Wake Forest; MFA, North Carolina (Greensboro) 

Carole L. Browne (1980) 

BS, Hartford; PhD, Syracuse 

Robert A. Browne (1980) 

BS, MS, Dayton; PhD, Syracuse 

David B. Broyles (1966) 

BA, Chicago; BA, Florida; 

MA, PhD, California (Los Angeles) 



Visiting Assistant Professor of English 

Professor of Physics 

Assistant Professor of French 

Lecturer in Journalism 
(Part-time) 

Associate Professor of Biology 
Associate Professor of Biology 
Associate Professor of Politics 



Shasta M. Bryant (1966) 

BA, MA, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Nancy Burrell (1987) 

BA, MA, Western Michigan; 
PhD, Michigan State 

Julian C. Burroughs Jr. (1958) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Michigan 

Daniel A. Cahas (1987) 

BS, Tecnologico de Monterrey-Mexico; 
MS, Georgia Tech; PhD, Texas (Austin) 

Francis Thomas Cancro (1987) 
BA, MA, Saint Mary; 
STB, Pontifical Faculty of Saint Mary 

Richard D. Carmichael (1971) 

BS, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Duke 

Christa G. Carollo (1985) 

BA, North Carolina (Greensboro); MA, Duke 

John A. Carter Jr. (1961) 

BA, Virginia; MA, PhD, Princeton 

Stewart Carter (1982) 

BME, Kansas; MS, Illinois; PhD, Stanford 

Dorothy Casey (1949) 

BS, North Carolina (Greensboro); 
MA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 



Professor of Romance Languages 



Visiting Assistant Professor of Speech 
Communication and Theatre Arts 



Professor of Speech Communication 
Assistant Professor of Computer Science 



Visiting Lecturer in Religion 
(Part-Time, Spring 1988) 

Professor of Mathematics 

Instructor in German 
(Part-Time) 

Professor of English 

Associate Professor of Music 

Associate Professor of Health 
and Sport Science 



230 



David W. Catron (1963) 

BA, Furman; PhD, George Peabody 

Jonathan Hugo Christman (1983) 
AB, Franklin and Marshall 

Maxine L. Clark (1980) 

BA, Cincinnati; AM, PhD, Illinois 



Associate Professor of Psychology 
(On leave, 1987-88) 

Lecturer in Speech Communication 
and Theatre Arts 

Associate Professor of Psychology 
(On leave, 1987-88) 



John E. Collins (1970) 
BS, MS, Tennessee; 
BD, Southeastern Baptist Seminary; PhD, Princeton 

William E. Conner (1988) 

BS, Notre Dame; MS, PhD, Cornell 

Jule M. Connolly (1985) 

BA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); MEd, South Carolina 

Leon P. Cook Jr. (1957) Associate Professor of Accountancy 

BS, Virginia Polytechnic; MS, Tennessee; CPA, Arkansas 



Associate Professor of Religion 



Associate Professor of Biology 



Instructor in Mathematics 



Nancy J. Cotton (1977) 

BA, Texas; MA, Wisconsin; PhD, Columbia 

Cyclone Covey (1968) 
BA, PhD, Stanford 

John B. Crihfield (1985) 

BA, Reed; MA, PhD, Chicago 

Patricia M. Cunningham (1978) 

BA, Rhode Island; MS, Florida State; 
EdS, Indiana State; PhD, Georgia 

Mary Michel Dalton (1986) 
BA, Wake Forest; 
MA, North Carolina (Greensboro) 

Sayeste A. Daser (1978) 

BA, Middle East Tech (Ankara); MS, Ege (Izmir); 
PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Huw M. L. Davies (1983) 

BSc, University College (Cardiff); 
PhD, East Anglia 

Cheryl Diane Davis (1987) 

BS, MS, Oklahoma; PhD, Wake Forest 

Mary K. DeShazer (1982, 1987) 
BA, Western Kentucky; 
MA, Louisville; PhD, Oregon 

James W. DeVocht (1986) 
BS, Brigham Young; 
DC, Palmer College of Chiropractic (Iowa) 

Arun P. Dewasthali (1975) 

BS, Bombay; MS, PhD, Delaware 



Professor of English 

Professor of History 

Assistant Professor of Economics 

Associate Professor of Education 



Adjunct Instructor in Speech 

Communication and Theatre Arts 

(Part-time) 

Associate Professor of Business 



Associate Professor of Chemistry 



Visiting Instructor in Biology 
(Part-time, Fall 1987) 

Associate Professor of English 
and Women s Studies 



Assistant Professor of Military Science 



Associate Professor of Business 



231 



Ronald V. Dimock, Jr. (1970) 

BA, New Hampshire; MS, Florida State; 
PhD, California (Santa Barbara) 

Patricia Dixon (1986) 

BM, North Carolina School of the Arts; 
MM, North Carolina (Greensboro) 

James H. Dodding (1979) 

Diploma, Rose Bruford College of Speech and 
Drama (London); Cert., Birmingham University; 
Cert., Westhill Training College (Birmingham); 
Diploma, Theatre on the Balustrade (Prague) 

Thomas E. Dougherty, Jr. (1977) 
BA, Wake Forest; 
MDiv, PhD, Southern Baptist Seminary 

C. Lee Dubs (1987) 

AB, Carthage; MA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); 
PhD, Kentucky 

Robert H. Dufort (1961) 
BA, PhD, Duke 

John S. Dunkelberg (1983) 

BS, Clemson; MBA, PhD, South Carolina 



John R. Earle (1963) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Eddie V. Easley (1984) 

BS, Virginia; MS, PhD, Iowa 



Professor of Biology 



Instructor in Music 



Visiting Lecturer in Theatre 



Adjunct Associate Professor of Religion 
(Part-time) 



Lecturer in Spanish 

Professor of Psychology 
Associate Professor of Business 
Professor of Sociology 
Professor of Business 



C. Drew Edwards (1980) 

BA, Furman; MA, Wake Forest; 
PhD, Florida State 

Leo Ellison, Jr. (1957) 

BS, MS, Northwestern State 

Thomas M. Elmore (1962) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, George Peabody; PhD, Ohio State 

Gerald W. Esch (1965) 

BS, Colorado College; MS, PhD, Oklahoma 



Adjunct Assistant Professor of Psychology 

(Part-time) 

Associate Professor of Health and 
Sport Science 



Andrew V. Ettin (1977) 

BA, Rutgers; MA, PhD, Washington (St. Louis) 

Herman E. Eure (1974) 

BS, Maryland State; PhD, Wake Forest 

David K. Evans (1966) 

BS, Tulane; PhD, California (Berkeley) 

Robert H. Evans (1983) 

BA, Ohio Wesleyan; MS, New Hampshire; 
PhD, Colorado 



Professor of Education 
Professor of Biology 
Associate Professor of English 



Associate Professor of Biology 
(On leave, Fall 1987) 

Professor of Anthropology 
Associate Professor of Education 



232 



Stephen Ewing (1971) 

BS, Howard Payne; MBA, Baylor; DBA, Texas Tech 



David L. Faber (1984) 

AA, Elgin; BFA, Northern Illinois; MFA, Southern Illinois 

Victor Faccinto (1981) 

BA, MA, California State (Sacramento) 

Philippe R. Falkenberg (1969) 

BA, Queens (Ontario); PhD, Duke 

Sarah Ferguson (1987) 

BA, New York; MA, PhD, Columbia 



Ramiro Fernandez (1987) 

BA, Miami; MA, Middlebury College in Madrid; 
PhD, Temple 



Associate Professor of Business 

Assistant Professor of Art 

Lecturer in Art and Gallery Director 

Associate Professor of Psychology 

Visiting Assistant Professor of Art 

Assistant Professor of Spanish 



Susan M. Fisher (1987) 

BS, SUNY (Cortland); 

MA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Jack D. Fleer (1964) 

BA, Oklahoma Baptist; MS, Florida State; 
PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Timothy P. Foley (1987) 

BA, Miami of Ohio; MS, Howard 

Doyle R. Fosso (1964) 

AB, Harvard; MA, Michigan; PhD, Harvard 

Ralph S. Fraser (1962) 

BA, Boston; MA, Syracuse; PhD, Illinois 

Donald E. Frey (1972) 

BA, Wesleyan; MDiv, Yale; PhD, Princeton 

Mary Lusky Friedman (1987) 

BA, Wellesley; MA, PhD, Columbia 

Mary Campbell Frye (1984) 

BA, Fairmont; MA, West Virginia 

Caroline Sandlin Fullerton (1969) 

BA, Rollins; MFA, Texas Christian 

N. Ganapathisubramanian (1986) 
BS, Madura College (India); 
MSc, PhD, Indian Institute of Technology (Madras) 

Charles Michael Gass (1988) 

BA, Carson-Newman; MA, Duke 

Ivey C. Gentry (1949) 

BS, Wake Forest; BS, New York; MA, PhD, Duke 

J. Whitfield Gibbons (1971) 

BS, MA, Alabama; PhD, Michigan State 



Instructor in Health and Sport Science 



Professor of Politics 
(Venice, Spring 1988) 

Instructor in Psychology 

Professor of English 

Professor of German 

Professor of Economics 

Assistant Professor of Spanish 

Instructor in Romance Languages 

Lecturer in Theatre Arts 
(Part-time) 

Assistant Professor of Chemistry 

Instructor in Philosophy 
(Part-time) 

Professor of Mathematics 
Adjunct Professor of Biology 



233 



Christopher Giles (1951) 

BS, Florida Southern; MA, George Peabody 



Associate Professor of Music 



Kathleen M. Glenn (1974) 
BA, MA, PhD, Stanford 

Thomas A. Glenn (1986) 

BS, North Carolina State; MBA, Utah 



Perry L. Gnivecki (1987) 

BA, Southern Illinois; PhD, SUNY (Binghamton) 

Thomas S. Goho (1977) 

BS, MBA, Pennsylvania State; 
PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 



Professor of Romance Languages 
(On leave, Fall 1987, Salamanca, Spring 1988) 

Professor of Military Science 
Research Associate, Anthropology 
Associate Professor of Business 



Balkrishna G. Gokhale (1960) 
BA, MA, PhD, Bombay 



Louis R. Goldstein (1979) 

BM, Oberlin; MFA, California Institute of the Arts 
DMA, Eastman 



Professor of History and Asian Studies 
Associate Professor of Music 



Harold O. Goodman (1958) 
BA, MA, PhD, Minnesota 

Bobbie M. Goodnough (1987) 
BS, Winthrop; MEd, Toledo 



Brian L. Gorelick (1984) 

BA, Yale; MM, Wisconsin (Madison); DMA, Illinois 

Daniel Neal Graham (1987) 
BS, SUNY (Oneonta); 
MA, North Carolina (Greensboro) 



Adjunct Professor of Biology 
Instructor in Health and Sport Science 
Director of Choral Ensembles 



Paul M. Gross Jr. (1959) 

BS, Duke; PhD, Brown 

David W. Hadley (1966) 

BA, Wake Forest; AM, PhD, Harvard 

Kenneth Estes Hall (1986) 

BA, Furman; MA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); 
PhD, Arizona 

William S. Hamilton (1983) 
BA, MA, PhD, Yale 

Claire H. Hammond (1978) 

BA, Mary Washington; PhD, Virginia 

J. Daniel Hammond (1978) 

BA, Wake Forest; PhD, Virginia 

Emmett Willard Hamrick (1952) 

BA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); PhD, Duke 

Phillip J. Hamrick Jr. (1956) 

BS, Morris Harvey; PhD, Duke 



Instructor in Politics 
(Part-time) 

Professor of Chemistry 

Associate Professor of History 

Visiting Assistant Professor of 
Romance Languages 

Associate Professor of Russian 

Associate Professor of Economics 

Associate Professor of Economics 
(On leave, Fall 1987) 

Albritton Professor of Religion 
Professor of Chemistry 



234 



James S. Hans (1982) 

BA, MA, Southern Illinois; 
PhD, Washington 

Hanna M. Hardgrave (1985) 

BA, Brown; MA, PhD, Chicago 

Katy J. Harriger (1985) 

BA, Edinboro State; MA, PhD, Connecticut 

Carl V. Harris (1956) 

BA, Wake Forest; BD, STM, Yale; PhD, Duke 

Catherine T. Harris (1980) 

AB, Lenoir Rhyne; MA, Duke; PhD, Georgia 



Lucille S. Harris (1957) 
BA, BM, Meredith 

Negley Boyd Harte (1978) 

BS, London School of Economics 

Elmer K. Hayashi (1973) 

BA, California (Davis); 

MS, San Diego State; PhD, Illinois 

Michael D. Hazen (1974) 

BA, Seattle Pacific; MA, Wake Forest; 
PhD, Kansas 

Thomas K. Hearn Jr. (1983) 

BA, Birmingham-Southern; BD, Southern Baptist Seminary; 
PhD, Vanderbilt; LHD, Alabama-Birmingham 

Robert A. Hedin (1980) 

BA, Luther; MFA, Alaska 



Associate Professor of English 
(On Leave, Spring 1988) 

Lecturer in Philosophy 
(Part-time) 

Assistant Professor of Politics 

Professor of Classical Languages 

Associate Professor of Sociology 

Instructor in Music 
(Part-time) 

Lecturer in History (London) 
(Part-Time) 

Associate Professor of Mathematics and 
Computer Science 



Associate Professor of Speech Communication 
(On leave, 1987-88) 

Professor of Philosophy 



Poet-in-Residence 
(Part-time) 



Roger A. Hegstrom (1969) 

BA, St. Olaf; AM, PhD, Harvard 

Robert M. Helm (1940) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Duke 

J. Edwin Hendricks (1961) 

BA, Furman; MA, PhD, Virginia 

Marcus B. Hester (1963) 

BA, Wake Forest; PhD, Vanderbilt 

Barbara S. Heusel (1985) 

BA, Heidelberg; MA, Lousiville; 
PhD, South Carolina 

David Allen Hills (1960) 

BA, Kansas; MA, PhD, Iowa 

Willie L. Hinze (1975) 

BS, MA, Sam Houston State; PhD, Texas A&M 

George M. Holzwarth (1983) 

BA, Wesleyan; MS, PhD, Harvard 



Professor of Chemistry 

Worrell Professor of Philosophy 

Professor of History 

Professor of Philosophy 

Visiting Assistant Professor of English 

Associate Professor of Psychology 

Professor of Chemistry 

Lecturer in Physics 



235 



Natalie A. Holzwarth (1983) Assistant Professor of Physics 

BS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; PhD, Chicago 



Fred L. Horton Jr. (1970) 

BA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); 
BD, Union Seminary; PhD, Duke 

William L. Hottinger (1970) 

BS, Slippery Rock; MS, PhD, Illinois 

Frederic T. Howard (1966) 

BA, MA, Vanderbilt; PhD, Duke 

Michael L. Hughes (1984) 

BA, Claremont Men's; MA, PhD, California (Berkeley) 



Susan Huxman (1987) 

BA, Bethel College; MA, PhD, Kansas 

Delmer P. Hylton (1949) 

BS, MBA, Indiana; CPA, Indiana 

Kikuko T. Imamura (1985) 
Kyoto Women's College; 
BRE, RRA, Mennonite (Canada) 

Charles F. Jackels (1977) 

BChem, Minnesota; PhD, Washington 

Susan C. Jackels (1977) 

BA, Carleton; PhD, Washington 

Mordecai J. Jaffe (1980) 

BS, CCNY; PhD, Cornell 

Patricia Adams Johansson (1969) 

BA, Winston-Salem State; MA, Wake Forest 

David J. John (1982) 

BS, Emory and Henry; MS, PhD, Emory 

W. Dillon Johnston (1973) 

BA, Vanderbilt; MA, Columbia; PhD, Virginia 



Professor of Religion 

Professor of Health and Sport Science 

Professor of Mathematics 

Assistant Professor of History 

Assistant Professor of Speech Communication 
and Theatre Arts 

Professor of Accountancy 

Lecturer in Japanese 
(Part-time) 

Associate Professor of Chemistry 
(Part-time) 

Associate Professor of Chemistry 
(Part-time) 



Babcock Professor of Botany 

Lecturer in English 

Associate Professor of Mathematics and 
Computer Science 

Professor of English 



Jay R. Kaplan (1981) 



BA, Swarthmore; MA, PhD, Northwestern 

Paul H. D. Kaplan (1980) 

BA, Hampshire; MA, Boston 

Horace O. Kelly, Jr. (1987) 
BA, MA, Baylor 

Judy K. Kern (1987) 

BA, Western Kentucky; MA, Louisville; 
PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Charles H. Kennedy (1985) 

BA, Eckerd; AM, MPP, PhD, Duke 

Ralph C. Kennedy III (1976) 

BA, PhD, California (Berkeley) 



Adjunct Associate Professor of Anthropology 



Associate Professor of Art 

Adjunct Lecturer in Business 
(Part-time, Fall 1987) 

Assistant Professor of French 



Assistant Professor of Politics 
Associate Professor of Philosophy 



236 



William C. Kerr (1970) 

BS, Wooster; PhD, Cornell 

Charles Jeffery Kinlaw (1986) 
BA, Wake Forest; 
MS, Southern Baptist Theological Seminary 

Ellen E. Kirkman (1975) 

BA, Wooster; MA, MS, PhD, Michigan State 

Robert Knott (1975) 

BA, Stanford; MA, Illinois; PhD, Pennsylvania 



Dilip K. Kondepudi (1987) 

BS, Madras (India); MS, Indian Technology (Bombay); 
PhD, Texas (Austin) 

Anna Krauth (1986) 

Licence de Lettres; Licence dAnglais; 
Maitrise de Lettres, Sorbonne (France) 

Raymond E. Kuhn (1968) 

BS, Carson-Newman; PhD, Tennessee 

James Kuzmanovich (1972) 

BS, Rose Polytechnic; PhD, Wisconsin 

Hugo C. Lane (1973) 

Licenciate of the Biological Sciences, 
Doctorate of the Biological Sciences, Geneva 

Page H. Laughlin (1987) 



Professor of Physics 

Instructor in Philosophy/Religion 
(Part-time) 

Associate Professor of Mathematics 

Associate Professor of Art 

Assistant Professor of Chemistry 



BA, Virginia; MFA, Rhode Island School of Design 



Instructor in Romance Languages 

Professor of Biology 

Professor of Mathematics 

Associate Professor of Biology 

Visiting Assistant Professor of Art 



Michael S. Lawlor (1986) 

BA, Texas (Austin); PhD, Iowa State 

Stanley R. Lawson (1987) 

BA, Marshall; MEd, Alabama (Birmingham) 

Mark R. Leary (1985) 

BA, West Virginia Wesleyan; MA, PhD, Florida 

Wei-chin Lee (1987) 

BA, National Taiwan University; MA, PhD, Oregon 

Win-chiat Lee (1983) 

BA, Cornell; MA, Princeton 

Susan Ruth Leonard (1983) Adjunct Assistant Professor of Psychology 

BA, Long Island (C.W. Post Center) (Part-time) 

MA, PhD, North Carolina (Greensboro) 



Assistant Professor of Economics 
Assistant Professor of Military Science 
Assistant Professor of Psychology 
Assistant Professor of Politics 
Assistant Professor of Philosophy 



David B. Levy (1976) 

BM, MA, PhD, Eastman 

Charles M. Lewis (1968) 

BA, Wake Forest; PhD, Vanderbilt; ThM, Harvard 



Assistant Professor of Music 
(London, Spring 1987) 

Professor of Philosophy 



237 



Thomas P. Liebschutz (1987) 
BA, MA, Rochester; 
BHL, MAHL, Hebrew Union; DMin, Boston 

Gregory A. Lilly (1987) 

BA, Washington & Lee 

Susan Mott Linker (1983) 

BA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); 

MA, Wisconsin; PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

John H. Litcher (1973) 

BS, Winona State; MA, PhD, Minnesota 

Dan S. Locklair (1982) 

BM, Mars Hill; SMM, Union Theological Seminary; 
DMA, Eastman 



Visiting Lecturer in Religion 
(Part-time) 

Instructor in Economics 

Visiting Assistant Professor 
of Romance Languages 

Professor of Education 

Assistant Professor of Music 



Allan D. Louden (1977, 1985) 

BA, Montana State; MA, Montana 

Robert W. Lovett (1962, 1968) 

BA, Oglethorpe; MAT, PhD, Emory 

Gene T. Lucas (1967, 1986) 

BA, Phillips; MA, Denver 

Linda S. Maier (1987) 

AB, Washington; MA, PhD, Virginia 

Barry G. Maine (1981) 

BA, Virginia; MA, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Milorad R. Margitic (1978) 

MA, Leiden (Netherlands); PhD, Wayne State 

Scott A. Marquardt (1986) 

BA, Santa Clara; MSEd, Southern California 



Instructor in Speech Communication 
and Theatre Arts 

Professor of English 
(On leave, Fall 1987) 

Lecturer in Mathematics 



Teri E. Marsh (1985) 

AB, MA, PhD, SUNY (Buffalo) 

Dale R. Martin (1982) 

BS, MS, Illinois State; DBA, Kentucky 

James A. Martin (1983) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, Duke; PhD, Columbia 

George Eric Matthews Jr. (1979) 

BS, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

J. Gaylord May (1961) 

BS, Wofford; MA, PhD, Virginia 

Jo Whitten May (1972) 
BS, Virginia; 
MA, PhD, North Carolina (Greensboro) 

W. Graham May (1961) 

BS, Wofford; MA, PhD, Virginia 



Assistant Professor of Spanish 

Associate Professor of English 

Professor of Romance Languages 

Assistant Professor of Military Science 

Visiting Assistant Professor of 
Classical Languages 

Associate Professor of Accountancy 

University Professor 

Associate Professor of Physics 

Professor of Mathematics 

Visiting Assistant Professor of 

Speech Communication 

(Part-time) 

Professor of Mathematics 



238 



Susan P. McCaffray (1985) 

BA, Wooster; MA, PhD, Duke 

Jill Jordan McMillan (1983) 
BA, Baylor; PhD, Texas 

Dolly A. McPherson (1974) 

BA, Southern; MA, Boston; PhD, Iowa 

Stephen Philip Messier (1981) 

BS, MS, Rhode Island; PhD, Temple 

Joseph O. Milner (1969) 

BA, Davidson; MA, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Carlton T. Mitchell (1961) Professor of Religion 

BA, Wake Forest; BD, Yale; STM, Union Seminary; PhD, New York 

Lecturer in Education 
(Part-time) 



Assistant Professor of History 

Assistant Professor of 
Speech Communication 

Associate Professor of English 

Associate Professor of Health 
and Sport Science 

Professor of Education 



G. Diane Mitchell (1983) 

BA, Salem; MEd, Wake Forest; PhD, Duke 



Janet S. Moore (1987) Visiting Assistant Professor of Psychology 

BA, Georgia; MA, Texas Christian; PhD, Georgia 



John C. Moorhouse (1969) 

BA, Wabash; PhD, Northwestern 

Carl C. Moses (1964) 

AB, William and Mary; MA, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

William M. Moss (1971) 

BA, Davidson; PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Thomas E. Mullen (1957) 

BA, Rollins; MA, PhD, Emory 

Margaret Mulvey (1986) 

BA, MS, Connecticut; PhD, Rutgers 

Stephen Murphy (1987) 

BA, Canisius; MA, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Rebecca Myers (1981) 
BS, MA, Ball State 



Professor of Economics 

Professor of Politics 

Associate Professor of English 

Professor of History 

Adjunct Assistant Professor of Biology 

Assistant Professor of French 

Instructor in Health and Sport Science 



Candelas M. Newton (1978) 
BA, Salamanca (Spain); 
MA, PhD, Pittsburgh 

Linda N. Nielsen (1974) 

BA, MS, EdD, Tennessee 

Ronald E. Noftle (1967) 

BS, New Hampshire; PhD, Washington 

Stephen R. Nohlgren (1988) 
BA, Augustana; 



Associate Professor of Romance Languages 
(On leave, Fall 1987) 

Associate Professor of Education 

Professor of Chemistry 

Visiting Associate Professor of Biology 
(Part-time, Spring 1988) 



MSPH, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); PhD, Wake Forest 

A. Thomas Olive (1961) Associate Professor of Biology 

BS, Wake Forest; MS, PhD, North Carolina State 



239 



Juan Orbe (1987) Assistant Professor of Spanish 

Universidad Nacional de La Plata (Argentina); 
MA, PhD, Michigan State 

Gillian Rose Overing (1979) Associate Professor of English 

BA, Lancaster (England); MA, PhD, SUNY (Buffalo) 

F. Jeanne Owen (1956) Professor of Business Law 

BS, North Carolina (Greensboro); MCS, Indiana; 
JD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Karen L. Oxendine (1986) Adjunct Instructor in Speech Communication 

BS, Wayne State; and Theatre Arts 

MEd, North Carolina (Greensboro) (Part-time) 

Perry L. Patterson (1986) Assistant Professor of Economics 

BA, Indiana; MA, PhD, Northwestern 

Darwin R. Payne (1984) Adjunct Professor of Speech Communication 

BS, MFA, Southern Illinois and Theatre Arts 

(Part-time) 

Willie Pearson Jr. (1980) Associate Professor of Sociology 

BA, Wiley; MA, Atlanta; PhD, Southern Illinois (Carbondale) 

Philip J. Perricone (1967) Professor of Sociology 

BS, MA, Florida; PhD, Kentucky 

Elizabeth Phillips (1957) Professor of English 

BA, North Carolina (Greensboro); MA, Iowa; 
PhD, Pennsylvania 

Terisio Pignatti (1971) Professor of Art History (Venice) 

PhD, Padua (Part-time) 

Mitchell M. Pote (1987) Instructor in Politics 

BA, Delaware; MA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) (Part-time) 

Lee Harris Potter (1965) Professor of English 

BA, MA, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Gregory D. Pritchard (1968) Professor of Philosophy 

BA, Oklahoma Baptist; BD, Southern Baptist Seminary; 
PhD, Columbia 

Martin R. Province (1982) Assistant Director of 

BA, Wake Forest; MM, Colorado Instrumental Ensembles 

Frank H. Quina (1987) Associate Professor of Chemistry 

BS, Stetson; PhD, California Institute of Technology 

Teresa Radomski (1977) Assistant Professor of Music 

BM, Eastman; MM, Colorado 

J. Don Reeves (1967) Professor of Education 

BA, Mercer; (On leave, Spring 1988) 

BD, ThM, Southern Baptist Seminary; EdD, Columbia 

W. Jack Rejeski Jr. (1978) Associate Professor of Health and 

BS, Norwich; MA, PhD, Connecticut Sport Science 



240 



Kathleen Alice Reuter (1986) Visiting Assistant Professor of English 

BA, Cleveland State; MA, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Paul M. Ribisl (1973) Professor of Health and Sport Science 

BS, Pittsburgh; MA, Kent State; PhD, Illinois 



Stephen H. Richardson (1963) 

BA, California; MS, PhD, Southern California 

Charles L. Richman (1968) 

BA, Virginia; MA, Yeshiva; PhD, Cincinnati 

Helen Walker Robbins (1986) 
AB, Smith; MA, Duke 

Leonard P. Roberge (1974) 

BA, New Hampshire; MA, Atlanta; EdD, Maine 



Adjunct Professor of Biology 

Professor of Psychology 

Instructor in English 

Associate Professor of Education 



Ben P. Robertson (1983) 

BA, Maryland; MA, Brown 

Karen Robinson (1988) 

BA, Colorado; MFA, New York 



Research Associate/ 
Instructor in Anthropology 

Visiting Instructor in Speech Communication 

and Theatre Arts 

(Spring 1988) 

Professor of Romance Languages 
(Dijon, Fall 1987) 



Mary Frances Robinson (1952) 

BA, Wilson; MA, PhD, Syracuse 

Eva Marie Rodtwitt (1966) 

Cand Philol, Oslo (Norway) 

John E. Rowland (1982) 

BA, William Jennings Bryan College; 
AM, Indiana 

Nancy E. Rushing (1987) 

BA, Carson-Newman; MA, Duke 

Wilmer D. Sanders (1954, 1964) 

BA, Muhlenberg; MA, PhD, Indiana 

Jennifer Sault (1984) 
BA, Wake Forest 

John W. Sawyer Jr. (1956) 

BA, MA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Missouri 

James Ralph Scales (1967) Worrell Professor of Anglo-American Studies 

BA, Oklahoma Baptist; MA, PhD, Oklahoma; (London, Fall 1987) 

LittD, Northern Michigan, Belmont Abbey; 
LLD, Alderson-Broadus, Duke 

Donald O. Schoonmaker (1965) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Princeton 

Marianne A. Schubert (1977) 
BA, Dayton; 
MA, PhD, Southern Illinois 

Katie Scott (1985) 

BA Hons., London 



Lecturer in Romance Languages 

Visiting Assistant Professor of 
Classical Languages 

Visiting Assistant Professor of Sociology 

Professor of German 

Instructor in Italian 
(Part-time) 

Professor of Mathematics and 
Computer Science 



Professor of Politics 



Adjunct Assistant Professor of Psychology 
and Lecturer in Education 



Assistant Lecturer in Art History (London) 

(Part-time) 



241 



Richard D. Sears (1964) Professor of Politics 

BA, Clark; MA. PhD, Indiana 

Ben M. Seelbinder (1959) Professor of Mathematics 

BA, Mississippi Delta State; 
MA, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Emily Seelbinder (1985) Visiting Assistant Professor of English 

BA, Hollins; MA, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Timothy F. Sellner (1970) Professor of German 

BA, Michigan; MA, Wayne State; PhD, Michigan 

Catherine E. Seta (1987) Visiting Assistant Professor of Psychology 

BA, MA, PhD, North Carolina (Greensboro) 

Mark S. Sexton (1987) Visiting Assistant Professor of English 

BA, MA, Wake Forest; PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Dudley Shapere (1984) Reynolds Professor of Philosophy and 

BS, MS, PhD, Harvard History of Science 

Bynum G. Shaw (1965) Professor of Journalism 

BA, Wake Forest 

Kurt C. Shaw (1987) Instructor in German and Russian 

AB, Missouri; MA, Kansas 

Walter W. Shaw (1987) Instructor in Spanish 

BA, Berea; MA, Georgia 

Martine Louise Sherrill (1987) Lecturer in Art 

BFA, North Carolina (Greensboro) 

Howard W. Shields (1958) Professor of Physics 

BS, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); 
MS, Pennsylvania State; PhD, Duke 

Robert N. Shorter (1958) Professor of English 

BA, Union; MA, PhD, Duke 

Allen William Shostak (1987) Visiting Assistant Professor of Biology 

BSc, Hons, Alberta (Canada); (Part-time, Fall 1987) 

MSc, PhD, Manitoba (Canada) 

Gale Sigal (1987) Assistant Professor of English 

BA, City College of New York; MA, Fordham; 
PhD, Graduate Center of the City University of New York 

Wayne L. Silver (1985) Assistant Professor of Biology 

BA, Pennsylvania; PhD, Horida State 

Michael L. Sinclair (1968) Associate Professor of History 

BA, Wake Forest; AM, PhD, Stanford 

Linda E. Sloan (1985) Adjunct Instructor in Speech Communication 

BA, Rochester; MAT, Tufts; (Part-time) 

MFA, North Carolina (Greensboro) 

David L, Smiley (1950) Professor of History 

BA, MA, Baylor; PhD, Wisconsin 



242 



Gerald L. Smith (1987) 

BS, MA, Wake Forest; PhD, Georgia 

J. Howell Smith (1965) 

BA, Baylor; MA, Tulane; PhD, Wisconsin 

Kathleen B. Smith (1981) 

BA, Baldwin-Wallace; MA, PhD, Purdue 

K. Wayne Smith (1987) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Princeton 

Margaret Supplee Smith (1979) 
BS, Missouri; 
MA, Case Western Reserve; PhD, Brown 

Margaret L. Snook (1984) Assistant Professor of Romance Languages 

BS, Southern Connecticut State; MA, PhD, Illinois 



Visiting Assistant Professor of Biology 
(Part-time, Fall 1987) 

Professor of History 

Associate Professor of Politics 

University Professor 

Professor of Art 
(On leave, 1987-88) 



Cecilia H. Solano (1977) 

BA, Harvard; MA, PhD, Johns Hopkins 

Mary Ellen Carr Soles (1987) 
BA, Manhattanville; 
MA, M.Phil., PhD, Yale 

Nancy K. Solomon (1987) 

BA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

DeLeon E. Stokes (1982) 

BA, Duke; MBA, Michigan; CPA, North Carolina 

Anna-Vera Sullam (1972) 
BA, Padua 

Charles H. Talbert (1963) 



BA, Howard; BD, Southern Baptist Seminary; PhD, Vanderbilt 



Associate Professor of Psychology 
(On leave 1987-88) 

Adjunct Assistant Professor of Art 
(Part-time, Fall 1987) 

Instructor in Education 

Lecturer in Accountancy 

Instructor in Romance Languages 
(Part-time, Venice) 

Professor of Religion 



Ian M. Taplin (1985) 

The College of Architecture, Oxford (England); 
BA, York (England); MPhil, Leicester (England) 

Thomas C. Taylor (1971) 

BS, MA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); 
PhD, Louisiana State; CPA, North Carolina 

Harold C. Tedford (1965) 

BA, Ouachita; MA, Arkansas; 
PhD, Louisiana State 

Stanton K. Tefft (1964) 

BA, Michigan State; MS, Wisconsin; 
PhD, Minnesota 



Assistant Professor of Sociology 



Professor of Accountancy 



Professor of Theatre Arts 
(London, Spring 1988) 

Professor of Anthropology 



Claudia Newel Thomas (1986) 

BA, Notre Dame; MA, Virginia; PhD, Brandeis 

Olive S. Thomas (1978) 

BS, Wake Forest; MBA, North Carolina (Greensboro), 
CPA, North Carolina 



Assistant Professor of English 
Lecturer in Accountancy 



243 



Stan J. Thomas (1983) 

BS, Davidson; PhD, Vanderbilt 

William Albert Thomas (1983) 

BA, Hamilton; MS, PhD, Princeton 

Lowell R. Tillett (1956) 

BA, Carson-Newman; MA, Columbia 
PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Harry B. Titus Jr. (1981) 

BA, Wisconsin (Milwaukee); 
MFA, PhD, Princeton 

Ralph B. Tower (1980) 

BA, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); 
MBA, Cornell 

George William Trautwein (1983) 

BMus, Oberlin; MMus, Cleveland Institute; 
MusD, Indiana 

Norman Tuck (1987) 

BFA, Horida; MFA, Pennsylvania State 



Jimmy Turner III (1985) 

AS, Danville Community; BS, Averett; MS, Wake Forest 



Assistant Professor of Computer Science 

Assistant Professor of Biology 

Professor of History 
(On leave) 

Assistant Professor of Art 
(On leave, Fall 1987) 

Associate Professor of Accountancy 

Director of Instrumental Ensembles 

Visiting Assistant Professor of Art 
Instructor in Chemistry 



Robert W. Ulery Jr. (1971) 
BA, MA, PhD, Yale 

Robert L. Utley Jr. (1978) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Duke 

Louke M. van Wensveen (1987) 

GT, Leiden (Holland); AB, Harvard; 
PhD, Princeton Theological Seminary 

Antonio Carlo Vitti (1986) 
BA, MA, Wayne State; 
PhD, Michigan 

Marcellus E. Waddill (1962) 

BA, Hampden-Sydney; MA, PhD, Pittsburgh 

J. Van Wagstaff (1964) 

BA, Randolph-Macon; MBA, Rutgers; PhD, Virginia 

Susan B. Wallace (1986) 



Associate Professor of Classical Languages 
(Venice, Spring 1987) 

Associate Professor of Humanities 



Assistant Professor of Religion 
(Fall 1987) 

Dana Faculty Fellow and Assistant 
Professor of Romance Languages 

Professor of Mathematics 

Professor of Economics 



Visiting Assistant Professor of Psychology 



BS, Howard; AM, Boston; PhD, Pittsburgh 

Sarah L. Watts (1987) Assistant Professor of History 

BA, Oklahoma College of Liberal Arts; MA, PhD, Oklahoma 



Mary R. Wayne (1980) 

BFA, Pennsylvania State; MFA, Ohio State 

David S. Weaver (1977) 

BA, MA, Arizona; PhD, New Mexico 



Lecturer in Speech Communication 
and Theatre Arts 

Associate Professor of Anthropology 



244 



Peter D. Weigl (1968) 

BA, Williams; PhD, Duke 

Kari Weil (1985) 

BA, Cornell; MA, PhD, Princeton 

Mark E. Welker (1987) 



Professor of Biology 
Assistant Professor of Romance Languages 



BS, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); PhD, Florida State 



Assistant Professor of Chemistry 



Byron R. Wells (1981) 
BA, MA, Georgia 
PhD, Columbia 

Larry E. West (1969) 

BA, Berea; PhD, Vanderbilt 

Alan J. Williams (1974) 

BA, Stanford; PhD, Yale 



George P. Williams (1958) 

BS, Richmond; MS, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

John E. Williams (1959) 

BA, Richmond; MA, PhD, Iowa 

Richard T. Williams (1985) 

BS, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Princeton 

David C. Wilson (1984, 1987) 

BS, Wake Forest; MAT, Emory 

Edwin Graves Wilson (1946, 1951) 

BA, Wake Forest; AM, PhD, Harvard 

Donald H. Wolfe (1968) 

BS, MS, Southern Illinois; PhD, Cornell 



Associate Professor of Romance Languages 
(Venice, Fall 1987; On leave, Spring 1988) 



Professor of German 
Associate Professor of History 
Professor of Physics 
Professor of Psychology 
Reynolds Professor of Physics 



Instructor in Mathematics 

Professor of English 

Professor of Theatre Arts 



Frank B. Wood (1971) Adjunct Associate Professor of Psychology 

BA, MA, Wake Forest; (Part-time) 

MDiv, Southeastern Baptist Seminary; PhD, Duke 



John H. Wood (1985) 

BS, Ohio; MA, Michigan State; PhD, Purdue 

Ralph C. Wood Jr. (1971) 

BA, MA, East Texas State; 
MA, PhD, Chicago 

J. Ned Woodall (1969) 

BA, MA, Texas; PhD, Southern Methodist 

Stuart Wright (1983) 

BA, MA, MAEd, Wake Forest 

Raymond L. Wyatt (1956) 

BS, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

W. Buck Yearns Jr. (1945) 

BA, Duke; MA, Georgia; PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Richard L. Zuber (1962) 

BS, Appalachian; MA, Emory; PhD, Duke 



Reynolds Professor of Economics 

Professor of Religion 

(London, Fall 1987; 

On leave, Spring 



Professor of Anthropology 
(On leave, Fall 1987) 

Lecturer in Education 
(Part-time) 

Professor of Biology 
Professor of History 
Professor of History 



245 



EMERITI 



Dates following names indicate period of service. 



Harold M. Barrow (1948-1977) Professor Emeritus of Physical Education 

BA, Westminster; MA, Missouri; PED, Indiana 

Germaine Bree (1973-1985) Kenan Professor Emerita of Humanities 

Licence, EES, Agregation, Paris; LittD, Smith, Mount Holyoke, 
Alleghany, Duke, Oberlin, Dickinson, Rutgers, Wake Forest, 
Brown, Wisconsin (Milwaukee), New York, Massachusetts, 
Kalamazoo, Washington (St. Louis), University of the South, 
Boston, Wisconsin (Madison); LHD, Wilson, Colby, Michigan, 
Davis and Elkins; LLD, Middlebury 



Dalma Adolph Brown (1941-1973) 

BA, MA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

George McLeod Bryan (1956-1987) 

BA, MA, Wake Forest; BD, PhD, Yale 

Ruth F. Campbell (1962-1974) 

BA, North Carolina (Greensboro); 

MA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); PhD, Duke 

Robert L. Carlson (1969-1987) 

BS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; 
MBA, PhD, Stanford 

Marjorie Crisp (1947-1977) 

BS, Appalachian; MA, George Peabody 

Hugh William Divine (1954-1979) 

BS, Georgia; MA, Louisiana State; JD, Emory; 
LLM, SJD, Michigan 

Robert Allen Dyer (1956-1983) 
BA, Louisiana State; 
ThM, PhD, Southern Baptist Seminary 

J. Allen Easley (1928-1963) 

BA, Furman; ThM, Southern Baptist Seminary; 
DD, Furman 

Walter S. Flory (1963-1980) Babcock Professor Emeritus of Biology 

BA, Bridgewater; MA, PhD, Virginia; ScD, Bridgewater 

Thomas F. Gossett (1967-1987) 

BA, MA, Southern Methodist; PhD, Minnesota 



Professor Emeritus of English 

Professor Emeritus of Religion 

Professor Emerita of Spanish 

Professor Emeritus of Management 



Associate Professor Emerita 
of Physical Education 

Professor Emeritus of Law 



Professor Emeritus of Religion 



Professor Emeritus of Religion 



George J. Griffin (1948-1981) 

BA, Wake Forest; ThB, Southern Baptist Seminary; 
BD, Yale; PhD, Edinburgh 

William H. Gulley (1966-1987) 

BA, MA, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Ysbrand Haven (1965-1983) 

Candidate, Doctorandus, Doctor, Rijks (Netherlands) 



Professor Emeritus of English 
Professor Emeritus of Religion 

Professor Emeritus of Sociology 
Professor Emeritus of Physics 



246 



Ralph Cyrus Heath (1954-1969) Professor Emeritus of Marketing 

BA, Princeton; MBA, DBA, Indiana 

Lois Johnson (1942-1962) Dean of Women Emerita 

BA, Meredith; MA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Alonzo W. Kenion (1956-1983) Professor Emeritus of English 

BA, MA, PhD, Duke 

Harry L. King Jr. (1960-1981) Professor Emeritus of Romance Languages 

BA, Richmond; MA, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Robert E. Lee (1946-1977) Professor Emeritus of Law and 

BS, LLD, Wake Forest; Dean Emeritus of the School of Law 

MA, Columbia; LLM, SJD, Duke 

Jasper L. Memory Jr. (1929-1971) Professor Emeritus of Education 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, Columbia 

Harry B. Miller (1947-1983) Professor Emeritus of Chemistry 

BS, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

John W. Nowell (1945-1987) Professor Emeritus of Chemistry 

BS, Wake Forest; PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

James C. O'Flaherty (1947-1984) Professor Emeritus of German 

BA, Georgetown; MA, Kentucky; PhD, Chicago 

John E. Parker, Jr. (1950-1987) Professor Emeritus of Education 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Syracuse and Romance Languages 

Clarence H. Patrick (1946-1978) Professor Emeritus of Sociology 

BA, Wake Forest; BD, Andover Newton; PhD, Duke 

Percival Perry (1939, 1947-1987) Professor Emeritus of History 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, Rutgers; PhD, Duke 

Herman J. Preseren (1953-1983) Professor Emeritus of Education 

BS, California State (Pennsylvania); MA, Columbia; 
PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Beulah L. Raynor (1946-1979) Associate Professor Emerita of English 

BA, East Carolina; MA, Wake Forest 

*Albert C. Reid (1917-18; 1920-1965) Professor Emeritus of Philosophy 

BA, MA, Wake Forest; PhD, Cornell 

C. H. Richards Jr. (1952-1985) Professor Emeritus of Politics 

BA, Texas Christian; MA, PhD, Duke 

Paul S. Robinson (1952-1977) Professor Emeritus of Music 

BA, Westminster; BM, Curtis; MSM, DSM, Union Seminary 

James Ralph Scales (1967-1983) President Emeritus 

BA, Oklahoma Baptist; MA, PhD, Oklahoma; 
LittD, Northern Michigan, Belmont Abbey; 
LLD, Alderson-Broaddus; LLD, Duke 

* Died on March 19, 1988 



247 



Richard L. Shoemaker (1950-1982) 
BA, Colgate; MA, Syracuse; 
PhD, Virginia 

Blanche C. Speer (1972-1984) 

BA, Howard Payne; MA, PhD, Colorado 

Henry Smith Srroupe (1937-1984) 

BS, MA, Wake Forest; PhD, Duke 

Anne S. Tillett (1956-1986) Professor Emerita of Romance Languages 

BA, Carson-Newman; MA, Vanderbilt; PhD, Northwestern 

Carlton P. West (1928-1975) Librarian Emeritus 

BA, Boston; MA, Yale; BA in LS, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 



Professor Emeritus of 
Romance Languages 

Associate Professor Emerita 
of Linguistics 

Professor Emeritus of History 




Wait Chapel 



248 



The Committees of the Faculty 

September 1, 1988 

The terms of members, except where otherwise shown, expire on August 31 of the 
year indicated. Each committee selects its own chair except where the chair is 
designated. All members of a committee vote except as otherwise indicated. 



Executive Committees 

The Committee on Academic Affairs 

Non-voting. Dean of Students, Associate Dean, Assistant Deans of the College, and 
one undergraduate student. Voting. Dean of the College; 1990 Richard C. Barnett, 
Elmer K. Hayashi; 1989 Howard W. Shields, Marcellus E. Waddill; 1988 John L. 
Andronica, Ralph S. Fraser; and one undergraduate student. 

The Committee on Admission 

Non-voting. Dire^cor of Admissions, two members from the administrative staff of the 
Office of the Dean of the College, and one undergraduate student. Voting. Dean of 
the College; 1990 David K. Evans, Robert W. Lovett; 1989 Willie Pearson Jr., Harold 
C. Tedford; 1988 Susan H. Borwick, Candelas M. Newton; and one undergraduate 
student. 

The Committee on Scholarships and Student Aid 

Non-voting. One undergraduate student. Voting. Dean of the College, Director of 
Admissions and Financial Aid, two members from the adrninistrative staff of the Office 
of the Dean of the College; 1990 Barry G. Maine; 1989 Louis R. Goldstein, Eva M. 
Rodtwitt; 1988 Susan C. Jackels, Gillian R. O vexing; and one undergraduate student. 

The Committee on Curriculum 

Voting. Provost, Dean of the College, Dean of the School of Business and Accountan- 
cy, Registrar, and the chairperson of each department of the College as follows: Division 
I. Art, Classical Languages, English, German and Russian, Music, Romance 
Languages, Speech Communication and Theatre Arts. Division II. Biology, Chemistry, 
Health and Sport Science, Mathematics and Computer Science, Physics. Division III. 
Education, History, Military Science, Philosophy, Religion. Division TV. Anthropology, 
Economics, Politics, Psychology, Sociology. (School of Business and Accountancy is 
included in Division rV for administrative purposes.) 

Advisory Committees 

The Committee on Academic Planning 

Non-voting. Provost, Dean of the School of Business and Accountancy, and one 



249 



undergraduate student. Voting. Dean of the College, Director of Libraries, one 
undergraduate student, and 1991 Win-chiat Lee, Philip J. Perricone; 1990 Nina S. Allen, 
Larry E. West; 1989 Emmett W. Hamrick, Donald O. Schoonmaker; 1988 Andrew V. 
Ettin, William C. Kerr. 

The Committee on Athletics 

Non-voting. Director of Athletics. Voting. Vice President and Treasurer, Dean of the 
College, faculty representative to the Atlantic Coast Conference, and 1992 J. Daniel 
Hammond, George E. Matthews Jr.; 1991 Eddie V. Easley, Linda N. Nielsen; 1990 
Deborah L. Best, James Kuzmanovich; 1989 William L. Hottinger, Charles L. Talbert; 
1988 John A. Carter Jr., David W. Catron. 

The Committee on Institutional Planning 

Non-voting. Provost, Vice President and Treasurer, Vice President for Administration 
and Planning, and one undergraduate student. Voting. Dean of the College, Dean 
of the School of Business and Accountancy, one undergraduate student, and 1991 
Arun P. Dewasthali, J. Edwin Hendricks Jr., J. Van Wagstaff; 1990 David J. John, 
Byron R. Wells; 1989 John W Angell, Kathleen B. Smith; 1988 Paul H. D. Kaplan, 
Ellen E. Kirkman. 

The Committee on Nominations 

Voting. 1990 Ronald V Dimock, Carlton T Mitchell; 1989 Donald E. Frey Kathleen 
M. Glenn, Ralph B. Tower; 1988 Nancy J. Cotton, Donald H. Wolfe. 

The Committee on Library Planning 

Non-voting. Provost, Dean of the Graduate School, one faculty representative from 
the Committee on Academic Planning, and one undergraduate student. Voting. One 
faculty representative from each academic department of the College, Dean of the 
College, one faculty representative from the School of Business and Accountancy, 
the Director of Libraries, and one undergraduate student. 

Special Committees 

The Committee on Publications 

Voting. Dean of the College, Vice President and Treasurer, University Editor, three 
faculty advisers of Old Gold and Black, The Student, and the Howler, and 1990 Robert 
H. Evans; 1989 Harry B. Titus Jr.; 1988 W. Dillon Johnston. 

The Committee for Teacher Education 

Voting. Dean of the College, Dean of the Graduate School, chairperson of the Depart- 
ment of Education, and 1989 Michael L. Hughes, Charles F. Jackels; 1988 Milorad 
R. Margitic, Stephen P. Messier. 



250 



The Committee on Honors 

Non-voting. One student from the College. Voting. Dean of the College, the Coordinator 
of the Honors Program, one student from the College, and 1991 Robert A. Browne; 

1988 John E. Collins. 

The Committee of Lower Division Advisers 

Dean of the College, chairperson of the Lower Division Advisers, and members of 
the faculty who are appointed as advisers to the Lower Division. 

The Committee on Orientation 

Dean of the College, chairperson of the Lower Division Advisers, who shall serve 
as chairperson, Dean of Students, a designated member of the administrative staff, 
President of the Student Government or a representative, and other persons from 
the administration and student body whom the chair shall invite to serve. 

The Committee on Records and Information 

Non-voting. Registrar. Voting. Dean of the College, Archivist, who shall be secretary, 
Vice-chairperson of the Faculty, Secretary of the Faculty, and 1990 W. Graham May; 

1989 John R. Earle; 1988 Umit Akinc. 

The Committee on Open Curriculum 

Dean of the College, 1991 Charles H. Kennedy, Margaret L. Snook; 1990 Stephen 
B. Boyd, Natalie A. W. Holzwarth; 1989 David A. Hills, Dan S. Locklair; 1988 Carole 
L. Browne, Patricia M. Cunningham. 

The Committee for the ROTC 

Voting. Dean of the College, ROTC Coordinator, Professor of Military Science, and 

1990 John S. Dunkelberg; 1989 Timothy F. Sellner; 1988 Hugo C. Lane. 



Joint Faculty/Administration Committees 

The Joint Admissions Committee 

Dean of the College, Director of Admissions and Financial Aid, Provost, Susan H. 
Borwick, David K. Evans, Willie Pearson Jr. 

The Judicial Council 

Administration. 1992 Brian Austin; 1991 Vonda F. Reece. Alternate. 1989 Patricia A. 
Johansson. Faculty. 1992 Eddie V. Easley; 1991 Carl C. Moses; 1990 J. Howell Smith; 
1989 Raymond L. Wyatt; 1988 Alan J. Williams. Alternate. 1992 Katy Harriger; 1989 
Kathleen B. Smith. Two students from the College and one student alternate. 



251 



The Committee on Student Life 

Dean of the College or his designate, Dean of Students, a designated member of the 
administration, 1990 Michael J. Berry; 1989 Claire H. Hammond; 1988 Ellen Kirkman; 
and three undergraduate students. 



Other Faculty Assignments 

Faculty Advisers to the Honor Council 

1990 James S. Hans; 1989 Charles J. Kinlaw; 1988 Robert N. Shorter 

Faculty Advisers to the Student Judicial Board 

1990 S. Douglas Beets; 1989 John E. Collins; 1988 John H. Litcher 

Faculty Marshals 

John V. Baxley, Richard D. Carmichael, 
Carlton T. Mitchell, Mary Frances Robinson 

University Senate 

President, Provost, Vice President for Health Affairs, Vice President and Treasurer, 
Vice President for University Relations, Vice President for Administration and Plan- 
ning, Dean of the College, Dean of the School of Business and Accountancy, Dean 
of the Graduate School, Dean of the School of Law, Dean of the Babcock Graduate 
School of Management, Executive Dean of the Bowman Gray School of Medicine, 
Director of Libraries, and the following: 

Representatives of the College: 1991 Susan H. Borwick, Catherine Harris, John C. 
Moorhouse, Gregory D Pritchard; 1990 Elmer K. Hayashi, Richard D. Sears; 1989 
Ronald V. Dimock, David W. Hadley, J. Don Reeves; 1988 Paul H. Kaplan, Paul M. 
Ribisl, J. Ned Woodall. 

Representatives of the School of Business and Accountancy: 1991 Umit Akinc; Jeanne Owen; 
1989 Arun P. Dewasthali. 

Representatives of the Graduate School: 1990 James C. Rose; 1989 Deborah L. Best; 1988 
Elizabeth Phillips. 

Representatives of the School of Law: 1991 Arthur R. Gaudio; 1990 H. Miles Foy: 1989 
Thomas E. Roberts. 

Representatives of the Babcock Graduate School of Management: 1990 Paul A. Dierks; 1989 
J. Timothy Heames. 

Representatives of the Bowman Gray School of Medicine; 1991 Frederick R. Kahl, W. 
Frederick McGuirt, Charles S. Turner; 1990 Richard St. Clair; 1989 Inglis J. Miller 
Jr.; 1988 Hyman B. Muss. 



252 



Other Committees 

University Grievance Committee 

College. 1991 Robert W. Brehme, J. Gaylord May (alternate); 

Graduate School. 1989 David W. Catron, Arnold S. Kreger (alternate); 

School of Law. 1990 David A. Logan, H. Miles Foy (alternate); 

Babcock Graduate School of Management. 1988 Michael L. Rice, Melvin J. Steckler 

(alternate); 

Bowman Gray. 1988 Walter J. Bo, Henry S. Miller Jr., (alternate). 

Institutional Review Board 

Grants and Contracts Officer, University Counsel (consultant), and 1990 Mary Jane 
Berman, Terry D. Blumenthal, Charles L. Richman; 1989 Michael J. Berry, Catherine 
T. Harris, Mark R. Leary, John H. Litcher; 1988 John Earle, Dennis Lynch, Linda 

Nielsen. 




■■j, „■ ... 






253 



Index 



Academic Awards, 26 

Academic Calendar, 2, 38 

Accountancy, 196 

Accreditation, 12 

Administration, 218 

Admission Deposit, 33, 34 

Admission Requirements, 32 

Advanced Placement, 34 

Advising, 38 

Anthropology, 76 

Application for Admission, 32 

Applied Music Fees, 36 

Art, 79 

Art History, 80 

Artists Series, Secrest, 29 

Asian Studies, 84 

Athletic Awards, 27 

Athletic Scholarships, 27 

Athletics, 27 

Attendance Requirement, 39 

Auditing, 40 

Babcock Graduate School of 

Management, 8 
Basic Course Requirements, 65 
Biology, 86 

Board of Trustees, 213 
Board of Visitors, 215 
Bowman Gray School of Medicine, 8 
Buildings and Grounds, 9 
Business, 193 

Business and Accountancy, 8, 191 
Calendar, 2 
Campus Ministry, 28 
Carswell Scholarships, 47 
Case Referral Panel, 24 
Charges, 32, 33, 35, 36, 37 
Chemistry, 91 
Chinese, 178 
Class Attendance, 39 
Classical Languages, 94 
Classics, 97 
Classification, 38 
CLEP, 34 



College History and Development, 17 

Combined Degrees, 72 

Committees of the Faculty, 248 

Computer Center, 10 

Computer Science, 133 

Concessions, 58 

Course Numbers, 76 

Course Repetition, 42 

Courses of Instruction, 76 

Cultural Activities, 28 

Dance, 119 

Dean's List, 42 

Debate, 29 

Degree Requirements, 64 

Degrees, 64 

Degrees Conferred, 197 

Dentistry Degree, 74 

Dijon Semester, 62, 172 

Distinctions, 42 

Divisional Course Requirements, 66 

Double Majors, 69 

Dropping a Course, 40 

Early Decision, 33 

East European Studies, 71 

Economics, 98 

Education, 102 

Educational Planning, 30 

Emeriti, 245 

Engineering Degree, 74 

English, 109 

Enrollment, 210 

Examinations, 40 

Exchange Scholarships, 56 

Expenses, 34 

Faculty, 227 

Fees, 34 

Fields of Study, 64 

Financial Aid, 46 

Food Services, 35 

Foreign Area Studies, 70 

Forestry and Environmental Studies 

Degree, 75 
Fraternities, 25 



254 



French, 170 

French Semester, 62, 172 

Geographical Distribution, 211 

German, 115 

German Studies, 71 

Grade Reports, 42 

Grading System, 41 

Graduate School, 8 

Graduation Distinctions, 42 

Graduation Requirements, 64 

Greek, 95 

Handicapped Students, Admission, 33 

Hankins Scholarships, 47 

Health and Sport Science, 117 

Health and Sport Science 

Requirement, 67, 117 
Health Service, 31 
Hebrew, 168 
History, 122 
Honor Council, 24 
Honor Societies, 25, 208 
Honor System, 23 
Honors Study, 60, 130 
Housing, 37 
Humanities, 126 
Incomplete Grades, 41 
Institute of European Studies, 62 
Intercollegiate Athletics, 27 
Interdisciplinary Honors, 130 
Interdisciplinary Minors, 69 
Interfraternity Council, 25 
Intersociety Council, 25 
Intramural Athletics, 27 
International Studies, 69 
Italian, 178 
Italian Studies, 71 
Joint Majors, 69 
Journalism, 111 
Judicial Board, 24 
Latin, 96 

Latin American Studies, 71 
Law Degree, 72 
Law School, 8 

Learning Assistance Program, 30 
Libraries, 11 



Loans, 57 

London Semester, 61 

Majors, 68 

Management School, 8 

Mathematical Economics, 98, 133 

Mathematics, 132 

Maximum Number of Courses, 68 

Medical School, 8 

Medical Sciences Degree, 72 

Medical Technology Degree, 73 

Microbiology Degree, 74 

Military Science, 137 

Ministerial Concessions, 58 

Minor in Cultural Resource 

Preservation, 69 
Minor in International Studies, 69 
Minor in Women's Studies, 70 
Minority Affairs, Office of, 31 
Minors, 69 
Mortar Board, 26 
Music, 139 
Music Education, 142 
Music Ensemble, 143 
Music History, 141 
Music Theory, 140 
Natural Sciences, 145 
North Carolina Student Incentive 

Grants, 52 
Omicron Delta Kappa, 26, 208 
Open Curriculum, 60 
Orientation, 38 

Other Opportunities Abroad, 62 
Part-Time Students, 38 
Pass/Fail Grades, 41 
PeU Grants, 55 
Phi Beta Kappa, 26, 208 
Philosophy, 146 
Physician Assistant Program 

Degree, 73 
Physics, 149 
Placement Service, 30 
Politics, 152 
Probation, 42 
Procedures, 32 
Professional Fraternities, 25 



255 



Professional Schools, 8 
Proficiency in the English 

Language, 67 
Psychological Services, 30 
Psychology, 158 
Publications, 29 
Purpose, 15 
Radio Stations, 29 
Radio/Television/Film, 187 
Readmission Requirements, 44 
Recognition, 12 
Refunds, 37 
Registration, 38 
Religion, 163 
Religious Activities, 28 
Repetition of Courses, 42 
Requirements for Continuation, 43 
Requirements for Degrees, 64 
Residence Hall Charges, 35, 37, 38 
Resident Student Association, 25 
Residential Language Centers, 60 
Reynolds Scholarships, 46 
Romance Languages, 169 
Room Charges, 35 
ROTC, 28, 137 
Russian, 117 

Salamanca Semester, 62, 177 
Salem College Study, 61 
Scholarships, 46 
School of Business and 

Accountancy, 191 
School of Business and Accountancy 

Advisory Council, 217 
School of Law, 8 
Secrest Artists Series, 29 
Senior Testing, 71 



Societies, Social, 25 
Sociology, 179 
Spanish, 174 

Spanish Semester, 62, 177 
Spanish Studies, 71 
Special Programs, 60 
Speech Communication, 184 
Student/Student Spouse 

Employment, 58 
Student Government, 23 
Student Legislature, 23 
Student Life, 23 
Student Publications, 29 
Student Union, 24 
Studio Art, 83 
Study Abroad, 61 
Summer Session, 45 
Summer Study Elsewhere, 45 
Teaching Area Requirements, 101 
Theatre Arts, 188 
Transcripts, 42 
Transfer Credit, 34, 45 
Trustees, 213 
Tuition, 35 

Undergraduate Schools, 14 
University, 8 
Vehicle Registration, 37 
Venice Semester, 62, 179 
Veterans Benefits, 59 
Visitors, 215 
WAKE-AM, 29 
WFDD-FM, 29 

Withdrawal from the College, 40 
Women's Studies, 70 
Work/ Study Program, 55 



Bulletins of Wake Forest University 



The Undergraduate Schools 

Director of Admissions and Financial Aid 

7305 Reynolda Station 

Winston-Salem, NC 27109 

919-761-5201 

The Graduate School 

Dean of the Graduate School 

7487 Reynolda Station 

Winston-Salem, NC 27109 

919-761-5301 

The School of Law 

Director of Admissions 

7206 Reynolda Station 

Winston-Salem, NC 27109 

919-761-5437 

The Babcock Graduate School of Management 

Director of Admissions 

7659 Reynolda Station 

Winston-Salem, NC 27109 

919-761-5422 

The Bowman Gray School of Medicine 

Associate Dean for Admissions 

300 S. Hawthorne Road 

Winston-Salem, NC 27103 

919-748-4265 

The Summer Session 

Dean of the Summer Session 

7293 Reynolda Station 

Winston-Salem, NC 27109 

919-761-5664 

University Editor's Office 
Room 6, Reynolda Hall 



Wake Forest administers all educational and employment activities without discrimination 
because of race, color, religion, national origin, age, handicap, or sex, except where exempt. 




Director of Admissions 
Wake Forest University 
Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27109 



Second Class Postage Paid 

Winston-Salem, North Carolina 

USPS 078-320 



WAKE FOREST 



UNIVERSITY